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Full text of "Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society"

GIL 
Volume 19 v ' ,c 1 "^' 1965 Number 1 

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Journal 



-/ 

of the 



Lepidopterists' Society 

Published quarterly by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCIfiTE DES LfiPIDOPTfiRISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 

FOODPLANTS FOR TEXAS HESPERIIDAE 

BIOGRAPHY OF O. T. BARON 

LOUISIANA BUTTERFLY RECORDS 

COLLECTING IN YUKON AND ALASKA 

( Complete contents on back cover ) 
31 March 1965 



THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 
1965 OFFICERS 

President: F. H. Rindge (New York, N. Y., U. S. A.) 

1st Vice President: I. F. B. Common (Canberra, Australia) 

Vice President: Ramon Agenjo (Madrid, Spain) 

Vice President: H. E. Hinton (Bristol, England) 

Treasurer: George Ehle (Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A.) 

Asst. Treasurer: Sidney A. Hessel (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.) 

Secretary: John C. Downey (Carbondale, 111., U. S. A.) 

Asst. Secretary: Floyd W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.) 



EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Terms expire Dec. 1965: Shigeru A. Ae (Showaku, Nagoya, Japan) 

Lincoln P. Brower (Amherst, Mass., U. S. A.) 

Terms expire Dec. 1966: Charles P. Kimball (Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A.) 

W. Harry Lange, Jr. (Davis, Calif., U. S. A.) 

Terms expire Dec. 1967: Hiroshi Kuroko (Fukuoka, Japan) 

D. F. Hardwick (Ottawa, Canada) 

and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor 



The object of The Lepidopterists' Society, which was formed in May, 1947, and 
formally constituted in December, 1950, is "to promote the science of lepidopterology 
in all its branches, ... to issue a periodical and other publications on Lepidoptera, 
to facilitate the exchange of specimens and ideas by both the professional worker and 
the amateur in the field; to secure cooperation in all measures" directed toward these 
aims (Constitution, Art. II). A special goal is to encourage free interchange among 
the lepidopterists of all countries. 

Membership in the Society is open to all persons interested in any aspect of 
lepidopterology. All members in good standing receive the Journal and the News of 
the Lepidopterists' Society. Institutions may subscribe to the Journal but may not 
become members. Prospective members should send to the Treasurer the full dues for 
the current year, together with their full name, address, and special lepidopterological 
interests. All other correspondence concerning membership and general Society 
business should be addressed to the Secretary. Remittance in dollars should be made 
payable to The Lepidopterists' Society. There are three paying classes of membership: 
Active Members — annnal dues $6.00 (U. S. A.) 
Sustaining Members — annual dues $15.00 (U. S. A.) 
Life Members — single sum $125.00 (U. S. A.) 

Dues may be paid in Europe to our official agent: E. W. Classey, 353 Hanworth 
Road, Hampton, Middx., England. 

In alternate years a list of members of the Society is issued, with addresses and 
special interests. All members are expected to vote for officers when mail ballots are 
distributed by the Secretary annually. There are four numbers in each volume of the 
Journal, scheduled for February, May, August, November, and eight numbers of the 
News each year. 



The Lepidopterists' Society is a non-profit, scientific organization. The office of 
publication is Yale University, Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut. Second 
class postage paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 



Journal of 
The Lepidopterists' Society 

Volume 19 1965 Number 1 



LARVAL FOOD PLANTS AND DISTRIBUTION NOTES FOR 
TWENTY-FOUR TEXAS HESPERIIDAE 

Roy O. Kendall 1 
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. 

This is the fifth in a series of papers recording larval food plants for 
Texan butterflies and skippers. In this paper, 62 plant species represent- 
ing 8 families are given for the following 24 hesperiids. Arrangement for 
the skippers follows dos Passos ( 1964 ) : 

Hesperiinae 

Calpodes ethlius (Stoll), Amblyscirtes vialis (Edwards), Polites vibex 
praeceps (Scudder), Hesperia viridis (Edwards), Copseodes aurantiaca 
( Hewitson ) . 

Pyrginae 

Pholisora catullus (Fabricius), Celotes nessus (Edwards), Heliopetes 
laviana (Hewitson), Heliopetes macaira (Reakirt), Pyrgus communis 
communis (Grote), Erynnis baptisise (Forbes), Erynnis horatius (Scud- 
der & Burgess), Gesta gesta invisus (Butler & Druce), Achlyodes thraso 
tamenund (Edwards), Systasea pulverulenta (R. Felder), Staphylus 
mazans mazans (Reakirt), Cogia hippalus outis (Skinner), Thorybes 
bathyllus ( Smith ) , Thorybes pylades ( Scudder ) and "form" albosuffusa 
H. A. Freeman, Achalarus lyciades (Geyer), Achalarus toxeas (Plotz), 
Urbanus proteus ( Linnaeus ) , Chioides catillus albofasciatus ( Hewitson ) , 
Epargyreus clarus clarus (Cramer). 

Each of these species is treated separately in the order given. Also, a 
chart of larval food plants, arranged alphabetically by plant family and 
genus, summrizes these data. 

1 Acknowledgment is made to the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation for providing a 
portion of the publication costs. 



2 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 

Calpodes ethlius ( Stoll ) . The brazilian skipper is probably more com- 
mon and widespread in Texas than present records indicate. It seems to 
be closely associated with its larval food plants, cannas. In the lower 
Rio Grande Valley, Freeman (1951) has collected C. ethlius from April 
to December. In more northern parts of its range, the flight period is 
from March to October, indicating a more prolonged larval or pupal 
diapause. 

The present known distribution of this skipper in Texas is limited to 
eight counties: Bexar, May-Oct.; Cameron, Apr -Dec; Dallas, June- 
Oct.; Fayette, May; Hidalgo, Apr -Dec; San Patricio, Oct.-Nov.; Tar- 
rant, Sept.; and Travis, Sept. The writer has reared larvae through 
which were collected on Carina indica L., but the food plant has never 
been grown in the laboratory garden; therefore, a careful study of its 
life history has not been made. 

Bexar Co.: 16 June 1956. Six larvae, collected on C. indica, pupated from 28 
June to 11 July. Adults emerged from 6 to 18 July. 

Fayette Co.: 26 May 1956. At a cafe in Schulenburg where cannas were grown 
as ornamentals, numerous larvae were present in their rolled leaf nests. 

Tarrant Co.: 22 September 1962, Attention was called to numerous larvae on 
cannas growing in a yard in Fort Worth. One pupa, in its rolled leaf shelter, was 
taken. A male emerged 23 September. 

Amblyscirtes vialis ( Edwards ) . The roadside skipper's distribution in 

Texas is not well defined. It appears to be more or less confined to the 

north-central and northeastern portions of the State. The species has 

been collected from the first week in April to June. Additional rearing is 

necessary to determine the number of broods in Texas. 

Brown Co.: 9 April 1964. At Lake Brownwood State Park, a female was col- 
lected and kept for eggs. It was confined with Stenotaphrum secundatum ( Walt. ) 
Kuntze and Cynodon dactylon ( L. ) Pers. More than 50 eggs were deposited by 20 
April when the female died. Eggs were deposited on both grasses; they started 
hatching 18 April. Newly hatched larvae were offered S. secundatum which they 
sampled but then refused, and many died. They were then offered C. dactylon on 
which they matured. Pupation occurred: 18 May (2), 19 May (2), 20 May (5), 
21 May (2), 22 May (1), 23 May (1), 24 May (1), 26 May (1), 27 May (1), 
and 30 May ( 1). Six $ $ and 5$ 2 , emerged: 27 May (13, 19), 29 May (2$ $ ), 
31 May (1$, 2$ 2 ), 4 June (1$ ), 5 June (1 $ ), and 9 June (1$ ). 

When fully mature, larvae seek the ground to pupate. Larvae cut 
circular disks from a paper table napkin on the bottom of the container, 
and fashioned nests in which to pupate. Immature stages were preserved 
and live pupae furnished Dr. C. L. Remington for chromosome studies. 

Five other Texas counties in which the writer collected A. vialis in 
1964 are: Cherokee, 4 Apr.; Harrison, 5 & 6 Apr., eggs obtained from 
one female but all first instar larvae perished on S. secundatum; Smith, 
4 Apr.; Tarrant, 8 & 9 Apr.; Titus, 6 Apr. 

Polites vibex praeceps (Scudder). The whirlabout has been recorded 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 3 

as a constant flyer in extreme southern Texas by Freeman (1951). 
While an occasional specimen may be collected throughout the year in 
certain localities, its principal flight is from April to October. During 
this period considerable overlapping of broods occurs. P. prseceps is 
well adapted to metropolitan living where it oviposits on bermuda, 
Cynodon dactylon Pers.; St. Augustine, Stenotaphrum secundatum 
Kuntze; and doubtless other local grasses. Additional field work is nec- 
essary to establish its exact range over the State and the blend zone with 
Polites vibex brettoides (Edwards). It would seem to have a larval or 
pupal diapause; additional rearing will determine this. 

Bexar Co.: 30 July 1963. A female was collected in the laboratory garden in San 
Antonio, where the species is well established, and kept for eggs. During the next 
five days, 90 eggs were deposited on S. secundatum, after which the female was 
released. Eggs started hatching 3 August. Larvae were reared through on S. 
secundatum, pupating: 1 Sept. (1), 6 Sept. (5), 7 Sept. (12), 9 Sept. (10), 12 
Sept. (1), and 14 Sept. (4). Fifteen $$ and 132 2 emerged: 11 Sept. (IS), 
15 Sept. (3$ 8, 12 ), 16 Sept. (4$ S, 52 2 ), 17 Sept. (4S S, 22 2 ), 18 Sept. 
(IS, 22 2), 20 Sept. (IS, 12), 22 Sept. (IS), 23 Sept. (12), and 25 Sept. 
(12). Immatures were preserved. At a sidewalk cafe in San Antonio, on 30 Sept. 
1963 a female was observed to deposit 15 ova in about 10 minutes, one at a time, 
on C. dactylon. 

Cameron Co.: 18 October 1963. At Brownsville, a female was collected and kept 
alive for eggs. It received only modest care in the improvised field laboratory, and 
after depositing five eggs it perished. Eggs hatched 26 October. Two first instar 
larvae were accidentally lost. The remaining three, reared through on S. secunda- 
tum, pupated 14 & 17 December and 8 January. Adults, emerged: 8 Jan. (12 ), 11 
Jan. (12 ), and 31 Jan. (12 ). A most interesting discovery was that these females 
did not have the usual blurred markings on the HW beneath; instead, the marks 
were sharp and well defined. 

The writer has collected P. prseceps in four other Texas counties: 
Comal, 27 July 1963; Hidalgo, 31 Mar. 1960, 17 Oct. 1963; Kimble, 20 
July 1963; San Patricio, 14 & 15 Sept., 13 & 20 Oct. 1963; and Zavala, 
18 Aug. 1963. 

Hesperia viridis (Edwards). The green skipper's range in Texas ap- 
pears to be from the Edwards Plateau northward. Too few records have 
been published for the State to give much of an idea as to its exact 
distribution. Present field data would indicate two distinct flights: 
April-June and August-October. Reared adults have emerged in Janu- 
ary and February, but this may not occur in nature. There is some indi- 
cation that viridis may feed all winter on a grass such as Bouteloua 
gracilis Lag. and pupate in spring, emerging in April or May, depend- 
ing on climatic conditions. May is by far the best time to collect viridis 
in the southern part of its range. 

Bexar Co.: 6 October 1963. Near the intersection of Babcock Road and F.M. 
1604, NW of San Antonio, 13 adults were collected on wild flowers along the road. 
Two females collected 6 October were kept alive for eggs. They were caged over 
Stenotaphrum secundatum Kuntze. The following day several ova were deposited 



Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



on the grass and two on the container. By 8 October, 14 ova had been deposited, 
more than half of them on the container. One female died 8 Oct., the other was 
then offered Cynodon dactylon (L. ) Pers. Eighteen eggs were deposited the fol- 
lowing day, all on the grass. First instar larvae were offered S. secundatum which 
they accepted reluctantly. Numerous larvae died by mid-December. The survivors 
were then offered C. dactylon. Only two larvae died following the transfer. Still 
later, larvae were offered Lolium perenne L., which they accepted. Five larvae were 
reared through, pupating 1, 11, 21, & 28 January and 1 February 1964. Adults, 
emerged: 28 Jan. (1$), 5 Feb. (1$), 12 Feb. (1$), 22 Feb. (1$), and 28 
Feb. (1$ ). 

This is believed to be the first Bexar County record for H. viridis. On 
9 October, Roy W. Quillin collected one specimen at Helotes, a few 
miles west of this spot, and on 10 & 11 October, Dr. J. W. Tilden col- 
lected 35 specimens near the first mentioned spot. 

The writer has collected viridis in only two other Texas counties: 
Blanco, 3 May 1963; Comal, 11 May 1958, 15 & 22 May 1960, and 21 
May 1962. Freeman (1951) and MacNeill (1964) have recorded it from 
several other Texas counties. 

Copseodes aurantiaca (Hewitson). The orange skipperling, common 
at times, may be found in all major botanical areas of Texas. It has been 
collected from February to November. C. aurantiaca is most often seen 
around patches of Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon Pers., its only 
known larval food plant. Since the food plant is a perennial, dying back 
with the first hard freeze, a pupal diapause is indicated. 

Bexar Co.: 30 June 1956. A female collected in the laboratory garden at San 
Antonio deposited numerous eggs on C. dactylon the same day. Ova started hatch- 
ing 4 July. Fifty-six larvae were inventoried 15 July. Larvae pupated: 19 July (8), 
20 July (2), 21 July (2), 23 July (5), 24 July (3), 26 July (1), 28 July (8), 1 Aug. 
( 5 ) , 6 Aug. ( 1 ) , and 7 Aug. ( 1 ) . In addition to immatures which were preserved, 
16£ $ and 13$ 2 emerged: 24 July (1$), 25 July (3$ $ ), 26 July (2$ $, 1$ ), 
27 July (2$ $, 1$), 28 July ( 1 S , 1 2 ), 29 July ( 1$ , 1 2 ), 30 July {2$ $), 31 
July (U, 12 ), 1 Aug. (IS ), 2 Aug. (22 2 ), 3 Aug. (22 2 ), 6 Aug. (12 ), 7 
Aug. (2$ $, 12 ), 8 Aug. (12 ), and 10 Aug. (12 ). 

Another female, collected in the laboratory garden 13 September 1958, deposited 
a quantity of ova on C. dactylon. Eggs started hatching 18 September. The first 
larva pupated 11 October. Adults emerged in due course but emergence dates were 
not recorded. 

Pholisora catullus (Fabricius). The common sooty -wing ranges over 

the entire state of Texas. In certain sections, it has been collected each 

month of the year. Its principal flight, however, is from March to 

November. During this time July and November are the least likely 

months to find it on the wing. This species has a larval diapause which 

results in adults mostly in March. Immatures have been collected in 

nature on Amaranthus caudatus L., A. spinosus L., A. retroflexus L., 

Chenopodium album L., C. ambrosioides L., and C. berlandieri Moq. 

Bexar Co.: 27 August 1956. In a city alley near the laboratory, 13 larvae, two of 
which were parasitized, were found on A. spinosus. Larvae pupated from 26 Aug. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



to 5 Sept. Six $ $ and 5$ 9, emerged: 2 Sept. (12 ), 4 Sept. (12 ), 5 Sept. 
(IS ), 6 Sept. (12 ), 7 Sept. (2$ $), 8 Sept. (IS, 12 ), 10 Sept. (12 ), and 11 
Sept. (2$ S ). At another location just north of San Antonio, seven larvae were 
found 11 November 1956 on A. retroflexus. Three of these proved to be parasitized. 
Two larvae remained in diapause until 22 April 1957 after which they perished, 
probably due to dehydration. One male emerged 3 February and another male on 
11 February 1957; pupation dates unobserved. In the laboratory garden 18 May 
1958, numerous larvae were observed on A. spinosus. Several were collected and 
pupation occurred 25 May. Emergence dates were not recorded. A female taken 
30 August 1958 deposited 23 eggs on A. spinosus under laboratory conditions; all 
ova were preserved. 

A few miles south of San Antonio, a female was collected 23 April 1960 while 
flying around C. album. Examination of the plant disclosed one larva which later 
died of parasitism. The captive female deposited numerous ova on C. album, and 
these later hatched. Due to improper care, most of the larvae were lost to fungus. 
All other larvae and pupae were preserved. 

North of San Antonio, 15 larvae were found 6 August 1960 on C. album. Five of 
these died from parasitism or other causes, the remainder pupated in due course 
with 6$ S and 42 2 emerging: 16 Aug. (2$ S ), 17 Aug. (12 ), 21 Aug. (12 ), 
25 Aug. (12), 26 Aug. (3$ S ), 28 Aug. (12 ), and 29 Aug. (IS). On 8 April 
1961, four larvae were collected on C. album which pupated in due course. Adults, 
emerged: 29 Apr. (2$ S ), 11 May (12 ), and 27 May (12 ). On 5 October 1963, 
two females were observed to oviposit on A. retroflexus. They were not collected. 

Cameron Co.: 21 April 1962. At the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, 
four larvae were collected on C. ambrosioides. Larvae matured in due course with 
adults emerging: 3 May (IS, 12 ), 7 May (12 ), and 13 May (12 ). At another 
location in the county, about 16 miles SE of Brownsville, seven larvae were collected 

19 October 1963 on A. caudatus. Three of these entered diaspause; the remaining 
four pupated in due course. One pupa died. Adults emerged: 6 Nov. (IS), 7 
Nov. (12 ), and 2 Dec. (IS )■ The three larvae in diapause had not pupated 15 
February 1964 when this paper was prepared. 

Guadalupe Co.: 7 July 1962. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 90, three miles 
E of Kingsbury, one larva was collected on A. retroflexus which produced a male 

20 July. 

Live Oak Co.: 10 September 1960. On Texas Highway 9 about eight miles NW 
of Mathis, one larva was found on C. berlandieri which produced a female 2 October. 

San Patricio Co.: 21 August 1960. At Lake Corpus Christi State Park, one larva 
collected on C. berlandieri pupated 22 August and a male emerged 30 August. At the 
Welder Wildlife Refuge, one larva was found 5 July 1963 on C. berlandieri; it 
pupated 13 July and a male emerged 20 July. Again, near Mathis, one larva was 
collected 15 September 1963 on A. hybridus; it pupated 16 September and a female 
emerged 24 September. 

Val Verde Co.: 1 May 1961. At Lake Walk, two larvae were collected on C. 
berlandieri which produced one male and one female 17 May. At a roadside park 
on U. S. Highway 277 south of Del Rio near the county line, two larvae were 
found 17 August 1963 on A. hybridus. Larvae pupated 21 & 23 August. Adults 
emerged: 27 Aug. (12) and 29 Aug. ( 1 $ ). 

Zavala Co.: 18 August 1963. At Batesville, three larvae were collected on A. 
hybridus. One larva which was thought to be ready to pupate, escaped when left 
exposed overnight. The other two pupated 23 & 29 August. Adults emerged: 28 
Aug. (12 ) and 4 Sept. (1 S ). 

Larval habits of this species are quite interesting. The first instar larva 
folds over a small portion of the leaf as a shelter. It leaves the shelter to 



6 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 

feed. Upon returning home, the larva rests with its anal end near the 
open door. It now leisurely digests the consumed forage and ejects frass 
some distance from the shelter. 

Celotes nessus (Edwards). The streaky skipper flies from March to 
November in Texas. Earliest and latest dates on which C. nessus has 
been taken by the writer are 9 March and 12 November. Reared speci- 
mens have emerged as late as 25 November. Kendall ( 1959 ) gave Abu- 
tilon incanum (Link) Sweet as a larval food plant for nessus. As a result 
of additional research four more species of malvaceous plants are now 
reported: Althaea rosea L., Sida filipes Gray, Sphaeralcea lobata 
(Woot.) Kearney (det. Dr. B. H. Warnock, Sul Ross State College), and 
Wissadula amplissima (L.) R. E. Fries. 

Bexar Co.: 9 May 1963. Examination of S. filipes, which had been planted in the 
laboratory garden a year earlier, disclosed three larvae of nessus feeding on it. They 
were taken into the laboratory and reared to maturity on this plant. The first larva 
pupated 31 May. Adults emerged: 8 June ( 1 $ ), 14 June ( 1 $ ), and 11 July ( 1 $ ). 

Blanco Co.: 3 May 1963. On U. S. Highway 281 at Little Blanco River, two 
larvae were found on Abutilon incanum. These larvae were later lost due to im- 
proper care in the laboratory. 

Bosque Co.: 22 September 1962. At Meridian State Park five larvae were col- 
lected on A. incanum, but one soon died. The first two of these larvae pupated 9 & 
10 October. Adults emerged: 17 Oct. (IS), 18 Oct. (1$), 24 Oct. (1$), and 
14 Nov. (1$). 

Cameron Co.: 21 April 1962. At the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge 
three larvae were collected on W. amplissima. The plant on which these larvae 
were found was almost dormant due to drought. Two of the larvae pupated in due 
course; a male emerged 15 May and a female 4 June. The third larva entered dia- 
pause about 6 May. Examination 11 August disclosed the larva quite blanched and 
shrunken. In an attempt to break this diapause the larva was placed on a piece of 
moist cotton and placed near the laboratory window where the afternoon sun could 
strike it. Examination the following day showed the larva had not only become elon- 
gated, it had secured the leaf, under which it was hiding, to the cotton with strands 
of silk. The larva pupated 13 August, which was the twenty-first consecutive day 
of local temperatures equal to or greater than 100° F. A male emerged 20 August 
1962. 

Comal Co.: 27 July 1963. Near New Braunfels one larva was found on A. inca- 
num. Larva pupated 23 August and a male emerged 30 August. 

Jeff Davis Co.: 1 May 1961. At Davis Mountains State Park ova and larvae 
were found on S. lobata. Lou E. Walker, Park Manager, kindly permitted me to 
remove some of these "weeds" for transplanting. The plants survived the long 
journey back to the laboratory but they failed to recover in time to serve the in- 
tended purpose. It was now necessary to offer the larvae a substitute. A. rosea was 
provided and found acceptable. The larvae matured in due course and adults 
emerged: 28 May (IS); ex ovis 6 June (IS), 9 June (1$ ). All other immatures 
were preserved. 

Kimble Co.: 20 July 1963. At Junction ten larvae were collected on A. incanum. 
Some of these were first instar. In the laboratory, four larvae proved to have been 
parasitized; the remaining six were then placed on a caged living plant 5 August. 
The plant was again carefully examined 20 August; all that could be found was an 
empty pupal case. Presumably ants had eaten the adult after it died; the same might 
have happened to the larvae. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



Maverick Co.: 17 August 1963. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 277 south 
of Quemado, one larva was collected on A. incanum. It later died, but the cause 
was undetermined. 

McCulloch Co.: 14 August 1961. On U. S. Highway 377 at roadside park which 
marks the geographical center of Texas, two larvae were found on A. incanum. One 
of these died and the other pupated in due course and a female emerged 13 Sep- 
tember 1961. 

Nueces Co.: 10 November 1962. At Hazel Bazemore Park near Calallen, two 
larvae were collected on A. incanum. About the beginning of December the larvae 
entered diapause. An attempt to break larval diapause was made 16 April 1963. 
Larvae were placed on moist facial tissue and placed near a laboratory window where 
the morning sun struck them. Both larvae pupated 19 April with adults emerging 27 
April ( 6 ) and 28 April ( 2 ) . 

San Patricio Co.: 26 April 1962. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, 34 
larvae were collected on A. incanum. They varied in age from first to last instar, 
the first of which pupated 2 May. Ten live pupae were provided for other scientific 
research. Adults emerged: 10 May (16), 11 May (2$ $), 13 May (16 ), 15 May 
(12 ), 16 May (2$ 6, 1$ ), 17 May (26 6 ), 18 May (1$ ), 19 May (16 ), 23 
May (16, 1$ ), 24 May (16 ), 27 May (1$ ), 1 June (2$ $ ), 11 June (26 6 ). 
Again at the Welder Refuge 10 November 1962, two more larvae were found on 
this plant. These larvae entered diapause about 1 December. Examination of them 
on 3 April 1963 disclosed one larva to be dead. On 18 April the remaining larva 
was placed on moist cotton and put in a sunny spot; it pupated 23 April and a 
female emerged 4 May. 

Travis Co.: 2 September 1960. At Zilker Park in Austin, 14 larvae were collected 
on A. incanum. Most of these matured in due course but no emergence records were 
maintained. 

Uvalde Co.: 30 April 1961. On U. S. Highway 90 near Cline, two larvae were 
collected on A. incanum. These larvae were reared through and males emerged 21 
& 26 May. 

The distribution of C. nesms in Texas appears to be west of a line 
from Gainesville, Cooke County to Brownsville in Cameron County. The 
writer has collected nessus in eight other Texas counties: Atascosa 31 
Mar. 1957, Bandera 2 Apr. 1959, Dimmit 6 June 1960, Guadalupe 26 
Aug. 1962, Jim Wells 5 Apr. 1962, Kinney 22 Mar. 1961, Kleberg 22 Mar. 
1961, and Wilson 15 Aug. 1959. 

Heliopetes laviana (Hewitson). Although the laviana skipper has been 
taken throughout the year in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, 
laboratory studies indicate a larval diapause. The best place to find 
laviana is around the edge of brushy areas where malvaceous plants 
grow. Immatures have been found in nature on Abutilon abutiloides 
(Jacq. ) Garcke, Sida filipes Gray, and Malvastrum americanum (L.) 
Torr. (det. by Fred B. Jones). In the laboratory, larvae of laviana read- 
ily accepted Abutilon incanum (Link.) Sweet and Wissadula holosericea 
(Scheele) Garcke. 

Cameron Co.: 24 October 1960. At the U.S.D.A. Research Center in Brownsville, 
a cursory examination of several experimental malvaceous plants disclosed one last 
instar larva on A. abutiloides. The larva was removed and reared through, thanks to 
Perry A. Glick, U.S.D.A. Entomologist. The larva pupated 3 November and a male 



Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



emerged 14 November 1960. Again at Brownsville, near the NW edge of the city 
where U. S. Highway 281 crosses a railroad, one larva was collected on A. abuti- 
loides, 17 October 1963. The writer was accompanied by Mrs. Kendall and Dr. J. 
W. Tilden. This larva pupated 23 October and a female emerged 4 November 1963. 

Hidalgo Co.: 23 October 1960. Along an irrigation canal south of Mission, near 
the village of Madero, one larva was collected on A. abutiloides. Also the same day, 
four more were collected near Weslaco on this plant. One larva and one pupa were 
preserved. Pupation occurred from 29 October to 13 November. Adults emerged: 
8 Nov. (1 $ ), 17 Nov. ( 1 $ ), and 28 Nov. ( 1 S ). On 16 October 1963, three larvae 
were found on M. americanum near an irrigation canal on U. S. Highway 281 at 
the south edge of Edinburg. Two larvae pupated 30 October and the third on 10 
November. Adults emerged: 13 Nov. (2? 2 ) and 24 Nov. (12 ). 

Jim Wells Co.: 23 October 1960. On U. S. Highway 281 just north of Premont 
in a fencerow, one small larva was found on A. abutiloides. It died 30 October, 
probably due to improper care in the laboratory. 

Live Oak Co.: 23 April 1961. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 9 near inter- 
section of FM 534, one larva was collected on S. filipes. Larva readily accepted W. 
holosericea in the laboratory and pupated 5 May. A male emerged 16 May 1961. 

San Patricio Co.: 21 August 1960. At Lake Corpus Christi State Park, four miles 
SW of Mathis, one larva was found on A. abutiloides. A return visit 10 September 
1960 yielded 17 more larvae on this plant. The larvae ranged from first to last instar. 
These larvae pupated from 12-30 September. A series of immatures was preserved. 
Four males and five females emerged: 21 Sept. (1$ ), 22 Sept. (1$), 25 Sept. 
(IS), 30 Sept. (1? ), 2 Oct. (1$ ), 4 Oct. (IS), 6 Oct. (2$ ? ), and 10 Oct. 
(IS). 

At the same location on 26 December 1960, three more larvae were found. These 
appeared to be in diapause. They were transported 100 miles north of the location 
where found. Here they were placed outdoors without food. An examination 11 
February 1961 disclosed one larva dead, a second very hungry and moving about, 
the third, quite small, appeared in good health. The two remaining larvae were now 
placed on a living W. holosericea plant. The largest ate a few bites then moved 
beneath a leaf; the other crawled beneath a leaf without eating. Reexamination 15 
March showed the largest one had bonded a leaf to the side of the screened cage 
and cut the petiole free. The other could not be found. The exact pupation date 
was not observed but a female emerged 1 April. 

The Lake Corpus Christi site was visited again 7 October 1961. One larva which 
was collected pupated 30 October and a female emerged 28 November 1961. In 
addition to the larva, a gravid female was collected. Confined with A. abutiloides 
from the spot, it deposited 18 ova. In the laboratory, this same female deposited 25 
more eggs on A. incanum. Sixteen eggs and other immatures were preserved. Eggs 
started hatching about 6:30 P.M. CST 12 October. The larvae were offered A. 
incanum which they started eating about 90 minutes after hatching. Twenty-one 
larvae were inventoried 29 October. Except for one, all were then placed on a 
living A. incanum plant in the laboratory garden. The exceptional larva was kept in 
a laboratory environment where it pupated 6 December and a male emerged 18 
December. An inventory on 23 December disclosed only 11 larvae on the living 
plant, all last instar. Another examination 14 January 1962, following a week of 
freezing temperatures (lowest 10° F. ), showed all except two had perished. These 
two had fallen to the ground in their leaf nests. Taken into the laboratory, both 
pupated 31 January. A female emerged 19 February and a male on 20 February. 
Emergence most likely would have been a month later in the natural ecological 
environment. 

The above rearings were conducted in Bexar County, about 100 miles 

north of the capture locality. Here the average date of first 32° F. freeze 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 9 

in the fall is about two weeks earlier than where the larvae were col- 
lected. Additional research is necessary to determine what factors con- 
stitute the distribution barrier. 

Systasea pulverulenta (Felder) larvae were also found on A. abuti- 
loides at Lake Corpus Christi in September, 1960. After collecting a few, 
it became quite easy to distinguish the two lepidopterous species by the 
type of shelter constructed. H. laviana simply pulls leaves together or 
folds them over to form the shelter while pulverulenta systematically 
eats away part of the leaf edge before constructing the shelter. First 
instar larvae of laviana eat away the leaf surface then fold it over at the 
weakened spot to form a protective shelter. 

Heliopetes macaira ( Reakirt ) . The macaira skipper is well established 
in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. From there it ranges up the 
coast to San Patricio County. Freeman (1951) found it flying through- 
out the year in Hidalgo County. Its habitat is wooded or brushy areas 
where Turk's cap, Malvaviscus drummondii T. & C, its larval food plant, 
grows. This deciduous plant may be found in semishady spots over most 
of central and southern Texas, but macaira appears to be confined to an 
area in southern Texas where the frost-free growing season is 300 days 
or more; see Hildreth & Orton (1963). 

Although H. macaira was described in 1866, it is believed that nothing 
has been published on its larval food plants or life history. Based on 
limited rearing, an immature diapause is not indicated. Growth and 
development of immature stages is, however, retarded by temperatures 
under 60° F. Seven reared examples disclosed the immature life-span 
ranged from 71 to 150 days. Further investigation may show even a 
greater range. The life of each example, in days and in the order of 
occurrence, is summarized: egg to adult: 71 ( $ ), 90 ( 9 ), 99 ( $ ), 
106 ( 9 ), 116 ( * ), 148 ( $ ), and 150 days ( 3 ). egg to pupa: 63, 68, 
88, 98, 108, 126, and 134. days in pupal stage only: 8, 12, 11, 8, 8, 22, 
and 16. 

First instar larvae eat buds, blossoms, fruits, and juvenile leaves. A 
formal shelter is not constructed. Larvae hide in blossoms, brackets 
around fruits and blossoms, dead leaves on the plant, or any other con- 
venient place. Older larvae may construct a shelter or simply seek the 
ground when not feeding. One observed larva climbed halfway up the 
plant to eat then returned to the ground and rested on a fallen leaf, 
unprotected there except for its excellent camouflage. It finally pupated 
on bare ground. Most larvae, however, pupate in a makeshift shelter 
secured at the cremaster. Those that do make shelters do so by pulling 



10 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



leaves together with strands of silk. The petiole of one leaf is then cut 
into. When it dries, this leaf forms a roof over the nest. 

San Patricio Co.: 4 July 1963. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, 
along a trail near the Aransas River, a female was observed to oviposit on M. drum- 
mondii. Mrs. Kendall and the writer had thought for a year or more that this might 
be the larval food plant, but this was the first substantiating evidence. Mrs. Kendall 
caught the insect, also recovered the egg. In the laboratory, 34 more ova were 
deposited on terminal twigs and blossom buds of this plant. Eggs started hatching 
9 July. Second instar larvae were placed on a living plant in the laboratory garden. 
On 28 August only one larva could be found. Ants were suspect. The one survivor 
pupated 5 September and a male emerged 13 September. 

Again at the Welder Refuge, 13 October 1963, five egg-laying females were 
observed. One captive female deposited numerous eggs on M. drummondii twigs 
during the following three days. Eggs soon hatched and the larvae were doing quite 
well until a hard freeze killed the larval food plant early in December. A month 
later larvae had begun dying from starvation. On 15 January a few plants were 
found which had been protected from frost by oak trees. This was more than 100 
miles north of the capture locality. Provided fresh leaves, three larvae continued to 
eat and mature. Two of these lived long enough to feed on new growth put forth 
on potted plants under glass. Pupation occurred: 20 Dec. (1), 10 Jan. (1), 17 Jan. 
( 2 ) , 20 Jan. ( 1 ) , 30 Jan. ( 1 ) , 17 Feb. ( 1 ) , and 24 Feb. ( 1 ) . The 17 January pupae 
were forwarded to Dr. C. L. Remington for chromosome studies. Adults emerged: 
1 Jan. (12 ), 21 Jan. (1$ ), 28 Jan. (19 ), 7 Feb. (1$), 10 Mar. (1 $ ), and 11 
Mar. ( 1 $ ) . Specimens representing various immature stages were preserved. 

Pyrgus communis communis (Grote). The checkered skipper is com- 
mon at times throughout Texas. In the southern part of the State, it has 
been collected each month of the year. It is least likely to be found in 
January, May, and December. Immatures have been collected on seven 
malvaceous plants: Callirhoe leiocarpa Martin, Sida (diffusa) filicaulis 
T. & G., Sida lindheimeri Gray, Sida rhombifolia L., Sphaeralcea angus- 
tifolia (Cav. ) D. Don, Sphaeralcea cuspidata Gray, and Sphaeralcea 
lindheimeri Gray. In the laboratory, it was reared on Althaea rosea 
Cab. 

Bandera Co.: 2 April 1959. On Park Road 37, a female was observed to oviposit 
on S. filicaulis. The plant was very small; the egg was preserved. 

Bexar Co.: 18 November 1956. In San Antonio, a female was observed to ovi- 
posit on S. rhombifolia. Eggs were being deposited on the underside of leaves next 
to the ground, one at a time, on very small plants. Examination of several plants 
disclosed one larva feeding from within a folded leaf shelter. All immatures were 
lost. Wild females were again observed to oviposit on S. rhombifolia 28 August and 
13 September 1957; ova were not collected. Still another female, collected 16 No- 
vember 1958 while ovipositing on S. rhombifolia, deposited seven ova under labora- 
tory conditions; the first instar larvae were preserved. Another female was observed 
to oviposit 30 August 1959 on S. rhombifolia; the eggs were left in the field. On 
26 February 1961, a wild female deposited eggs on the blossom buds of C. leiocarpa 
growing in the laboratory garden; the eggs were not collected. On 20 August 1961, 
a female was seen to fly from one plant to another ovipositing on S. rhombifolia; 
the eggs were not collected. Three larvae were found 20 April 1963 on S. angusti- 
folia growing in the laboratory garden. This plant had been transplanted from Jeff 
Davis County two years earlier. Larvae pupated 27 & 28 April and 1 May. Adults 
emerged: 6 May (12), 7 May (19), and 13 May (19). Again on 5 October 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterisis' Society 11 



1963, two females were seen ovipositing on S. rhombifolia in the laboratory garden. 

Caldwell Co.: 10 June 1961. At the intersection of U. S. Highways 90 and 183, 
a female was observed to oviposit on Sida lindheimeri. Examination disclosed two 
larvae on the plant. The egg and one larva were lost before returning to the labora- 
tory, but there the second larva accepted A. rosea. It pupated 26 June and a male 
emerged 4 July 1961. 

El Paso Co.: 15 June 1960. On U. S. Highway 80, SE of El Paso near the county 
line, a female was observed while ovipositing on S. angustifolia; the egg was not 
collected. The female was captured but failed to oviposit under laboratory condi- 
tions. 

Maverick Co.: 17 August 1963. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 277 near 
Quemado, a female was seen to oviposit on S. cuspidata; neither the egg nor female 
were collected. 

San Patricio Co.: 14 September 1963. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Ref- 
uge, four larvae were found on Sphaeralcea lindheimeri and one on Sida rhombifolia. 
The Sida feeder pupated 19 September and a male emerged 27 September. The 
other larvae pupated 17, 18, and 20 September with adults emerging: 25 Sept. 
( 1 $ ) and 26 Sept. ( 3 $ $ ) ; one larva died. At the same location, a female was 
observed ovipositing on S. rhombifolia 12 October 1963; it was not collected. 

Val Verde Co.: 11 May 1961. At Lake Walk, nine larvae were found on S. cus- 
pidata, one of which proved to be parasitized. The remaining eight larvae pupated 
in due course with adults emerging: 14 May (1 $ , 2$ $ ), 18 May (IS), 20 May 
(1$ ), 21 May (1 $ ), and 26 May (2$ $ ). 

The writer has collected P. communis in 38 other Texas counties rep- 
resenting all major botanical areas of the State. 

Erynnis baptisise ( Forbes ) . The distribution of the wild indigo dusky 
wing in Texas is not too well known at present, nor are the number of 
broods clearly defined. Freeman (1951) collected it in Dallas County 
in March, April, May, and August. He also observed females oviposit on 
Baptisia tinctoria R. Br., a cultivated species in Texas (Bailey, 1924), 
and reared larvae through on this plant. In the botanical Pineywoods 
area of eastern Texas where an abundance of five native Baptisia species 
may be found (Gould, 1962), the skipper has not been collected. An 
additional location by the present writer will bring to date all of the 
known records of baptisise from Texas. 

Nueces Co.: 1 September 1962. Near the Nueces County Park on Padre Island 
below Corpus Christi, a number of adults were observed flying about, some of them 
visiting wild flowers. A female was observed to oviposit on Baptisia laevicaulis 
(Gray) Small. It was collected and kept for egg laying in the laboratory. Another 
female was collected on blossoms of Helianthus argophyllus (Torr. & Gray). Ex- 
amination of several B. laevicaulis plants disclosed many eggs. The captive female 
deposited but five eggs before dying. Due to difficulty of keeping larval food plant 
fresh, only three were reared to maturity and these emerged: 30 Sept. (2$ $ ) and 
1 Oct. ( 1 $ ) . Immatures were preserved. 

Erynnis horatius (Scudder & Burgess). 2 In Texas this skipper flies 
from February to November. Reared specimens have emerged in De- 



2 Special thanks go to Dr. John M. Burns, Wesleyan University, who determined or verified the 
writer's determination of the reared material in this study. 



12 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 

cember and January, but perhaps there are only three broods. It may 
be found around the edge of wooded areas where oak grows. 

Dr. Alexander B. Klots (1951) points out that an old description of 
Chapman's lists wisteria while Grossbeck and Watson listed oak as the 
larval food plant. He writes further that, "Someone should check this." 
The purpose of this report is to present the results of widespread sam- 
pling in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas for immatures of this skipper. 
These collections, taken over a period of several years (1958-1963), 
have yielded sufficient immatures to remove any doubt that oak is a 
larval food plant. During this same period, wisteria has been under 
constant surveillance with negative results. 

Immatures were found in nature on the following species of oak: 
Quercus fusiformis Small (Texas), Q. hemisphserica Bartr. (Louisiana), 
Q. laurifolia Michx. (Texas), Q. marilandica Muenchh. (Texas), Q. 
nigra L. (Ark., La., Tex.), Q. phellos L. (Texas), Q. stellata Wang. 
(Ark., La., Tex.), Q. texana Buckl. (Texas), Q. virginiana Mill. (Texas). 
In the laboratory, larvae readily accepted Q. shumardii Buckl. and Q. 
gambelii Nutt. Perhaps all species of oak are acceptable. Q. laurifolia 
was determined by Fred B. Jones, all other species by Dr. C. H. Muller, 
University of California, Santa Barbara. 

immature stages. Ova are bonded singly to the tiny juvenile leaves 
in the tips of new growth. First instar larvae are incapable of eating 
other than very tender new leaves. This became apparent after witness- 
ing a number of casualties from eggs found in nature. While second 
instar larvae will survive on older leaves, larval growth appears to be 
stimulated by more tender foliage. This holds for the entire larval cycle. 
In certain geographical areas the collector may find gravid females pre- 
fer a single species of oak due to the frequency of new growth. 

After progressing through four instars, larvae pupate in leaf shelters. 
The exuvium is eaten after each molt. First and second instar larvae 
construct very distinctive shelters. The larva makes a bilateral cut near 
the outer end of the leaf, approximately 45° to the center vein. The tip 
is then folded over, never under, where it is held in place by strands of 
silk. When resting, the larva hangs inverted from the top of the shelter. 
It eats away the edges of the roof and sometimes the foundation. A new 
shelter is constructed as required to meet growth and development. 
Last instar larvae usually pull together two leaves, if small, for the 
shelter. If the leaves are large, the edge may be rolled over to form the 
shelter. While larval diapause is indicated, some reared immatures re- 
mained in the pupal stage for more than two months. 

To find ova and larvae in nature one must first locate oaks with tender 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 13 

new growth. Small cut-over bushes are the best, but large trees will also 
yield larvae of E. horatius. The collector will find, however, that as the 
plant size decreases, success in locating larvae increases. This correlates 
well with the usual low flight of imago s. If there are no small bushes in 
the collecting area, the branches of larger trees should be examined for 
new growth. The uppermost growth of small saplings, six to eight feet, 
will prove rewarding. After a little practice the lepidopterist will recog- 
nize a larval shelter as far away as it can be seen. 

The best places to find immatures of horatius are along rights-of-way, 
railroad and highway, where the brush is cut once or twice each year, 
on well-drained slopes and sunny locations. Wooded areas are not so 
rewarding unless there is an open trail admitting plenty of sunlight. A 
desirable trail is one that follows a power or pipeline through a wooded 
area. Here the vegetation is usually cleared away periodically, which 
causes new growth to appear on the cut-over oaks. 

parasites and predators. Spiders and parasites continually remove 
many horatius in the field. Collections are best made soon enough after 
eggs have been deposited when greater numbers of small larvae are to 
be found. Predatory insects and birds undoubtedly get a fair proportion, 
but, by and large, crab spiders take the greatest toll. For each larva 
found in nature the collector may expect to find 15 or more larval shel- 
ters occupied by arachnids. Parasites are next in order. Of the 298 field- 
collected larvae taken during this investigation, 33 were parasitized. 

rearing technique. The juvenile leaves containing the eggs are re- 
moved from the main plant and placed in small containers. Containers 
should not be tightly covered until the juvenile leaves have completely 
dehydrated, otherwise fungus may develop and kill the embryo. When 
the eggs hatch, one or two larvae are permitted to crawl upon a small 
sprig of juvenile leaves and then are placed in a separate container. 
Overcrowding and heating should be avoided. Should fungus develop, 
the larvae are transferred to a fresh leaf immediately. The crucial period 
is the first instar. Second instar larvae may be transferred to larger con- 
tainers. If closed jars are employed, they should be kept inverted. This 
will promote sanitation and facilitate removal of frass without disturbing 
the larvae. Constant room temperature is desirable in controlling con- 
densation within the jar, but not essential. Larvae which are about to 
pupate or enter diapause should be removed to well-ventilated contain- 
ers. The time to transfer is when the larva stops feeding and begins to 
lose its color. A large mouth jar with window screen insert and screened 
lid makes a good emergence cage. Most adults emerge in midafternoon 
or early evening. 



14 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



Arkansas 

Calhoun Co.: 28 September 1962. On U. S. Highway 167 at Champagnolle Creek, 
26 larvae were found on Q. nigra. Three larvae were parasitized, another died in 
larval diapause, and a fifth died in the pupa. The first larva pupated 16 October; 
the last, on 30 December. Ten males and eleven females emerged: 27 Oct. (IS ), 

29 Oct. (IS ), 30 Oct. (2$ S, 1$ ), 2 Nov. (2$ $, 1$ ), 3 Nov. (2$ $),7 Nov. 
(IS ), 10 Nov. (1$ ), 11 Nov. (12 ), 12 Nov. (IS, 12 ), 17 Nov. (12 ), 21 Nov. 
(12 ), 22 Nov. (12 ), 27 Nov. (12 ), 30 Nov. (12 ), 12 Jan. 1963 (12 ). 

Columbia Co.: 17 September 1959. On U. S. Highway 82 near Waldo, one para- 
sitized larva was found on Q. nigra. 

Jefferson Co.: 26 September 1962. In Oakland Park at Pine Bluff, two larvae 
were recovered from Q. nigra. One of these died 9 October the other 20 October; 
cause unknown. The following day, 27 September, 16 larvae were collected on Q. 
nigra and Q. stellata just south of the city off Ohio Street. Seven of these larvae 
were parasitized and another died while in diapause. The first larva pupated 21 
October 1962 and the last, 9 March 1963 after larval diapause. Five males and three 
females emerged: 2 Nov. (1 $ ), 4 Nov. (1$), 6 Nov. (IS), 10 Nov. (12 ), 15 
Nov. (IS ), 22 Nov. (12 ), 28 Nov. (12 ), and 27 Mar. 1963 (IS). 

Union Co.: 16 September 1959. At a small community park in El Dorado, 17 
larvae were collected on Q. stellata. These larvae were reared through on Q. shu- 
mardii. Three died, one was parasitized, and one larva and one pupa were pre- 
served. Five males and six females, emerged: 23 Oct. (IS), 25 Oct. (IS ), 2 Nov. 
(IS), 3 Nov. (12 ), 6 Nov. (12 ), 11 Nov. (12 ), 13 Nov. (1 S , 12 ), 22 Nov. 
(12 ), 29 Nov. (12 ), 3 Dec. (IS). 

Louisiana 

Calcasieu Parish: 24 November 1960. In an area just east of Lake Charles, eight 
larvae were found on cut-over Q. hemisphasrica, Q. stellata, and Q. nigra bushes 
along a dirt road. Five of these proved to be parasitized. One larva entered dia- 
pause early in December, it pupated 17 January 1961 and a female emerged 18 
February. The other two larvae pupated 26 December; a female emerged 9 Febru- 
ary, and a male on 12 February 1961. 

Sabine Parish: 15 September 1959. On U. S. Highway 171 near Zwolle, five 
larvae were collected on Q. stellata; they were transferred to Q. shumardii on 19 
September and reared through. One larva was preseved; others pupated: 16 Oct., 
5 Nov., 17 Nov., and 11 Dec. Adults emerged: 31 Oct. (IS), 21 Nov. (12 ), 2 
Dec. (IS), and 29 Dec. (12 ). 

Vernon Parish: 4 November 1958. On U. S. Highway 171 about three miles north 
of Leesville, three larvae were found on small Q. nigra bushes growing along the 
right-of-way. One larva died, the other two pupated 11 & 14 January 1959. A 
female emerged 1 February and a male on 6 February. At the same location, 13 
September 1959, 12 more larvae were collected. One of these was parasitized; the 
others pupated from 3 October to 30 November. Eight males and three females 
emerged: 18 Oct. ( 1 S ), 25 Oct. ( 1$ , 1 2 ), 27 Oct. (1 $ ), 28 Oct. ( 1 S ), 29 Oct. 
(12 ), 30 Oct. (IS), I Nov. (IS), 4 Nov. (IS), 7 Nov. (IS), 16 Dec. (12 ). 

Webster Parish: 28 September 1962. On La. Highway 2A near Haynesville, 15 
larvae were collected on very small Q. stellata bushes. One larva died of parasitism, 
three more from other causes. Eleven larvae pupated from 28 October to 13 January 
1963. Six males and five females emerged: 9 Nov. (IS), 10 Nov. (IS), 16 Nov. 
(12 ), 25 Nov. (IS, 12 ), 26 Nov. (IS ), 27 Nov. (IS ), 29 Nov. (IS), 16 Dec. 
( 1 2 ), 27 Dec. (12), and 26 Feb. 1963 (12). 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 15 



Texas 

Angelina Co.: 29 September 1962. On Texas Highway 103 near the Angelina 
River, six larvae were collected on Q. stellata. Pupation occurred from 20 October 
to 13 November. Three males and three females emerged: 2 Nov. (2S S), 6 Nov. 
(1$ ), 11 Nov. (IS ), 25 Nov. (1$ ), and 28 Nov. (1$ ). 

Bastrop Co.: 19 May 1962. At Bastrop State Park one larva was found on Q. 
marilandica. It continued to feed until 9 September; it pupated 12 September but 
died 21 September. 

Bexar Co.: 11 January 1959. At Helotes, one larva was collected on Q. fusiformis. 
It appeared to be in diapause, but on 17 January it pupated and a female emerged 
8 February. 

On U. S. Highway 281 about 16 miles south of San Antonio, 5 larvae were found 
on Q. virginiana 11 September 1960. These larvae pupated from 2 October to 7 
October. Two males and three females emerged: 12 Oct. ( 1 $ ), 13 Oct. ( 1 S , 1 $ ), 
15 Oct. (1$ ), and 17 Oct. (1$ ). 

In the northern portion of San Antonio just off U. S. Highway 87, four larvae 
were found on Q. fusiformis, 19 September 1960. One larva died and another was 
killed accidentally. The remaining two pupated 12 & 15 October; two females 
emerged, one 23 October the other 27 October. 

Near Camp Bullis Military Reservation north of San Antonio, five ova and 12 
larvae were found 2 October 1960 on Q. fusiformis. Eight of the larvae were lost, 
cause unknown; four pupated from 24 October to 14 November. Three males and 
one female emerged: 5 Nov. (18), 10 Nov. (IS), 16 Nov. (1 $ ), and 2 Dec. 
(19). The eggs hatched soon after being brought into the laboratory, but three 
first instar larvae died. Another larva entered diapause but died later. The fifth 
pupated 4 December and a male emerged 23 January 1961. 

In north San Antonio, two ova and nine larvae were found 29 October 1960 on 
seedling Q. fusiformis. The eggs hatched in due course, but the first instar larvae 
soon died. Two of the larvae collected in nature were preserved, the others pupated 
from 15 November to 10 December. Five males and two females emerged: 1 Dec. 
(IS ), 4 Dec. (1$ ), 14 Dec. (IS), 19 Dec. (1$ ), 31 Jan. 1961 (IS), 1 Feb. 
(IS ),and 13 Feb. (IS). 

San Antonio, a female collected 5 March 1961 was kept for laboratory experimen- 
tation. During the period 6-12 March, 98 eggs were deposited on juvenile leaves of 
sucker shoots of Q. fusiformis. Examples representing the complete life history, 
including 25 ova, were preserved. The eggs hatched 11-13 March; larvae pupated 
7-20 April; 19 males and 16 females emerged: 23 Apr. (IS), 24 Apr. (3S S ), 
25 Apr. (4S S, 12), 26 Apr. (AS S, 1$ ), 27 Apr. (2S S, 4$ $ ), 28 Apr. (IS, 
2$ $ ), 29 Apr. (AS S, 4$ 2 ), 30 Apr. (1$ ), 2 May (2$ $ ), and 5 May (1$ ). 

About 12 miles NW of San Antonio, two larvae were found 17 June 1961 on Q. 
fusiformis. Pupation occurred 24 June and 8 July; a male emerged 3 July and a 
female on 17 July. 

Blanco Co.: 24 September 1960. On U. S. Highway 281 north of Blanco, nine 
larvae were collected on Q. texana growing along the highway. One larva was being 
eaten by a crab spider when found; two more died of parasitism. The remaining 
larvae pupated from 15 October to 29 October; one pupa died. One male and four 
females emerged: 26 Oct. (1 $ ), 1 Nov. (IS), 3 Nov. (2 2 $ ), and 11 Nov. (1 $ ). 

Bowie Co.: 24 September 1962. On U. S. Highway 67 near Basset, one egg was 
collected on Q. marilandica. Egg hatched 26 September; larva pupated 15 December 
and a male emerged 6 January 1963. The larva was reared on Q. fusiformis. 

Brazos Co.: 30 September 1962. Near the village of Kurten on Texas Highway 
21, nine larvae were collected on Q. stellata. One larva preserved, the others 
pupated from 20 October to 7 November. Two males and six females emerged: 



16 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



2 Nov. (1$ ), 5 Nov. (1$ ), 11 Nov. (1? ), 12 Nov. (2 2 2 ), 15 Nov. (1$ ), 20 
Nov. (1? ), and 23 Nov. (IS). 

Brooks Co.: 23 October 1960. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 281 about 15 
miles south of Falfurrias, four ova and six larvae were collected on Q. virginiana. 
Two larvae were parasitized; the others pupated from 18 November to 11 February 
1961. One male and three females emerged: 3 Dec. (1$), 24 Jan. (1$ ), 17 Feb. 
( 1 2 ) , and 6 Mar. (12). Only one of the eggs hatched and that on 26 October; 
the larva pupated 1 December and a female emerged 9 January 1961. 

Brown Co.: 13 August 1961. At Brownwood State Park, three larvae were col- 
lected on Q. fusiformis. Two larvae pupated 14 September, the third on 23 Septem- 
ber. Adults emerged: 24 Sept. ( 1 # , 1 $ ) and 4 Oct. (IS ). 

Caldwell Co.: 19 May 1962. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 142 near 
Maxwell, four larvae were found on Q. stellata. They pupated from 6-30 June. 
Three males and one female emerged: 15 June (IS), 20 June (IS), 28 June 
(IS), and 1 1 July (12). At the same location and date, one other larva was found 
on Q. marilandica. It pupated 14 September but was accidentally punctured. 

Chambers Co.: 22 March 1963. On IH 10 near FM 563, one egg was found on Q. 
phellos. It hatched 27 March, and the larva was reared on Q. fusiformis. It pupated 
2 May and a female emerged 13 May 1963. 

Colorado Co.: 10 November 1961. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 90 
about ten miles west of Columbus, two larvae were found on Q. virginiana; both 
were in diapause. One larva died; the other pupated 9 February 1962 and a male 
emerged 24 February. 

Comal Co.: 27 December 1958. On County Road 311 near Spring Branch, one 
larva in diapause was found on Q. fusiformis. It pupated 15 January 1959 and a 
male emerged 7 February. On Guadalupe River road about five miles NW of New 
Braunfels, one larva was collected on Q. fusiformis, 27 July 1963. It pupated 14 
August and a male emerged 24 August. 

Gillespie Co.: 25 September 1960. On Texas Highway 16 about five miles NE 
of Fredricksburg, two ova and one larva were collected on Q. texana. The eggs 
hatched 28 September, but first instar larvae were soon lost due to improper care. 
The larva found in nature pupated 27 October and a male emerged 8 November. 

Gonzales Co.: 10 June 1961. One larva was found at Palmetto State Park, and 
three more near the park on Q. marilandica. These larvae pupated from 6 July to 
1 August. Three males and one female emerged: 15 July (IS), 16 July (IS ), 25 
July (12 ), and 13 Aug. (IS )• 

Guadalupe Co.: 11 June 1961. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 90 near 
Kingsbury, two larvae were collected on Q. stellata. One larva pupated 5 July and 
a male emerged 14 July. The other larva continued to feed. On 13 August the 
writer and Mrs. Kendall departed for Crested Butte, Colorado and took the larva 
along. It was offered Q. gambelii 14 August which it ate. Feeding stopped 3 
November and larva entered diapause, but it died in January, 1962 before pupation 
occurred. 

Hamilton Co.: 22 September 1962. On Texas Highway 22 at the Leon River, 
one larva was found on Q. texana. It pupated 18 October and a male emerged 29 
October. 

Harris Co.: 26 November 1960. Along Memorial Drive in Houston, two larvae, 
killed by crab spiders, were found on Q. stellata. Many larval shelters were present. 

Harrison Co.: 29 September 1962. At Caddo Lake State Park, three larvae were 
found on seedling Q. stellata and Q. marilandica. They pupated 23 October, 28 
October, and 8 November; one died later. A male emerged 9 November and an- 
other male 23 November. 

Henderson Co.: 2 September 1963. Three larvae were found near Athens and 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 17 



seven more near Malakoff, all on Q. stellata. One larva proved to be parasitized 
and another was killed accidentally. The remaining larvae pupated from 9 Septem- 
ber to 9 October. Two males and six females emerged: 17 Sept. (12 ), 25 Sept. 
(12 ), 7 Oct. (12 ), 9 Oct. (12 ), 12 Oct. (1$), 13 Oct. (1$), 15 Oct. (12 ), 
and 19 Oct. (12). 

Jefferson Co.: 9 November 1961. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 124 
about three miles south of Fannett, three last instar larvae were found on Q. nigra. 
One larva was in diapause and the other two stopped feeding about 17 November. 
Larvae pupated 8 & 10 February 1962. Adults emerged: 21 Feb. (2$ $ ) and 23 
Feb. (12 ). 

Kendall Co.: 25 September 1960. About two miles north of Comfort on U. S. 
Highway 87, one pupa and four larvae were collected on Q. texana. The pupa died, 
and one larva was parasitized; both were preserved. The remaining three pupated 
6, 11, & 16 October. Three males emerged 16, 21, & 27 October. 

Kerr Co.: 27 June 1963. On Johnson Creek near Ingram, six larvae were col- 
lected on Q. texana. Four larvae were lost; the remaining two pupated in due course; 
a male emerged 22 August and a female on 31 August. 

Lee Co.: 30 September 1962. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 21 near 
Lincoln, one larva was found on a sucker shoot of Q. marilandica. It pupated 10 
November and a male emerged 22 November. 

Leon Co.: 4 September 1960. Between Long Lake and Oakwood near the Trinity 
River on U. S. Highway 79, three larvae were collected on Q. stellata. Larvae 
pupated 2, 8, & 10 October. Adults emerged: 12 Oct. (12 ), 18 Oct. (1 $ ), and 
20 Oct. (12 ). 

Live Oak Co.: 22 October 1960. On U. S. Highway 281 at San Christoval Creek 
near intersection of FM 2049, three larvae were found on Q. virginiana. Two entered 
diapause. Pupation occurred 18 November 1960, 9 January, and 3 February 1961. 
Adults emerged: 5 December (12), 16 Feb. ( 1 2 ), 4 Mar. (12). 

McCulloch Co.: 14 August 1961. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 377 which 
marks the geographical center of the State, two larvae were found on Q. fusiformis. 
One died of parasitism, the other pupated 23 September and a male emerged 2 
October. 

Nueces Co.: 1 September 1962. At Flour Bluff one larva was found on Q. laurifo- 
lia. It pupated 1 October and a female emerged 11 October. 

Robertson Co.: 2 September 1960. At a roadside park near New Baden on U. S. 
Highway 79, one pupa and four larvae were collected on Q. stellata. Two days later 
18 larvae were collected on Q. stellata at Ridge. A male emerged from the pupa on 
8 September. Three of the larvae died of parasitism and three more from other causes. 
Two pupae also died. Pupation occurred from 6 October to 5 November. Seven males 
and seven females emerged: 16 Oct. (12 ), 18 Oct. (2$$), 22 Oct. (12 ), 23 
Oct. (12 ), 25 Oct. (1$, 12 ), 26 Oct. (12 ), 27 Oct. (1$), 29 Oct. (1$), 31 
Oct. (1$ ), 2 Nov. (12 ), 6 Nov. (12 ), and 18 Nov. (12 ). 

San Jacinto Co.: 4 November 1961. Near Oakhurst one larva was collected on 
Q. nigra. Numerous empty larval shelters were present. The larva pupated 12 Feb- 
ruary after a diapausal period of more than two months. A female emerged 26 
February 1962. 

San Patricio Co.: 11 September 1960. Along the railroad near Ingleside, 19 larvae 
were found on Q. laurifolia and Q. virginiana. Six were preserved; the remaining 
larvae pupated from 6 October to 21 October. Six males and seven females emerged: 
16 Oct. (1$), 18 Oct. (IS), 19 Oct. (12), 22 Oct. (1$), 23 Oct. (1$), 24 
Oct. (13,19 ), 25 Oct. (1$, 12 ), 26 Oct. (12 ), 29 Oct. (12 ), 30 Oct. (12 ), 
and 31 Oct. (12). At the Welder Wildlife Refuge, two larvae were found 10 
November 1962 on Q. virginiana. Both larvae entered diapause, and the exact 



18 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



population dates were not observed. A female emerged 12 March and another 
female on 18 March 1963. 

Shelby Co.: 29 September 1962. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 96 near 
Center, nine larvae were collected on Q. nigra. One was parasitized and another 
was lost. The remaining larvae pupated from 22 October to 25 November. Five 
males and two females emerged: 3 Nov. (I $ ), 20 Nov. (19 ), 22 Nov. (IS ), 23 
Nov. (2$ $), 3 Dec. (1$ ), and 14 Dec. (1$). 

Smith Co.: 4 September 1960. On Texas Highway 64 at a roadside park about 
12 miles west of Tyler, eight larvae were collected on Q. marilandica. Four of these 
died of parasitism and two from other causes. The remaining two pupated 9 & 17 
October. A female emerged 18 October and another female on 28 October 1960. 

Tyler Co.: 4 November 1961, near Woodville a single larva was found on Q. 
stellata. It stopped feeding 13 November, entered diapause, and died about 12 
February 1962, apparently from dehydration. 

Upshur Co.: 1 September 1963 at Big Sandy, four ova were found on juvenile 
leaves of Q. stellata. Two of the eggs appeared to have just hatched, but the first 
instar larvae could not be found. The other two eggs hatched and the larvae were 
lost before returning to the laboratory. 

Victoria Co.: 25 December 1960. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 59 just 
inside the Goliad-Victoria County line, one larva in diapause was collected on Q. 
virginiana. It pupated 8 February 1961, and a male emerged 4 March 1961. 

Walker Co.: 4 September 1961. At Huntsville State Park, one larva was found 
on Q. nigra. It was reared on Q. fasiformis, pupated 30 October, and a male emerged 
22 November. 

Wood Co.: 31 August 1963. On FM 14 at the Sabine River, one egg and five 
larvae were collected on Q. nigra. The egg hatched, and the first instar larva was 
lost before reaching the laboratory several days later. One of the larvae collected 
in nature died and another was accidentally killed. The remaining three pupated 
26 September, 23 October, and 12 December. One male and two females emerged: 
7 Oct. (1$ ), 5 Nov. (12 ), and 7 Jan. 1964 (1$ ). 

Zavala Co.: 18 August 1963. At Batesville, one larva was collected on Q. 
virginiana. It pupated 20 September and a male emerged 28 September. 

The writer has collected adults in seven other Texas counties: Aran- 
sas (3 Apr. 1960, 20 Aug. 1960), Bandera (2 Apr. 1959), Bosque (22 
Sept. 1962), Bee (3 Sept. 1962), Grimes (29 June 1957), Polk (14 Apr. 
1962), and Uvalde (10 Mar. 1962). 

Gesta gesta invisus (Butler & Druce). 3 Although the gesta dusky 
wing is rare in collections, it is well established in southern Texas. Here 
it is closely associated with the larval food plants Indigofera suffruticosa 
Mill, and Indigofera lindheimeriana Schelle. The distribution of Gesta 
in Texas correlates well with the distribution of these two plants as 
given by Turner ( 1959 ) . Except for July, gesta has been field collected 
in Texas from April to November. Reared specimens have emerged in 
January, March, and December. The species has a larval diapause. Its 
flight period should be from late March to late November depending on 
climatic conditions of any specific location. Four broods are indicated. 
Larvae entering diapause construct a nest on the ground under fallen 



Determination by Dr. John M. Burns. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 19 



leaves. Other larvae often pupate in a leaf nest on the growing plant. 

Comstock & Garcia (1961) found larvae on Cassia sp. in Mexico, 

reared them through, and illustrated the last instar larva and pupa. 

Colorado Co.: 30 November 1963. On U. S. Highway 90A near Sheridan, a 
good stand of I. suffruticosa was located in an abandoned field. All except the 
terminal leaves had fallen. A cursory examination disclosed two unmistakable 
shelters on one plant. 

Comal Co.: 3 August 1963. At the second low water bridge across the Guadalupe 
River NW of New Braunfels, five larvae and one pupa were found on I. lindheime- 
riana. Very small plants had been selected by the egg-laying females. A male 
emerged from the pupa on 8 August. One larva died, the other four pupated be- 
tween 9 & 18 August. Three males and one female emerged: 15 Aug. (1 $ ), 16 
Aug. (12 ), 21 Aug. (IS ), and 24 Aug. (IS ). These specimens completed their 
larval stage on J. leptosepala ( Nutt. ) Turner. No larvae have been found in nature 
on this species of Indigofera. At the same locality, three larvae were collected 9 
May 1964. One larva failed to complete pupal transformation. The remaining two 
pupated 13 & 18 May. Adults emerged 21 May ( $ ) and 26 May ( 2 ). 

Kendall Co.: 28 June 1963. While on a joint field trip with Dr. John M. Burns, 
we collected in an area beneath U. S. Highway 87 bridge across the Guadalupe 
River at Comfort. There, Dr. Burns found one last instar larva on a small I. 
lindheimeriana plant and the larva was preserved for his further study. 

San Patricio Co.: 11 November 1962. At the Welder Wildlife Refuge, 26 larvae 
and several eggshells were found on I. suffruticosa. A return visit 20 November 
yielded 27 more larvae on this plant. One larva was parasitized; a few were pre- 
served. These evidently were the first immatures of G. gesta to be collected in the 
United States. Pupation occurred from 8 December 1962 to 16 April 1963, most 
of which were preceded by larval diapause. Twenty-five males and 23 females 
emerged: 21 Dec. (1$), 23 Dec. (1 $ , 1$), 26 Dec. (2$$), 1 Jan. (2 2 2), 
2 Jan. (12 ), 22 Mar. (IS, 12 ), 24 Mar. (IS ), 29 Mar. (12 ), 31 Mar. (3$ $ ), 
1 Apr. (IS, 32 2), 2 Apr. (IS, 22 2), 3 Apr. (1$), 4 Apr. (3 2 2), 6 Apr. 
(2$ S ), 7 Apr. (6$ $, 12 ), 8 Apr. (32 2 ), 9 Apr. (IS, 12 ), 10 Apr. (I $ , 
22 2 ), 13 Apr. (2S S ), 15 Apr. (13, 1$ ), and 26 Apr. (1$). 

At Ingleside on 21 November 1962, ten unhatched eggs, 67 larvae, and one 
pupal case were found on 7. suffruticosa. The eggs and a series of other immature 
stages were preserved. Live pupae were furnished to Dr. C. L. Remington for 
chromosome studies. Larvae pupated from 4 December 1962 to 2 April 1963 
after an extended larval diapause for most. Nineteen males and 25 females emerged: 
18 Dec. (12 ), 19 Dec. (12 ), 20 Dec. (12 ), 21 Dec. (12 ), 23 Dec. (2S S), 
24 Dec. (2 2 2), 28 Dec. (IS, 12 ), 23 Mar. (12 ), 26 Mar. (1$ ), 27 Mar. (IS, 
32 2 ), 30 Mar. (12 ), 31 Mar. (1$, 22 2 ), 2 Apr. (42 2 ), 3 Apr. (28 S ), 
4 Apr. (IS, 32 2), 6 Apr. (6S S, 12), 7 Apr. (2S S, 12), 8 Apr. (12), 9 
Apr. (IS), and 12 Apr. (1$ ). 

At the Welder Wildlife Refuge, 3 July 1963, three pupae were collected on I. 
suffruticosa; all proved to be parasitized. Again at the Welder Refuge, 14 September 
1963, 22 larvae were collected on the same individual plant that yielded 26 larvae 
on 11 November 1962. Four of these later larvae entered diapause; the remaining 
18 pupated from 16 to 25 September. Nine males and nine females emerged: 23 
Sept. (IS), 24 Sept. (IS), 25 Sept. (2S S, 32 2), 26 Sept. (2$ S), 27 Sept. 
(IS, 22 2 ), 28 Sept. (1$, 12 ), 1 Oct. (IS, 12 ), 2 Oct. (12 ), 3 Oct. (12 ). 
Once again at the Refuge, 14 October 1963, both adults and immatures were found 
common by the writer, accompanied by Dr. J. W. Tilden. Three larvae pupated 
shortly and emerged: 8 Nov. (IS), 9 Nov. (IS), and 13 Nov. (IS). The other 
larvae started pupating in early March, 1964 following larval diapause. One male 



20 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



and 8 females emerged: 17 Mar. ( 1 $ ), 30 Mar. ( 1 9 ), 8 Apr. (19), 14 Apr. ( 1 $ , 
19 ), 15 Apr. (19 ), 17 Apr. (19 ), 20 Apr. (19 ), and 23 Apr. (19 ). 

Uvalde Co.: 17 August 1963. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 90 where 
it crosses the Nueces River, several unmistakable larval shelters were found on 
I. lindheimeriana. These plants were growing in the rocky overflow portions of 
the riverbed. A more diligent search would undoubtedly have yielded immatures. 
Freeman ( 1951 ) collected one male and one female of gesta in Uvalde County 
31 May 1942. 

Wilson Co.: 15 August 1959. On U. S. Highway 87 at the Cibolo River, two 
adults were collected while feeding on blossoms of Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene. 
About one mile NW of Floresville, 20 October 1963, one fresh male was collected 
and numerous larvae were found on I. suffruticosa. Nine larvae were brought to 
the laboratory and reared through. Seven of these entered diapause; the other two 
pupated in due course, with a male emerging 4 November and a female 5 November. 
Two males and four females emerged following larval diapause : 4 Apr. (19), 
16 Apr. (1$, 19), 23 Apr. (19), 29 Apr. (1$), and 30 Apr. (19). One 
pupa died. 

Zavala Co.: 18 August 1963. On Texas Highway 76 at the Nueces River, one 
empty pupal case was found in a leaf nest on I. lindheimeriana. Only a single plant 
was to be found along the road. Fenced and posted property prevented further 
searching along the dry riverbed where the food plant would most likely occur. 

Other Texas distribution records include the Aransas National Wild- 
life Refuge, Aransas County, where the writer collected one male and 
four females, 3 April 1960. Two individuals of gesta were observed at 
Hidalgo, Hidalgo County, 17 October 1963. Freeman (1951) collected 
a female at Pharr, Hidalgo County, 4 November 1945. He also collected 
a male at Kerrville, Kerr County, 3 June 1949. J. W. Tilden (in litt.) 
reports a male collected near Quemado, Maverick County, 8 October 
1963 and ten males and ten females at the Welder Wildlife Refuge, San 
Patricio County, 14 October 1963. 

Achlyodes thraso tamenund (Edwards). The sickle winged skipper 

flies throughout the year in extreme southern Texas, the area where its 

larval food plant is most abundant. In this area it is most common from 

mid-August to mid-November. At present it is unknown whether the 

adult overwinters or there is an immature diapause. At the Corpus 

Christi Park cited below, the oviposition process was observed on 21 

August 1960. A few adults were seen about 9:30 A.M. CST; soon, many 

more were present as the temperature rose with the hot morning sun. 

The flight pattern of a few individuals around Zanthoxylum fagara ( L. ) 

Sarg. was indicative of females in search of larval food plants. Not more 

than five minutes later a female was observed ovipositing. After flitting 

about from one spot to another, a suitable leaf was selected, an egg 

quickly deposited on the upper surface, and then the skipper dashed 

off to repeat the process. 

San Patricio Co.: 21 August 1960. At the Lake Corpus Christi State Park site 
four egg-laying females were taken alive for laboratory experimentation. Also, 24 
larvae, two pupae, four empty pupal cases, and a number of ova were found in 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 21 



nature on Z. fagara. A return visit to the spot 10 September 1960 yielded more 
than 110 larvae and 17 pupae. Hundreds of fresh adults were found swarming 
around blossoms of Cynanchum unifarium ( Scheele ) Woodson at this time. Be- 
cause Z. fagara was not readily available at the laboratory, it was necessary to rely 
on refrigeration to keep fresh the food plant. For this reason it was considered 
impracticable to rear many from the numerous eggs deposited by the captive fe- 
males. Consequently, many immatures were preserved. Of the larvae collected in 
nature, 25 males and 34 females were produced in 1960 as follows: 11 Sept. (1 $ , 
12 ), 13 Sept. (2$ 2 ), 14 Sept. (13,1$ ), 15 Sept. (1$ ), 16 Sept. (1 $ , 32 2 ), 
17 Sept. (1^,22 2 ), 19 Sept. (2$ $,19), 20 Sept. (12 ), 21 Sept. (2$ 3,12), 
22 Sept. (2 3 3, 32 2 ), 23 Sept. (23 3, 52 2 ), 24 Sept. (13 ), 25 Sept. (33 3, 
32 2 ), 26 Sept. (43 3, 12 ), 28 Sept. (13, 22 2), 29 Sept. (23 3, 22 2 ), 30 
Sept. (13, 12 ), 1 Oct. (13, 12 ), 3 Oct. (12 ), 5 Oct. (22 2 ). 

Live Oak Co.: 23 October 1960. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 9 near 
Oakville, one female was observed ovipositing on Z. fagara. One larva and three 
pupae were also found at this spot. Adults emerged, from the pupae: 27 Oct. 
(13 ), 29 Oct. (13 ), 1 Nov. (13 ), and a female from the larva 5 Nov. 1960. At 
this same roadside park 8 October 1961, another egg-laying female was seen and 
taken. It deposited 15 ova under laboratory conditions. The newly hatched larvae 
were placed on an uncovered Z. fagara bush growing in the laboratory garden. So 
far as could be determined none survived. Numerous predators were suspect. 

Goliad Co.: 25 December 1960. At Goliad State Park, numerous pupal cases 
were found on Z. fagara. 

Kleberg Co.: 26 December 1960. At the Kingsville City-County Park, one 
larva and many pupal cases were found on Z. fagara. The larva, thought to be in 
diapause, was not fed and it failed to survive. 

Other Texas counties in which the writer has collected A. tamenund 
adults are: Bexar (18 Aug. 1957, 31 Mar. 1959, 2 Oct. 1960, & 21 Sept. 
1961), Brooks (22 Oct. 1960), Cameron (2 & 3 Apr. 1957, 21 Mar. 1961, 
22 Apr. 1962, 17 Oct. 1963), Comal (9 Aug. 1959), Hidalgo (22 Oct. 
1960, 22 Nov. 1962, 16 Oct. 1963, 10 Nov. 1963), Jim Wells (22 Oct. 
1960), Nueces (10 Nov. 1962). 

Systasea pulverulenta (R. Felder). The so-called powdered skip- 
per flies from February to November in southern Texas. The earliest 
and latest dates it has been taken in Bexar County are 9 February and 
27 November. The exact number of overlapping broods has not been 
determined. Except for eight scattered days, reared adults emerged 
every day from 15 May to 12 July. Late season mature larvae enter 
diapause. Kendall (1959 & 1961) found Wissadula holosericea (Scheele) 
Garcke and Abutilon ivrightii Gray to be larval food plants of pulverul- 
enta. Four more malvaceous plants are now added: Abutilon abutiloides 
(Jacq. ) Garcke, Abutilon incanum (Link) Sweet, Sphaeralcea angusti- 
folia (Cav. ) Don, and Wissadula amplissima (L.) R. E. Fries. W. holo- 
sericea seems to be the first choice of egg-laying females, A. incanum 
the least desirable. As mentioned in connection with Heliopetes hviana, 
S. pulverulenta displays regular larval habits at least on Abutilon abuti- 
loides. 



22 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



Bexar Co.: 27 November 1960. Numerous larvae were observed on W. holoseri- 
cea and A. wrightii growing in the laboratory garden in San Antonio. Ten days 
later, following near freezing temperatures, a cursory examination disclosed no larval 
shelters. On 18 December careful examination revealed the larvae in leaves beneath 
these plants. It was most interesting that only those leaves which had been partially 
eaten or otherwise damaged had fallen following the cold temperatures. Each 
larva regularly ate from the edge of the leaf and then returned to its shelter on 
the same leaf. Forty-four were found. They were placed inside a screened cage 
and left outdoors all winter. Periodic examinations were made to determine pupation 
dates. The first larva pupated 23 February 1961. Adults emerged following dia- 
pause: 4 Mar. (2), 9 Mar. (5), 12 Mar. (1), 13 Mar. (2), 14 Mar. (2), 15 Mar. 
(1), 16 Mar. (5), 17 Mar. (6), 18 Mar. (1), 22 Mar. (5), 24 Mar. (2), 25 
Mar. (1), 27 Mar. (2) (plus 3 parasities), and 13 Apr. (1). Twenty-three of 
these fed on W. holosericea the other 13 on A. wrightii. On 15 April a pupa was 
found in nature representing the spring brood. It is conceivable that adults from 
the first spring brood actually emerged before the last of the overwintering brood. 

Cameron Co.: 24 October 1960. At the U.S.D.A. Research Center in Brownsville, 
a spot check was made of various species of malvaceous plants growing in an 
experimental garden. One larva of S. pulverulenta was found on Sphaeralcea 
angustifolia. Larva pupated 13 November and a male emerged 28 November 1960. 
At the Laguna- Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge two larvae were found 21 April 
1962 on W. amplissima. One larva died, the other pupated 5 May, and a female 
emerged 14 May 1962. 

Live Oak Co.: 22 October 1960. Near Oakville one larva was collected on A. 
wrightii. It pupated 12 November and a male emerged 26 November. 

McCulloch Co.: 14 August 1961. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 377 
which marks the geographical center of the State, three larvae were found on W. 
holosericea. Larvae pupated in due course and adults emerged 13, 23, & 26 Sep- 
tember; all were males. 

Refugio Co.: 15 October 1963. On Farm Road 136 between Bayside and 
Woodsboro, one larva was found on W. holosericea. It pupated 8 November and 
a female emerged 20 November. 

San Patricio Co.: 21 August 1960. At Lake Corpus Christi State Park near 
Mathis, two larvae were collected on A. abutiloides. A return visit on 11 September 
yielded more than 60 larvae and 10 pupae on this mallow. Some of these were 
kept under laboratory conditions; others were placed on unprotected malvaceous 
plants in the laboratory garden. In the controlled environment, adults emerged 
from field-collected pupae: 10 Sept. (1), 13 Sept. (2), 14 Sept. (2), 16 Sept. (1), 
18 Sept. (1), 19 Sept. (1), 20 Sept. (1); from field-collected larvae: 22 Sept. (2), 
23 Sept. (3), 24 Sept. (2), 26 Sept. (2), 27 Sept. (1), 2 Oct. (2), 3 Oct. (1), 
5 Oct. (1), 7 Oct. (2), 8 Oct. (2), 13 Oct. (1), 16 Oct. (1), and 19 Oct. (1). 
A third visit to the park on 7 October 1961 yielded two larvae on W. amplissima. 
Both these larvae pupated 27 October with a male emerging 11 November and a 
female 13 November. At the Welder Wildlife Refuge near Sinton, one larva was 
found 11 November 1962 on A. incanum and twelve on W. holosericea. Four more 
were collected 20 November at the same location on the last named plant. All 17 
of these larvae entered diapause. Adults emerged following diapause: 1 Apr. 
(U), 2 Apr. (1$ ), 3 Apr. (1 $ , 15 ), 4 Apr. (1$ ), 5 Apr. (1 $ , 1$), 8 Apr. 
(2S 6 ), 9 Apr. (4$ $, 1$ ), 10 Apr. (1$ ), 13 Apr. (1$ ), 22 Apr. (1$ ). It 
was noted that these adults emerged about one month later than those from other 
previously observed overwintering immatures. This was attributed to adverse 
climatic conditions. 

The writer has collected this species in three other Texas counties as 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 23 

follows: Comal (21 June 1959, 9 Aug. 1959, 6 Aug. 1960, and 27 July 
1963); Val Verde (30 Apr. 1961); Zavala (18 Aug. 1963). 

Staphylus mazans ( Reakirt ) . 4 This skipper, the mazans sooty wing has 
been recorded every month of the year in extreme southern Texas ( Free- 
man, 1951). In the more northern parts of its range, it may be found 
from March to November where perhaps three broods occur. A larval 
or pupal diapause is indicated. An aborted diapause in a few individuals 
might account for the flight of mazans, sparingly at times, throughout 
the year in certain localities. Three of the known larval food plants are 
annuals; when discovered, perhaps all of them will be. Adult hibernation 
is remotely possible. In any event, further research is necessary to es- 
tablish the perpetuation factors for mazans. The three larval food plants, 
recorded for the first time, are: Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopo- 
dium album L., and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Doubtless other 
related plants are equally acceptable. 

Bexar Co.: 26 June 1960. In Olmos Park at San Antonio, five larvae were found 
on C. album. They were reared through on this plant. Larvae build protective 
shelters by pulling leaves together which are enlarged to compensate for growth 
and pupation. Pupal duration was eight days for three observed examples. Adults 
emerged: 10 July (19), 19 July (1$), 21 July (1$), 23 July (IS), and 25 
July (12). 

Comal Co.: 6 August 1960. Along the Guadalupe River, NW of New Braunfels, 
a female was collected and confined over C. album. A quantity of eggs were de- 
posited, and these started hatching 13 August. On 25 August all larvae were lost 
due to development of fungus; a living plant was not used. 

Guadalupe Co.: 7 July 1962. At a roadside park on U. S. Highway 90, three 
miles E of Kingsbury, two larvae were found on Amaranthus retroflexus L. They 
were reared through on this plant. A female emerged 22 July and another female 
4 August. One Pholisora catullus (Fabricius) larva shared this host plant with 
mazans. 

San Patricio Co.: 25 April 1962. At the Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, 
one larva was collected on C. ambrosioides. It pupated 29 April and a male emerged 
8 May. 

The writer has collected mazans in nine other Texas counties from 
Kimble, Comal, and Bastrop southward. 

Cogia hippalus outis (Skinner). The outis skipper is widespread but 
quite local in Texas. Further research will probably disclose that it 
inhabits most if not all of the area where its larval food plant is found. 
Due to considerable overlapping, the exact number of broods is un- 
known. It is believed that the number varies from three to five depend- 
ing upon the climatic conditions of a given season, with four as the 
usual number. 

In the Olmos Park Bird Sanctuary, San Antonio, fresh adults were 
found quite common around a large colony of Acacia angustissima 



4 Determination verified by H. A. Freeman. 



24 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 

(Mill.) Kuntze var. hirta (Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray) Robinson. After a 
few minutes, it was observed that these individuals were not only feed- 
ing on the blossoms but also ovipositing on the under surface of ter- 
minal leaves of this plant. Over a period of four years the writer had 
collected only six examples of outis; at Olmos Park more than 20 were 
taken within an hour. Many more could have been collected. 

Bexar Co.: 1 July 1961. At Olmos Park four females were taken alive for 
laboratory experimentation. One of these had been observed to oviposit in nature; 
and it was the only one to oviposit in captivity. Forty-six ova were deposited 3-4 
July. Seven more egg-laying females were observed in nature 16 July, three of 
which were collected. Only one of these deposited additional eggs in the laboratory. 

The rearing of outis from Bexar County over a period of three years is summarized 
as follows. Immatures collected in nature. Eggs in 1961: 1 July (3), 2 July (4), 
16 July (2), and 20 Aug. (1); in 1962: 22 July (9). Ovipositing females observed 
in 1961: 1 July (1), 16 July (3); in 1962: 27 May (3); in 1963: 3 July (1), 
and 25 July (1). Larvae in 1961: 11 July (2), 15 July (9), 16 July (46), 20 
Aug. (12), 20 Sept. (7); in 1962: 27 May (10), 26 June (2), 12 July (4), 8 
Aug. (8), 12-14 Oct. (12); in 1963: 8 May (9), 30 May (14), and 5 Aug. (12). 
Emergence of adults. From field-collected larvae in 1961: 23 July (1), 24 July 
(1), 2-8 Aug. (10), 12-18 Aug. (18), and 20 Aug. (2). Following larval dia- 
pause in 1962: 26 Mar. (1), 30 Mar. (1), 6 Apr. (1), 11 Apr. (1), 22 Apr. (2), 
and from spring 1962 brood; 13-19 June (10). From larval diapause in 1963: 
27-29 Mar. (3) and 4 May (1). From spring 1963 brood: 28 May (1), 1-6 
June (7), 10 July (1), 1-2 Aug. (3), 19 Aug. (1), 22-27 Aug. (8), and 20 
Sept. (1). Reared from eggs in 1961: 4-5 Aug. (4), 11-15 Aug. (9), 17-18 Aug. 
(3), and 21-23 Aug. (2). 

Bastrop Co.: 2 September 1961. At a roadside park on Texas Highway 21 
about 5.5 miles NE of Bastrop, a female was observed to oviposit on A. hirta. The 
insect eluded capture, but the egg was recovered. The first instar larva hatched 
in due course, but fungus later killed it. 

Caldwell Co.: 19 May 1962. On Farm Road 20 just NE of Farm Road 1854 
junction, 42 larvae were collected on A. hirta. Larvae started pupating 26 May 
and continued to do so at a rate of a few each day until all except seven had 
pupated; five larvae and two pupae were preserved. Two larvae appeared to 
enter diapause but later died. Adults emerged: 3 June (1$), 5 June (1$), 6 
June (1$), 7 June (1 S , 4?$), 8 June (2$$, 42$), 9 June (2$ 2), 10 
June (1$, 22 2 ), 11 June (2 S S ), 12 June (12 ), 13 June (IS, 42 2 ), 14 
June (1$, 22 2 ), 15 June ( 1 $ , 22 2), and 16 June (1 S , 12 ) for a total of 
13# $, 202 2. 

Cottle Co.: 13 August 1961. At a point on U. S. Highway 83 between Paducah 
and the Pease River 35 larvae were found on a small patch of A. hirta which 
was growing in a fencerow. Seventeen of the larvae later proved to be host 
to five species of parasites, one of which was undescribed and is being studied by 
Miss L. M. Walkley of the U. S. National Museum. The remaining 13 larvae went 
into diapause, but one died before pupation. Larvae were left outdoors where 
they had spun shelters on the ground under debris. Examination 25 March 1962 
disclosed larvae still in diapause. They were next examined 30 March and found 
all pupated. Adults (7^,52 2) emerged: 15 Apr. (1 $ , 2 2 2 ), 16 Apr. (2$ $, 
12 ), 17 Apr. (IS, 12 ), 19 Apr. (IS, 12 ), 20 Apr. (1 S ), and 21 Apr. (1 $ ). 

Kinney Co.: 17 August 1963. At the railroad and dirt farm road crossing of 
Pinto Creek, two last instar larvae were found in a small clump of Acacia texensis 
Torr. & Gray. Several abandoned larval shelters were present suggesting that larvae 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 25 



had sought places on the ground to pupate. Both larvae pupated 23 August and 
males emerged 1 & 2 September. 

larval habits. Newly hatched larvae construct their shelters by 
pulling together, beneath the leaf, two leaflets of the compound leaf. 
Later, as the larva grows, it enlarges the shelter so that all the leaflets 
may be pulled together below the petiole. With this configuration 
the shelter is not very conspicuous to the untrained eye. When the larva 
is fully mature it seeks shelter on the ground under leaves or debris. 
When fallen leaves or other material was not available, caged larvae 
actually burrowed under the soil surface for protection during diapause 
and pupation. The shallow earthen chamber was silk lined, which 
provided anchorage for cremaster hooks and a smooth surface for the 
tender pupa. 

Thorybes bathyllus ( Smith ) . The southern cloudy, or dusky wing has 
been collected in Texas during April, May, July, and September. Reared 
specimens have emerged in March, April, June, October, November, 
and December. Careful collecting in the right spots should reveal 
bathyllus flying, in limited numbers, from March to December. The 
writer has knowledge of only five Texas county locations. Immatures 
have been collected in nature on Astragalus engelmannii (Sheldon) 
Jones, Centrosema virginanum (L. ) Benth., Desmodium ciliare (Muhl. ) 
DC, Desmodium paniculatum (L. ) DC, Lespedeza hirta (L. ) Hornem., 
and in the laboratory reared on Lespedeza texana Britt. 

Bastrop Co.: 5 September 1961. At Bastrop State Park, four larvae and one egg 
were found on L. hirta. One larva was preserved, the others reared through on 
L. texana with adults emerging: 29 Oct. (1$ ), 6 Dec. (1$), and 10 Apr. 1962 
( 1 9 ) . The egg collected 5 September hatched the same day; its larva pupated 29 
October and a female emerged 26 November. 

Another visit to the park 19 May 1962 yielded five larvae; two on A. engelmannii 
and three on D. ciliare. Two larvae which were thought to be in diapause died. 
The remaining three were reared through on L. texana. Adults emerged: 17 June 
(1$ ), 18 June (1$ ), and 19 June ( 1 <$ ). The exact pupation date was observed 
for only one, and it remained in the pupal stage 12 days. 

At Buescher State Park, 25 August 1962, one last instar larva was collected on 
C. virginanum. It pupated 4 September and a female emerged 15 September. 

Brazoria Co.: 15 April 1962. On the San Bernard River at Churchill Bridge, 
one larva was collected on D. paniculatum. It pupated 23 May and a female emerged 

4 June. Freeman ( 1951 ) also recorded bathyllus from this county. 

Smith Co.: 1 September 1963. At Tyler State Park, one larva was collected 
on D. paniculatum. It pupated 5 October and a male emerged 19 October. Free- 
man also ( 1951 ) recorded bathyllus from this county. 

Walker Co.: 2 September 1961. At Huntsville State Park, three larvae and one 
egg were found on C. virginianum, but the egg was lost. Larvae were reared through 
on D. ciliare. Adults emerged: 13 Oct. (IS), 20 Oct. (1$ ), 26 Oct. (1? ), and 
23 Mar. 1962 following larval diapause ( 1 $ ) . 

Roy W. Quillin collected one female at San Antonio, Bexar Co., on 

5 April 1959. The writer examined this specimen and found it to be 



26 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 

in excellent condition. It appears that this is the only county record 
for bathyllus. 

Thorybes pylades (Scudder). The northern cloudy wing may be 
found in all major botanical areas of Texas except the South Plains. It 
flies from March to November. In central Texas, March, April, June, 
and September are the best months to find it. Laboratory studies indi- 
cate a semilarval summer diapause. Three to four broods may be ex- 
pected under favorable climatic conditions. 

Kendall (1959) gave Rhynchosia (Dolicholus) texana Torr. & Gray as 
a larval food plant for pylades in his chart of larval food plants but 
failed to include life history data in the text. These data are now given 
together with two additional larval food plants: Astragalus nuttallianus 
DC. and Desmodium paniculatum (L. ) DC. 

Bandera Co.: 2 April 1959. On Park Road 37 to Medina Lake, a female was col- 
lected while ovipositing on R. texana. Four eggs were found in nature and the 
captive female deposited 17 more in the laboratory. Ova started hatching 15 April. 
The first larva pupated 23 May. Four males and nine females emerged: 4 June 
(1$ ),5 June (1$ ), 15 June (1$ ), 16 June (1$ ), 18 June (2$ $ ), 20 June (1$), 
21 June ( 1 $ ), 22 June ( 1 $ , 1 9 ), 24 June ( 1 $ ), 29 June (19), and 8 July (19). 
Immatures were preserved. Young larvae hide between leaves pulled together; older 
larvae hide under debris on the ground. 

Bastrop Co.: 19 May 1962. At Bastrop State Park one last instar larva was found 
on A. nuttallianus. It pupated in due course and a female emerged 28 June 1962. 
At the same location on 30 March 1963 a female was observed to oviposit on D. 
paniculatum. 

Bexar Co.: 12 April 1959. Northwest of San Antonio near the intersection of 
Culebra Road and Loop 410, several eggs were collected on R. texana along with 
two egg-laying females. All eggs were preserved. On 26 April at another location 
north of the city, one larva and four ova were found on JR. texana: these were pre- 
served. Two years later at still another location near San Antonio, a pair were taken 
in copula about 11:00 A.M. CST, 8 April 1961. The female was kept for eggs but 
none were deposited. A return visit to the spot on 16 April yielded one egg-laying 
female, 14 ova, and seven first instar larvae on R. texana. The larvae collected in 
nature were preserved. In the laboratory, this female deposited 15 more eggs. Ova 
hatched shortly and the first larva pupated 24 May. Eight males and five females 
emerged: 3 June (IS), 5 June (19), 11 June (19), 12 June (1$), 14 June 
(IS ), 19 June (1$), 20 June (1$ ), 23 June (IS ), 28 June (19 ), 29 June (IS), 
30 June ( 1 9 ) , 6 July (19), and 8 July (IS). On another visit to the site, 6 Octo- 
ber 1963, a female was taken while ovipositing on R. texana. The laboratory envi- 
ronment failed to stimulate further oviposition. 

Blanco Co.: 3 May 1963. On U. S. Highway 281 at the Little Blanco River, one 
first instar larva was collected on R. texana. Larva matured in due course but failed 
to pupate due to parasitism. An ichneumonid larva appeared 14 June, and the adult 
parasite emerged 25 June 1963. 

Kerr Co.: 24 May 1959. At Kerrville State Park, one first instar larva was found 
on R. texana. 

Medina Co.: 24 April 1960. At Medina Lake, an egg-laying female was collected; 
five eggs were deposited immediately after capture on R. texana held in a butterfly 
net. The eggs were preserved. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 27 



Thorybes pylades albosuffusa Freeman. 5 This "form" seems to be 

geographically restricted, to Brewster and Jeff Davis counties, where it 

has been collected from April to August. 

Jeff Davis Co.: 2 May 1961. On Texas Highway 118 below McDonald Observa- 
tory in the Davis Mountains, this skipper was found visiting flowers and ovipositing 
on Rhynchosia (Dolicholus) texana Torr. & Gray. A number of ova, larvae, and 
adults including one egg-laying female were collected. The female deposited more 
than 20 eggs on JR. texana while in transit to the laboratory. A series of all imma- 
ture stages was preserved. Adults emerged: 11 June (2$ $ ), 13 June (1$), 14 
June (2 2 2), 16 June (1 $ ), 20 June (1 $ , 2 2 2 ), 22 June (12 ), 25 June (2$ $ ), 
27 June ( 1 2 ), 29 June (1 $ ), and 8 July 1961 (12). 

Achalarus lyciades (Geyer). The hoary edge is not well known in 
Texas, but it is fairly common at times in certain localities. It has been 
collected from April to September; laboratory rearings indicate a few 
may emerge, under favorable conditions, in nature during October, No- 
vember, and December. Present knowledge limits the distribution in 
Texas to five counties and the larval food plants to three: Desmodium 
ciliare (Muhl. ) DC, Lespedeza hirta (L. ) Hornem., and Lespedeza 
texana Britt. ex Small. For a description of these plants see Turner 
(1959). A high rate of parasitized immatures is indicated. Klots (1951) 
states that lyciades hibernates as pupa. In Texas, a larval diapause is 
also established. 

Bastrop Co.: 5 September 1961. At Bastrop State Park, one larva was collected 
on L. hirta. It was reared through on L. texana in the laboratory. The exact pupa- 
tion date was not observed, but a male emerged 28 October. 

San Jacinto Co.: 14 April 1962. In the Sam Houston National Forest at Double 
Lake picnic area, several adults were observed sitting in the sun along trails. Al- 
though they were too wary to catch, their identity was unmistakable. 

Walker Co.: 3 September 1961. At Huntsville State Park, 34 ova were found on 
D. ciliare. All of these proved to be parasitized, and adult parasites emerged from 
them 8-14 September. One egg-laying female was also collected 3 September. Dur- 
ing the following three days it deposited 64 eggs of D. ciliare in the laboratory. Eggs 
started hatching 7 September. Larvae were later reared through on L. texana. Some 
died, and immatures were preserved. Exact pupation dates were not observed. All 
larvae except one stopped feeding by 31 October; this one stopped feeding 28 No- 
vember and pupated 30 March 1962. Four had pupated by 19 November and three 
more between 11 February and 8 March; two others were unobserved. Four larvae 
in diapause died. Six males and four females emerged: 16 Nov. (IS), 19 Nov. 
(12 ), 22 Nov. (12 ), 4 Dec. (2$ $), 3 Apr. (12 ), 6 Apr. (1$), 10 Apr. (1$), 
and 15 Apr. (U, 12 ). 

A. lyciades is known from only two other Texas counties. Freeman 
(1951) collected the species each month from May to September in 
Dallas County, and Mr. E. M. Kinch reported (in litt.) collecting one 
adult at Benbrook Lake near Fort Worth, Tarrant County, on 4 July 
1963. 

Achalarus toxeus (Plotz). Except for May and August, the toxeus, or 



Determination by H. A. Freeman. 



28 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 

coyote skipper has been collected in southern Texas each month from 
February to November. Very little is known of its life history. Three 
or more broods, and perhaps considerable overlapping of broods, is 
indicated. 

Hidalgo Co.: 19 March 1961. At the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, a 
female was observed to oviposit on Texas ebony, Pithecellobium flexicaule (Benth. ) 
Coulter. The skipper was not captured, but careful examination of twigs from this 
shrub yielded 12 eggs deposited on leaves, deep in the foliage near the trunk. A 
few twigs, together with a potted plant from a local nursery, were transported to 
the laboratory. First instar larvae readily ate the juvenile leaves of this plant. Un- 
fortunately, only a few such leaves were brought to the laboratory and all larvae 
died before completing the first instar. 

It is significant that toxeus is well established in areas where P. flexi- 
caule is not found. This would indicate that other legumes such as 
mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa Torr., or huisache, Acacia farnesiana (L. ), 
may also be acceptable to egg-laying toxeus females. 

The writer has collected toxeus in three other Texas counties: Bexar 
(1956, month & day not recorded); Live Oak (8 Oct. 1961); San Patricio 
(10 Sept. 1960, 22 Oct. 1960, 7 Oct. 1961, 2 Sept. 1962, 11 Nov. 1962, 6 
July 1963, 15 Sept. 1963, and 12 Oct. 1963). One female collected by Roy 
W. Quillin 16 September 1961 at San Antonio, Bexar County, was exam- 
ined by the writer. Freeman ( 1951 ) recorded it from San Antonio, 
Bexar Co., October; McAllen, Hidalgo Co., February; Pharr, Hidalgo 
Co., March, April, September, October, and November; Corpus Christi, 
Nueces Co., October; and Laredo, Webb Co., June. Bexar County seems 
to be its northern limit. 

Urbanus proteus Linnaeus. The long-tailed skipper has been recorded 
from only a few counties in Texas. This may be a result of insufficient 
collecting. U. proteus seems to prefer cultivated beans as a larval food 
plant. It would therefore seem best to look for it around city vegetable 
gardens. Commercial bean crops may receive insecticides periodically, 
which, no doubt, would have a bearing on the abundance of proteus. It 
flies from June to December with July, August, and September repre- 
senting the greatest numbers. Three local larval food plants are: Phase- 
olus limensis Macf., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Clitoria ternata L. 6 

Bexar Co.: 19 August 1956. In San Antonio, two larvae were found in leaf nests 
on lima beans, P. limensis. Both larvae pupated 29 August and adults emerged 8 
September. On 9 October 1956, an egg-laying female was collected in the labora- 
tory garden. Confined over P. vulgaris twigs it deposited numerous eggs which 
started hatching 14 October. The first larva pupated 4 November. Immatures were 
preserved and 24 adults emerged from 27 November to 26 December. Again, 13 
July 1957, larvae were present on P. vulgaris in the laboratory garden. Some were 
collected for preserving. On 8 August eggs were found and 19 August more larvae 



G The last named plant determined by Dr. B. L. Turner, University of Texas. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 29 



observed. Sixteen eggs were counted on 21 September 1957. Although a few larvae 
were reared through from time to time, exact emergence dates were not recorded. 

Early in 1963, C. ternata was planted in the laboratory garden as an ornamental. 
It was a pleasant surprise to see egg-laying females visit this plant on 9, 11, & 16 
June. Soon thereafter larvae were present and feeding on the foliage when not rest- 
ing in their leaf shelters. They were observed in their unprotected location, but 
one by one paper wasps (Polistes), and perhaps birds, took them. 

Chioides catillus albofasciatus (Hewitson). The white-striped long 
tail is common in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas where it has 
been taken each month of the year. Based on present life history knowl- 
edge, an immature diapause is not indicated. It may be found around 
the edge of wooded areas where its larval food plants grow. 

Freeman (1951) collected albofasciatus in June at Alpine, Brewster 
County. Andre Blanchard (in litt.) collected it in Brazoria County 8 & 
10 June 1961 and in Harris County 28 September 1957. The writer col- 
lected adults in Bexar County 25 & 31 August 1957, 27 April and 14 
September 1958, and 22 March 1959. W. A. Pluemer, formerly of San 
Antonio, Texas, collected a badly damaged specimen 11 October 1959 
at Helotes also in Bexar County; no more specimens have been collected 
or seen in the county since. 

Comstock & Garcia (1961) found larvae in Mexico feeding on Te- 
phrosia sp. They also illustrate the mature larva and pupa. Three larval 
food plants from Texas are here recorded: Phaseolus atropurpureus 
DC, Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC, and Tephrosia lindheimeri (Gray) 
Kuntze (all Leguminosae). 

Cameron Co.: 18 October 1963. Along a railroad in NW Brownsville, adults were 
found flying in good numbers. While the writer searched for immatures, his com- 
panions, Mrs. Kendall and Dr. J. W. Tilden, collected adults. A female was observed 
to oviposit on P. atropurpureus growing in a fencerow. After netting the insect, 
examination disclosed several larvae in leaf nests on the plant. Larvae were also 
found on R. minima nearby. Of 19 larvae collected, 13 were preserved. Pupation 
of the others occurred from 23 October to 7 November except for two which died. 
Adults emerged: 8 Nov. (19), 18 Nov. ( 1 $ ), 20 Nov. (1 $ ), and 26 Dec. ( 1 S ). 

Two gravid females collected 18 October deposited 236 ova on R. minima and P. 
atropurpureus from 20-30 October. Eggs started hatching within a few days and 
larvae fed until a freeze killed the food plant in mid-December. Seven larvae had 
matured enough to pupate by 1 January 1964, five more by 16 January, two more 
by 18 January, and one 22 January. All the remaining larvae appeared to be in 
various stages of malnutrition and were preserved. Three of the pupae were pro- 
vided for chromosome counts. Of the remainder, some were kept in the laboratory, 
others left outdoors. None survived. 

In their natural habitat, larval growth would no doubt have been retarded by 
lowered nonfreezing temperatures, with feeding possibly taking place on warm days 
when local temperature exceeded 60° F. The length of the pupal period would also 
be influenced by temperature. In this way a few could emerge from time to time, 
with the main flight following in mid-March. 

A return visit to the county 29 March 1964 found adults flying on Padre Island 
near Port Isabel and elsewhere. Larvae and eggs were found on R. minima. Eight 
larvae were collected, and pupation occurred from 25 April to 4 May. Adults 



30 Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae Vol. 19, no. 1 



emerged: 10 May (IS), 12 May (IS), 13 May (19 ), 14 May (IS), 15 May 
(IS ), 17 May (22 2 ), and 18 May (12 ). 

Hidalgo Co.: 23 October 1960. On U. S. Highway 281 near San Manuel, one 
larva was found in a leaf nest on T. lindheimeri. Another larva was found the fol- 
lowing day in the same general area on this plant. Sufficient food plant was kept 
under refrigeration to rear them through. One larva stopped feeding 4 November, 
pupated 7 November, and a male emerged 28 November. The other larva stopped 
feeding 6 November, pupated 8 November, and a male emerged 29 November 1960. 

Jackson Co.: 4 June 1961. Mr. & Mrs. Andre Blanchard took the writer and Mrs. 
Kendall to one of their favorite collecting spots on Carancahua Creek near the village 
of Francitas. A female albofasciatus was observed to oviposit on R. minima which 
was abundant in the area. The female deposited 41 eggs under laboratory conditions 
and two which were recovered in the field. Eggs are deposited on the underside of 
terminal leaves. Hatching started 7 June. Twenty-one larvae pupated between 4-10 
July. Twelve males and six females emerged: 13 July (IS), 15 July (5S S ), 16 
July (2S S ), 17 July (IS, 12 ), 18 July (IS, 12 ), 19 July (IS, 12), 20 July 
(1$), and 21 July (3 2 2 ). Representative specimens of the life history were 
preserved. 

Epargyreus clarus clams (Cramer). The silver spotted skipper is at 
times common in Texas, in certain locations around its larval food 
plants. The species flies from March to September, with June, July, and 
August the best months to find it. This skipper is well adapted to metro- 
politan living because several of its most acceptable larval food plants 
are grown as ornamentals. Two larval food plants are known from 
Texas: Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet and Robinia pseudo-acacia L. 
Wild females have been observed to oviposit on Erythrina herbacea L. 
and Rhynchosia minima (L. ) DC. in nature, but the larvae will not eat 
these plants. 

Bexar Co.: Because this insect is so common in the laboratory garden at San 
Antonio, little attention has been given to rearing it. Although it has been reared 
and its life history preserved, few emergence records have been made. It is signifi- 
cant to record dates on which females have been observed to oviposit on W. sinensis 
in the laboratory garden: 17 June 1956, 14 June 1958, 15 Apr. and 18 Sept. 1960, 
2 July 1962, and 25 May 1963. Larvae have been observed: 8 June and 14 July 
1958, 24 Oct. 1959, 14 & 28 May and 1 Oct. 1960, 26 Aug. 1961, 21 July 1962, 
2 July and 4 Aug. 1963. The greatest number of adults seen at one time was 13, 
1 July 1962, feeding on blossoms of buttonbush, Cephalanthns occidentalis L. 

On 16 July 1960 Roy W. Quillin of San Antonio reported seeing females oviposit 
on E. herbacea which grows as an ornamental in his yard. An examination of this 
plant disclosed a number of eggs of clarus on the leaves; some were collected and 
taken to the laboratory for study. First instar larvae would not sample the leaves 
of this plant. 

In the laboratory garden, females were observed to oviposit on Rhynchosia min- 
ima, 10 July, 13 July, and 7 September 1963. Numerous ova were to be found on 
the foliage of this plant. First instar larvae would notch the leaf and fashion a 
shelter, but then die. A few would venture out for one or two more feedings. Ap- 
parently this plant is toxic to clarus larvae. 

Smith Co.: 3 September 1960. Near Tyler, five larvae were found on R. pseudo- 
acacia. They pupated in due course but died before 1 February 1961 due to de- 
hydration. For best results, pupae of clarus should be left outdoors, on the ground 
in their leaf nests. Adults emerge in March from pupal diapause. 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



31 



CHART OF LARVAL FOOD PLANTS 



Plant Family 



Plant Species 



Lepidoptera 



Amaranthaceae 



Cannaceae 
Chenopodiaceae 



Fagaceas 



Gramineae 



Leguminosas 



Amaranthus caudatus 
Amaranthus retroflexus 

Amaranthus spinosus 
Canna indica 
Chenopodium album 

Chenopodium ambrosioides 

Chenopodium berlandieri 
Quercus fusiformis 
Quercus gambelii 
Quercus hemisphaerica 
Quercus laurifolia 
Quercus marilandica 
Quercus nigra 
Quercus phellos 
Quercus shumardii 
Quercus stellata 
Quercus texana 
Quercus virginiana 
Cynodon dactylon 



Lolium perenne 
Stenotaphrum secundatum 
Acacia hirta 
Acacia texensis 
Astragalus engelmannii 
Astragalus nuttallianus 
Baptisia laevicaulis 
Baptisia tinctoria 
Centrosema virginanum 
Clitoria ternata 
Desmodium ciliare 

Desmodium paniculatum 

Indigofera lindheimeriana 
Indigofera suffruticosa 
Lespedeza hirta 

Lespedeza texana 

Phaseolus atropurpureus 
Phaseolus limensis 
Phaseolus vulgaris 
Pithecellobium flexicaule 
Rhynchosia minima 



Pholisora catullus 

Pholisora catullus 

Staphylus mazans 

Pholisora catullus 

Calpodes ethlius 

Pholisora catidlus 

Staphylus mazans 

Pholisora catullus 

Staphylus mazans 

Pholisora catidlus 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Erynnis horatius 

Amblyscirtes vialis 

Copseodes aurantiaca 

Hesperia viridis 

Polites v. prseceps 

Hesperia viridis 

Polites v. prseceps 

Cogia h. outis 

Cogia h. outis 

Thorybes bathyllus 

Thorybes pylades 

Erynnis baptisias 

Erynnis baptisise 

Thorybes bathyllus 

Urbanus proteus 

Achalarus lyciades 

Thorybes bathyllus 

Thorybes bathyllus 

Thorybes pylades 

Gesta g. invisus 

Gesta g. invisus 

Achalarus lyciades 

Thorybes bathyllus 

Achalarus lyciades 

Thorybes bathyllus 

Chioides c. albofasciatus 

Urbanus proteus 

Urbanus proteus 

Achalarus toxeus 

Chioides c. albofasciatus 



32 



Kendall: Texas Hesperiidae 



Vol. 19, no. 1 



CHART OF LARVAL FOOD PLANTS (Continued) 



Plant Family 



Plant Species 



Lepidoptera 



Leguminosae 
Malvaceae 



Rutaceas 



Rhynchosia texana 
Robinia pseudo-acacia 
Tephrosia lindheimeri 
Wisteria sinensis 
Abutilon abutiloides 

Abutilon incanum 



Abutilon wrightii 
Althaea rosea 

Callirhoe leiocarpa 
Malvastrum americanum 
Malvaviscus drummondii 
Sida filicaulis 
Sida filipes 

Sida lindheimeri 
Sida rhombifolia 
Sphaeralcea angustifolia 

Sphaeralcea cuspidata 
Sphaeralcea lindheimeri 
Sphaeralcea lobata 
Wissadula amplissima 

Wissadula holosericea 
Zanthoxylum f agar a 



Thorybes pylades 

Epargyreus c. clarus 

Chioides c. albofasciatus 

Epargyreus c. clarus 

Heliopetes laviana 

Systasea pulverulenta 

Celotes nessus 

Heliopetes laviana 

Systasea pulverulenta 

Systasea pulverulenta 

Celotes nessus 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Heliopetes laviana 

Heliopetes macaira 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Celotes nessus 

Heliopetes laviana 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Systasea pulverulenta 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Pyrgus c. communis 

Celotes nessus 

Celotes nessus 

Systasea pulverulenta 

Heliopetes laviana 

Systasea pulverulenta 

Achlyodes t. tamenund 



Other Texas counties in which the writer has collected clarus are: 
Comal, 21 July 1963; Polk, 14 April 1962. Mr. Andre Blanchard (in litt.) 
reports collecting it 10 June 1961 in Brazoria County. Here its larval 
food plant could be Gleditsia triacanthos L. 



Acknowledgments 

I would like to express my appreciation for the valued botanical 
determinations of Fred B. Jones, Dr. C. H. Muller, Dr. B. L. Turner, and 
Dr. B. H. Warnock. Special consideration is also given to Dr. John M. 
Burns and H. A. Freeman for making or confirming determinations of 
certain lepidopterous species. To Dr. Clarence Cottam, Director, Welder 
Wildlife Foundation, I am especially grateful for the many courtesies 
and services rendered by him and his staff in connection with field stud- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 33 

ies. And to my good wife, Conway A. Kendall, who accompanied me 
on all field trips and who rendered invaluable laboratory assistance in 
conducting the numerous rearings, I am greatly indebted. 

Literature Cited 

Bailey, L. H., 1924. A Manual of Cultivated Plants. Macmillan Co., New York. 
Comstock, J. A., & L. V. Garcia, 1961. Estudios de los ciclos biologicos en Lepi- 

dopteros Mexicanos. Ann. Inst. Biol. Mex., XXXI: 349-448. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem. 

Lepid. Soc., No. 1. 
Freeman, H. A., 1951. Ecological & systematic study of the Hesperioidea of Texas. 

Southern Methodist Univ. Studies, No. 6. 
Gould, F. W., 1962. Texas plants — a checklist and ecological summary. Texas 

Agr. Exp. Sta. State College, Misc. Publ. 585. 
Hildreth, R. J., & R. B. Orton, 1963. Freeze probabilities in Texas. Texas Agr. 

Exp. Sta. State College, Misc. Publ. 657. 
Kendall, R. O., 1959. More larval foodplants from Texas. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 13: 

221-228. 
1961. Another larval foodplant from Texas for Antigonus pulverulenta (Hesperi- 

idae). Jour. Lepid. Soc. 15: 73. 
Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., 

Boston. 
MacNeill, C. D., 1964. The skippers of the genus Hesperia in western North 

America, with special reference to California (Lepidoptera : Hesperiidae ) . U. 

Calif. Publ. Ent, 35: 230 pp. 
Turner, B. L., 1959. The Legumes of Texas. University of Texas, Austin. 



STATUS OF AGRAULIS VANILLAE IN MISSOURI 
AND KANSAS 

The recent article (Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 227-228, 1964) by Richard D. 
Turner regarding Agraulis vanillae (L.) in Missouri was of interest. Its 
author arrived at the conclusion that simply because vanillae happened 
to be quite abundant on Passiflora at Green Ridge, Missouri, for several 
successive summers that the butterfly had successfully survived the 
winter in the area. Unfortunately this is a conclusion reached by the 
author who overlooked the fact that A. vanillae is a migratory species 
in both Missouri and Kansas. Females traveling from much farther 
south (the Gulf or the tropics?) reach this latitude in sporadic numbers 
during June and July. Since Passiflora does come up from the roots 
in this area by late spring, a wandering female, if she happens to be 
passing through the area and accidentally locates such a vine, will 
indeed cover its leaves with eggs. Caterpillars are subsequently pro- 



34 Howe: Status of Agraulis Vol. 19, no. 1 

duced and pupae formed, all of which takes place in rapid succession. 
A pupa may develop into an adult in only six days. 

Ottawa, Kansas, and Green Ridge, Missouri, are of nearly identical 
latitude and only a hundred miles apart so the situation should be 
rather similar. Last summer (1963) was one of particularly heavy 
migration of A. vanillae in wide sections of both Kansas and Missouri. 
One vine in Ottawa was literally covered with the caterpillars of vanillae. 
Another vine in a different section of town had not a single caterpillar 
on its leaves. The latter vine simply had not been discovered by a 
roving migrant female. By autumn, however, enough progeny had been 
produced from the first vines to spread out and seek out all available 
host plants of the area. By September the adults were quite abundant 
in much of the area and especially in the towns. In two months I had 
easily reared over 200 caterpillars (not one was parasitized!), and as 
many as twelve butterflies emerged from pupae in a single day. But the 
day of reckoning came during the last week in October. Every single 
chrysalid that had not emerged before 29 October never emerged. All 
37 of them were hanging limp and lifeless in their screen cage. They 
all perished during one freezing night. 

We have in Kansas and Missouri three principal types of butterflies: 
breeding residents, breeding migrants, and (usually tropical) wind- 
blown strays. Agraulis vanillae is distinctly of the middle group. Colias 
( Zerene ) cesonia ( Stoll ) is quite possibly another such butterfly, though 
strong evidence supports the idea that at least a few adults of cesonia 
hibernate here as well. The tropical blue, Leptotes marina (Reakirt) 
sometimes migrates here too, temporarily establishes a local colony, but 
is completely wiped out with the first hard freeze. This is exactly what 
happens to vanillae; it cannot withstand the severe cold that occurs 
every winter in every section of both Missouri and Kansas, and this 
applies to each of its four life stages. An adult vanillae cannot with- 
stand winter hibernation nor does it make any attempt to do so as 
does another native subtropical nymphalid, Anaea andria Scudder. This 
explains why adult vanillae are never seen here very early in spring. 
It is usually at least June before migrating adults can reach this latitude 
from farther south. Some seasons they do not reach us at all and then 
we have no vanillae that year, since no colonies can exist here without 
an influx of females to propagate themselves. Whether or not this situa- 
tion prevails in northern California I cannot say, but I can state positively 
that this is the situation that prevails regarding Agraulis vanillae within 
the boundaries of both Kansas and Missouri. 

William H. Howe, 822 East 11th St., Ottawa, Kansas, U.S.A. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 35 



OSCAR THEODOR BARON ( 1847-1926 ) x 

F. Martin Brown 
Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

In trying to restrict the type locality of Cercyonis baroni Edwards to 
a more particular place than Mendocino County, California, I searched 
the literature for information about O. T. Baron. Neither in the very 
brief mention by Essig (1931: 552) nor in the only other article noted 
by Carpenter (1953: 263), O. Meissner's obituary of Baron (1929: 131), 
could I find any details of Baron's travels in California. This led me to 
search for primary material, letters from Baron to his associates. There 
is no letter in the limited amount of W. H. Edwards' correspondence 
preserved in the archives of the State of West Virginia in Charleston, 
W. Va. There are 74 items in the Strecker correspondence housed in the 
department of entomology, Chicago Natural History Museum. Twenty- 
six items in the Henry Edwards correspondence are in the library of the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York. Koebele's letter- 
book in the archives of the Pacific Coast Entomological Society stored 
at the California Academy of Sciences contains fifteen items. From these 
letters and postcards, over a hundred in number, I have been able to 
bring together a considerable body of information that may be of use to 
others. 

Oscar Theodor Baron was born on September 9, 1847, in Repsch, East 
Schleswig, Germany. He was the son of a schoolmaster. According to 
his sister, Baron started collecting insects at the early age of 13 years 
while a student at the Gymnasium in Neustadt. As a young man he 
shipped as a sailor to the Orient and visited India, China, and the Indo- 
Australian islands. He was shipwrecked on Java, where he contracted 
scurvy. From there he shipped to the west coast of America. His first 
job in the New World was as a surveyor. He mapped a small island off 
the coast. On it he collected little-known beetles that were deposited 
with the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. This much I 
learned from Meissner's account. The name of the island is lost. 

The Henry Edwards Correspondence 

The earliest Baron letters that I have read are in the Henry Edwards 
correspondence. The first one is dated "Navarro. Apr. 18th 76." At that 
time Baron was 28 years old and worked at loading schooners plying 
between a small mill in Navarro, Mendocino County, and San Francisco. 



This study was in part supported by N.S.F. Grant GB-194. 



36 Brown: Baron biography Vol. 19, no. 1 

In his spare time he collected moths, butterflies, and other insects. He 
also made some botanical collections. Baron considered Navarro his 
home until the end of the summer of 1879, when he moved to Mendo- 
cino, another small coastal town. It is apparent from the text of this first 
letter that Baron and Henry Edwards had exchanged previous corre- 
spondence. The second letter preserved from 1876 is dated from Mendo- 
cino, December 15th. In it Baron noted "I find that the Saturnia and 
tlie P. Ceanothy [sic!] feed also on Arctostaphylos. . . ." 

There are four letters written in 1877 from Navarro. There is every 
indication in these that he was so busy that he had little time for col- 
lecting. He continued to raise satumids and other moths from larvae 
and eggs collected locally. Apparently Baron had lived for a year or so 
in Mendocino before moving to Navarro in 1876. The four letters are 
dated 7 April, 9 July, 6 August, and 9 November, respectively. 

Only two items are preserved from 1878, a letter dated 3 March and a 
postcard dated 27 March. On the latter Baron noted "I have received 
the Butterflies from Mr. W. H. Edwards, sent to you for me. Thanks to 
the careful packing they arrived in excellent condition, not one antennae 
being broken." In W. H. Edwards' manuscript Journal "F" for 1876 there 
is this note on p. 240 "Oscar T. Baron, Mendocino Mill, Mend . Cal a . 
change to Navarro Mills." On pp. 237-238 in Journal "G" Edwards 
noted that he had received "about 2 dozen [chrysalids of Mel. Baroni] 
from Baron May 18, 1879." I could find no account in Edwards' Journals 
of the butterflies he sent to Baron. Probably they were material that 
had been submitted for determination. 

The year 1879 produced a long array of letters, sixteen in all. Baron 
continued to live in Navarro until April when he set out on a collecting 
trip, the first real one that he made. He announced this in a letter of 
14 March, "Things with me are veiy disagreeable and I intend to leave 
Navarro very soon, and shall spend the summer traveling in California, 
and, of course, collect as I go along. I intend to do some hard work. My 
plan is to get a horse and a very light wagon and start about Apr. 15th, 
when the roads begin to get into order again, and travel through Mendo- 
cino and the neighboring counties." This letter also announced to Henry 
Edwards that a box containing about 300 specimens was to be shipped 
to him for sale in the East. Along with the moths, Baron had included 
"12 Chionobas Iduna 6 and 9, some Argynnis & approx. 12 pair Meli- 
taea quino, a few N. menapia, etc." The specimens had been captured 
during the summer of 1878, probably at no great distance from Navarro. 
While away on his collecting trip Baron had arranged to have W. G. W. 
Harford (42 Market Street, San Francisco) act as a mail drop for pack- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 37 

ages being shipped from the East. There is a suggestion in the wording 
of this that Harford was in some way connected with the mills at Men- 
docino and Navarro. 

On 13 April 1879, Baron wrote from Mendocino. Apparently he had 
started his trek. The next letter is undated but can be placed here by its 
content. He was at the "Headwaters of Big river, Mendocino, County." 
By 15 June he had reached "Camp Cache Creek, Lake Co." May had 
been rainy and Baron had had little success. On 23 May he took a pair 
of Papilio indra on "Mt. St. Hydrian" [Mt. Sanhedrin? — about 20 miles 
NE of Willits] in Mendocino County. He also wrote that mail would 
catch up with him at Newville, Tehama County [now Glenn Co.] and 
that he hoped to ship a box of 1,000 specimens from Red Bluff. A post- 
card from Red Bluff on 30 June told Edwards that the box had gone 
off by Wells & Fargo, and "I am going into Trinity Co. next." By 18 
August Baron was in Middletown, at the south end of Lake County. He 
wrote "I have also 4 pairs of Argynnis, a very large species, the 9 of 
which is on the upper side deep brown and yellow. I shall also send you 
a pair of them." Strecker's plate misled Baron and he thought he had 
taken nokomis. W. H. Edwards set him straight on this, his capture had 
been leto. Baron had gotten as far as Trinity County "but had to return 
on account of rheumatism." He stayed at Middletown until the end of 
August, then moved on to Calistoga in the northwestern corner of Napa 
County, from where he sent a postcard on 15 September. 

On 24 September Baron wrote from Mendocino "As you see I have 
returned from my tripp [sic!] and I must say, with tolerable good catch 
for the season although the weather had been very much against me 
from the start. Did not get any Chionobas and only seen one S . . . . 
Now I am able to explain why I did not hear so long from you. Mr. W. 
H. Edwards writes me that you had a serious fall in the White Moun- 
tains. I hope, however, that you are well again." The letter of 2 October 
1879 opens "Just returned from a weeks tripp [sic!] to the headwaters 
of Big river. . . ." On the 15th of the month Baron shipped Henry Ed- 
wards three boxes of specimens from his summer catch, one for Edwards 
and the other two to be sold. On the 25th he noted that he had sent a 
shipment to W. H. Edwards from the summer catch. I could find no 
reference to these in Edwards' manuscript journals. Among others, 
Baron shipped specimens to James Bailey, Albany, N. Y., and Graef and 
Neumoegen in New York City. 

There is a letter from Mendocino, dated 27 September without a year 
date. On content I place it in 1880. In it he told Edwards of plans to go 
south as far as San Diego in October. He planned again to use horse 



38 Brown: Baron biography Vol. 19, no. 1 

and light wagon. There are no letters in the Henry Edwards correspon- 
dence to verify the trip but there are in the Strecker correspondence. 
The last dated letter in the Edwards series was written from "Santa Mar- 
garita Canon, Oct. 23rd 1881" when Baron was working as a location 
engineer for the California Southern Rail Road Company. 

Baron's letter of 7 February 1879, written from Navarro, contains this 
interesting item: "I have also been successful in preventing moths from 
getting oily by filled their abdomen with soapstone. Even the Hepiolas 
[sic!] and Sesiae, so treated, did not turn oily, and I consider the former 
as one of the insects most difficult to keep without getting oily. It takes 
pains, but with a case of rare specimens it pays for the trouble." This 
may be a clue to some Baron specimens. 

The Strecker Correspondence 

The material in the Strecker collection begins with a letter dated 17 
September 1879, from Mendocino. Thus it overlaps a little the Henry 
Edwards material. The last letter to Strecker is dated 20 January 1893, 
from San Francisco. During much of the time covered by this corre- 
spondence Baron was working in various engineering capacities for one 
or another of several railroads buildings lines in California and eastward 
from that State. He had little time for collecting insects, but he did 
collect some. In the period spanned by the letters Baron made two trips 
out of the country. In 1885 he was in Mexico and the only letter from 
this trip is in the Strecker material. In 1889-1891 he was in Ecuador and 
letters from there are found only in the Koebele correspondence. As did 
all professional collectors who sold material to Strecker, Baron has his 
difficulties with Strecker reneging on contracts. 

The only thing new that is found in the letters to Strecker written in 
1879 is that the Argynnis leto specimens had been taken in "Lake Co. 
Cal during the month of July last." Baron stayed in Mendocino during 
the winter. On 2 February 1880, he wrote to Strecker "I have sold all 
specimens I collected last season to Mr. N [Neumoegen] excepting some 
Catocalae now with Mr. W. H. Edwards for sale ... I shall start on a 
collecting trip at the end of this month." On 23 February he set a date 
for departure, 29 February, with his first objective the town of Ukiah, 
the county seat. According to a letter of 7 March written from Ukiah he 
"caught the first specimens of lepidoptera today — Anthocharis reakirty 
[sic!]." On 28 March he was in Cloverdale, Sonoma County, and stayed 
in that area at least until 14 May when he wrote "I have collected very 
little and I am disgusted with the weather we are having. Even yester- 
day it was raining but looks like a change today. Usually Chionobas 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 39 

Iduna comes in the end of April and May. I could see now yet traveling 
130 miles where they can be found. Of Colias Eurydice I have a few 
pairs and also 3 specimens of Anth. lanceolata." 

From Cloverdale Baron headed north for iduna. On 2 July he wrote 
from Cold Valley (postmarked Glenbrook) "Since I wrote last I suc- 
ceeded to get 2 promised 9 9 Chionobas Iduna and one more if you 
want it and also a nice row of 8 S . I could not possibly part with the $ 
specimens for less than 75 cents per good specimen and the $ $ at $1.00. 
The expenses has been so much to collect them. . . . Now I am taking 
some Argynnis Laura and Zerene $ & 2 and hope to find Leto." He also 
collected some Colias chrysomelas, 30 Hepialus but only 3 Melitaea 
Baroni and a few male Papilio indra. Of the last Baron said "This is a 
rare species and very hard to get. I traveled on foot in one day 27 miles 
and climbed about 3500 feet, part of that 3 times and only captured 3 
males, one very poor." 

By 3 August Baron was in Middletown, Lake County. (The letter is 
dated from Mendocino but postmarked Middletown. Fortunately 
Strecker preserved all letters in their envelopes.) In this letter he told 
Strecker "The Melitaea Baroni I did not get at all this season, all the 
caterpillars which I collected died and it has been foggy on the coast 
during my stay there for the butterfly. ... I did not get the two species 
of Hesperia which are quite local and found within 2 miles of Mendo- 
cino on account of fogg [sic!] while there." A letter dated 28 August 
1880 written from Glenbrook, but postmarked Middletown, contained a 
price list. 

By 16 September Baron was at home in Mendocino. From there he 
dispatched material to Strecker. He also said "I do not think that I shall 
collect any more this season as it will take me a month of travel to get 
to Lower [southern] Cal." He left Mendocino some time after 16 Octo- 
ber and was at Santa Barbara on 7 November. From there he moved to 
San Bernardino, writing on the 16th "I have come here, a new field, but 
do not know how much I will be able to do in Entomology, being of- 
fered a position which i [sic!] do not feel justified to reject." This was 
with a surveying party of the California Southern Rail Road Company. 

Apparently Strecker wrote to Baron one of his typical letters belittling 
all other lepidopterists. On 12 December Baron replied from San Di- 
eguito "After what you have told me about N. [Neumoegen] I shall 
sent you all varieties I may get in the future, not because Mr. N. did not 
treat me well, far from it, but, as you say, you study Lep. and not take 
it up as a mere notion. . . . Since my arrival I have seen 4 species of 
Lepidoptera, much worn, which I never caught before. One of them is, 



40 Brown: Baron biography Vol. 19, no. 1 

I think, L. Cythera illustrated in Capt. Wheeler's Reports. The locality 
is very nice here, a valley surrounded by high mountains, the highest 
Peak of which is 12,000 feet. A good field for collecting." In a later 
letter, 8 January 1881, Baron located San Dieguito as being five miles 
northwest of San Diego. [It sounds as though Baron was in the San 
Bernardino Mountains, rather than near San Diego.] 

During 1881 Baron traveled extensively in southern California and was 
busy with railroading. He did collect a few specimens here and there. 
The engineering office for the railroad was in San Bernardino. Baron 
was there on 9 May. A few days later, 12 May, he was in Santa Mar- 
garita Canon. The letter was posted at San Luis Rey. On 21 June he 
was at Cajon Pass. A letter sent from San Luis Rey on the 6th of Novem- 
ber included "I intend to send you a few things I have collected, among 
them some very nice things." A few days later from Santa Margarita 
Canon he wrote "I shall send you some of the little Lyceana Regia." In 
December he returned to San Bernardino and joined the engineering 
crew of another railroad. For them he went to Aptos and wrote on 17 
December "I am locating a short piece of road for a broad gage [sic!] 
Rail Road." He stayed there until the end of January. 

1882 was another year of moving about on survey crews. Baron wrote 
from San Bernardino on the 14th of March "The most of my Catocalae 
has been caught in Lake Co. but many of them came from Sonoma and 
Mendocino Counties (the counties join each other.) ... I have met 
Mr. W. G. Wright and he told me you correspond with him." From the 
Mojave Desert he wrote on 7 April "About 3 weeks ago I have seen Mr. 
Wright of San Bernardino and gave him all information about collecting 
and preserving Lepidoptera I know and it remains with him if he will 
succeed or not." Letters in the Wright collection belonging to the Pa- 
cific Coast Entomological Society show that he started on his long career 
as a lepidopterist at this time. Wright had sent butterflies to W. E. 
Edwards for identification on 8 January 1882. 

In June Baron was sent to the San Francisco office of the railroad. 
On the 7th of the month he complained "This season seems already 
spoiled for my collecting as I have to stay in the office and work up my 
notes." On 22 July he was at Duncan's Mills in Sonoma County, appar- 
ently on company business. With the cool of the autumn Baron was 
back on the desert. He wrote from "End of track, Mojave Extention 
S. P. R. R." on 22 October about Papilio indra "I have no specimens and 
don't know anyone who could get them. I only know Dr. Behr but he 
is no collector, and has not collected for many years. He is the only man 
I ever speak German with or drink beer 'Old Style.' " 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 41 

In February, 1883 Baron was in Mendocino and shipped material to 
Strecker. At that time he did not know what he would do during the 
summer. By 16 March he was in Monterey, railroading again. He stayed 
there into the summer, at least to the end of July. On the 26th of that 
month he wrote "Please address my letters after the receipt of this to 
San Francisco, O.T. Baron, California Academy of Sciences, cor. Califor- 
nia and Dupont St., San Francisco." Baron had been planning for some 
years to visit his old home in Germany. On 5 September he wrote from 
San Francisco "Shall be at Reading [Pennsylvania, Strecker's home] 
shortly after the 15th the month." 

Baron returned from Germany early in 1884. In Germany he had seen 
Dr. Staudinger and in New York had become acquainted with the 
people who had been buying his collections. On 12 April he wrote to 
Strecker using California Academy of Sciences letterhead. He said "I 
find business in engineering very dull and I shall have to do something 
outside of that. ... B. Neumoegen . . . advised me to go to Mexico 
south of the City of Mexico, saying that very few good specimens have 
come from that section. . . . My address for the future will be 'O. T. 
Baron, California Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2247, San Francisco, 
Cal." Baron took to the field in May. He wrote from Baird, Shasta 
County, on the 1st of June "Shall be in the vicinity of Mt. Shasta for 
about 10 days. Up to this time I have taken very nice specimens but 
nothing new. . . . Now I intend to go to Mexico as soon as I return 
from this collecting trip." 

Baron went to Mexico. The only letter that I have seen written by 
him from there is one from Chilpancingo, Guerrero, dated 10 December 
1885. There is nothing in it about Baron's collecting experiences in 
Mexico. It was written in response to a letter from Strecker who wanted 
to settle his long outstanding account with Baron for about 350 on the 
dollar. Baron demanded that all of the material he had sent be returned. 
There is a long hiatus in the correspondence between the two from this 
point on. It was not until Baron returned from Ecuador in 1891 that the 
two exchanged letters again. 

Koebele's Letter-book 

How long Baron remained in Mexico and when he returned to Cali- 
fornia are questions for which I have found no answers. The source for 
information about Baron after he returned from Mexico and while he 
was in Ecuador is the letter-book of Albert Koebele, California's premier 
economic entomologist, who was a close friend of Baron. Upon his 
return from Mexico, Baron again turned to railroad engineering for a 



42 Brown: Baron biography Vol. 19, no. 1 

living. He managed to do more entomological work along with his rail- 
roading than he previously had done. The first evidence of his return is 
a letter from San Buenaventura in southern California, dated 20 Febru- 
ary 1887, in which he counsels Koebele about making up a shipment 
destined for Berthold Neumoegen, "So far as the shipment of Lepidop- 
tera to B. N. is concerned we can put in from 12 to 20 specimens of a 
species as he wants duplicates to send somewhere. . . . The commis- 
sion from this first shipment you can take out of the first money that 
may come in and take as much as you think fair on both sides." This 
appears to establish a partnership between Baron and Koebele that 
continued until Baron had returned from his trip to South America. 

Sometime in the winter of 1887-1888 Baron and his crew of engineers 
set up camp at Pantano, Pima County, Arizona, about 30 miles southeast 
of Tucson. The first letter from Pantano is dated 28 February 1888. At 
that time Baron was raising "Sat. Galbini" — Agapema galbina Clements 
— in great numbers. Koebele's father was with Baron at this camp. He 
probably helped with the rearing. Ultimately Baron shipped over 3,000 
cocoons to Koebele. In his letter of 5 June he noted that butterflies 
were beginning to fly and that he was looking forward to the rains which 
he hoped would bring out the spring flight. By the 15th of the month — 
the last letter from Pantano — the camp was coming to a close and Baron 
was not sure what he would do when that happened. In addition to 
moths he collected some butterflies and butterfly eggs for W. H. Ed- 
wards. Edwards' manuscript Journal for 1888 ("R") notes on p. 33 
"June 10 . . . Also 1 or 2 larvae of A. sara from Koebele, Alameda CaK 
He sent 43 eggs 4th, but the plant was wilted and only 2 1. to be found." 
Baron suggested to Koebele that Edwards be charged $5.00 for these 
eggs. On the 19th of June ("R," pp. 36-37) Edwards made this entry 
"Rec' 1 from O. T. Baron eggs of a new species Neonympha allied to 
Eurytis at Pantano, Ariz a . I once had this species from the Wheeler 
Expeditions but it was lost by fire in Express car at Washington before 
I had named or described it. I call this N. Pantano. One larva was out 
& looked like a young Eurytis." By the 22nd Edwards recognized that 
the insect was rubricata Edwards, now called subspecies cheneyorum 
Chermock. The larvae seemed unable to pass the first molt. 

A postcard written 26 July 1888, from Berryville P.O., Siskiyou Co., 
California announced "I arrived here today and did not stay over at 
the upper Soda Spring as originally expected. . . . Have probably 25 $ 
& 12 9 Argynnis Leto and some other species of Argynnis and a few 
Satyrus. Cant go to high altitude until next week." On 24 January 
1889, Baron wrote to Strecker from Alameda, California, "Have just 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 43 

returned from Mendocino Co. a few days ago, and at once determined 
to go to Costa Rica on the steamer of 25th (tomorrow.) Have made 
arrangements to proceed to Panama if I change my mind and go to 
S.A. instead." 

The next letter preserved was sent to Koebele in Australia and details 
the difficulty Baron had getting the third lot of Vedalia cardinalis 
(Mulsant) through the Customs Office in San Francisco. In it Baron 
wrote "Shall leave for Ecuador Febr. 2nd and return — who knows?" 
This was sent from Alameda on 30 January 1889. 

There are seven letters in the Koebele letter-book written from Ecua- 
dor. They bear dates running from 24 October 1889 to 11 October 
1890. Probably Baron arrived in Guayaquil, Ecuador, early in March, 
1889. He did a little collecting on the Pacific Slope but soon after his 
arrival in the country he moved into the southern part on the Atlantic 
Slope. His letter of 24 October was written from Loja. He had made 
two sorties into the Oriente by that time, having just returned from 
his second trip when he wrote the letter. Just where in the Zamora 
watershed he had collected on his first trip is not stated. His head- 
quarters on the second was at Zamora. At the time this letter was written 
Baron had collected between ten and eleven thousand Lepidoptera, 
four or five thousand beetles, and 700 hummingbirds. 

Not all of the letters that Baron wrote from Ecuador are preserved. 
Some apparently were lost in the mails, others definitely had been re- 
ceived by Koebele but are missing from the letter-book. On the 26th 
of January, 1890, Baron was on the Rio Pescado. He had arrived there 
about the middle of the month and planned to stay until the middle of 
March. His camp was at an elevation of about 2,500 feet. He planned 
at this time to make two additional trips into the Oriente, one to Sig 
Sig and the other to Canelos. After his return from the Rio Pescado 
Baron changed his headquarters to Cuenca from where he wrote on 
12 June. In this letter he said "Your letter of March 1st received while 
on the way from Gualaquiza to Cuenca about 4 weeks ago. I did 
not get here until a few days ago having remained in the great heights, 
say 11,000-12,000 feet, 2 days from here." Baron occupied his high 
camp for three weeks, the last of a seven-week trip. "Gualaquiza is 
in the hot East and 5 days S.E. from Cuenca and although it is in the 
same river system of Zamora I got but few Leps during my 14 days 
stay there." 

For his trip to Chimborazo and into the Oriente of the Rio Pastaza 
Baron made temporary headquarters in Riobamba. He wrote from there 
on 27 June that the only butterflies he found at high altitude were 



44 Brown: Baron biography Vol. 19, no. 1 

"a small Colias, a Pieris [Tatochila] and one or two more" and that 
the moths collected seemed similar to those from California. From a 
stay of several months' duration in the high mountains in 1938-1939 

I can agree with Baron that collecting lepidoptera above 11,000 feet 
in Ecuador is hard work for few specimens. On 1 July Baron wrote 
from Riobamba that "Day after tomorrow will go to Banos and below, 
or where ever I can get butterflies." On 18 September he returned 
from the Oriente of the Rio Pastaza without getting as far east as 
Canelos, in fact it seems that he did not go much farther east than the 
Rio Mapoto. I wrote to Sra. Rosario Velastigui de Lefebre, an old 
friend who had collected with me in 1938-1939, about Baron. She replied 
to my inquiry that her father, Jose Elias Velastigui, had accompanied 
Baron and that they had worked their way down the Rio Pastaza, 
following its banks, as far as Hacienda San Francisco on the Rio Mapoto. 
Sr. Velastigui not only had accompanied Baron but later was Haensch's 
companion in the same region and still later taught Macintyre the 
tricks of professional entomological collecting. His daughter, Sra. 
Lefebre, and his son Elias continue in the family tradition. Baron's 
next sortie was to Chimborazo to collect hummingbirds. 

The last of the Ecuadorian letters was written from Riobamba on 

II October. Baron had just returned from Chimborazo with 180 hum- 
mingbirds that he had collected in three weeks. The next day he was 
off to Altar, a huge volcanic mountain to the east of Riobamba and 
across the inter- Andean valley from Chimborazo. From there he 
planned to return to Cuenca, settle his accounts, and start for home. 
In an earlier letter he had planned to spend some time collecting the 
lower slopes of the mountains on the Pacific side of the range. Ap- 
parently this did not take place. 

In a letter to Strecker dated 8 February 1891, from Alameda, Cali- 
fornia, he said "At last I am home again after two years trip to Ecuador." 
There is a penciled note of Strecker's on this letter "If you want me 
to I will give you names of your butterflies and moths, and as I have 
said, between myself and a friend will be likely to make a reasonable 
purchase." Baron went back to railroading. He stayed with this employ- 
ment until he returned to Germany early in 1893. 

Three letters from 1892 in the Strecker collection tell of working on 
the Ecuadorian material. "During the long evenings in December, Jan. 
& February I managed to spread a few thousand of Ecuadorian Leps 
and Mr. Koebele, who has not yet returned from Australia, spread a 
thousand or two before leaving for that continent. . . . Not a specimen 
of the Mexican Leps has gone out yet excepting the first shipment 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 45 

to B. Neumoegen 4 years ago and not a specimen of the Ecuadorians 
has gone out to date. . . . Should everything go as planned my next 
trip will be to Costa Rica in April 93." These are quoted from a letter 
of 25 February 1892 when Baron was living in Fresno, California. On 
16 May he wrote from there that "In my spare time I am beginning 
to set up my cabinet of Hummingbirds of which I now have 120 
species and I propose to make it a unique collection." 

In November, 1892 Strecker inquired about purchasing Baron's col- 
lection. In reply Baron wrote from San Francisco on the 2nd of De- 
cember "You have asked me the price of the entire collection and to 
this let me give you the following as answer: 

There are probably 14-15,000 from S. A. 

6,000 n Mexico 
6,000 n California 
or say between 27,000 and 30,000. 10% are probably poor specimens. 
My price for the entire lot is $4,000.00 Cash." Nothing came of this. 
On 20 January 1893 Baron wrote to Strecker from San Francisco "I 
am going to Mendocino tomorrow and will make you a shipment of 
Lepidoptera." This is the most recent letter of Baron that I have read. 
Sometime in 1893 he returned to Germany, where according to Meissner 
he established an apiary. For the last 30 years of his life he lived in 
Ober-Glogau. He had sold a large part of his collection in England 
en route to Germany but retained about 100 "Schaukasten" ( glass-topped 
drawers ?) of American butterflies for his own collection. 

I recall working 30-odd years ago with some material from Gualaquiza, 
Zamora, and other Ecuadorian localities visited by Baron. Some of this 
was in the British Museum and some of it in the Staudinger Collection 
in Berlin. Unfortunately my notes do not state the collector. Perhaps 
it had been Baron. Some of the specimens that Baron shipped to 
Strecker are in the Chicago Natural History Museum, those that remain 
of Neumoegen's collection are in the United States National Museum 
and Henry Edwards specimens from Baron are in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History. There are many specimens in the W. H. 
Edwards collection at the Carnegie Museum that bear on their labels 
"O.T.B." in Edwards' handwriting testifying to their origin. 

At least some of Baron's hummingbirds were sold to Lord Rothschild 
and now are in the collections at the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York City. Mr. Charles E. O'Brien, assistant curator 
of the department of ornithology, showed some of them to me. They 
are beautifully prepared. Later Mr. O'Brien, who had read a draft of 
this manuscript, wrote to me "On page 12 it is stated that Baron re- 



46 Brown: Baron biography Vol. 19, no. 1 

turned to Germany in 1893 and spent the last 30 years there. However, 
we have many specimens here acquired from the Rothschild Collection 
bearing labels (not the printed Rothschild label) listing O. T. Baron as 
the collector in Peru within the dates August 1894-June 1895." Thus 
it appears that Baron made at least one more collecting trip to South 
America after his move from California to Germany. Whether or not 
he collected insects on the Peruvian trip I do not know. 

This account of O. T. Baron could not have been prepared without 
the friendly assistance of Dr. Rupert Wenzel of the Chicago Natural 
History Museum, Dr. George Goodwin, Jr., librarian, and Mr. O'Brien 
of the American Museum of Natural Histoiy, and particularly Dr. C. 
Don MacNeill and Mr. Hugh B. Leech of the California Academy 
of Sciences. 

Literature Cited 

Carpenter, M. M., 1953. Bibliography of biographies of entomologists. (Sup- 
plement.) The American Midland Naturalist, 50: 257-348. 

Essig, E. O., 1931. A History of Entomology. The Macmillan Co., New York, 
1029 pp. 

Meissexer, O., 1929. Oscar Theodor Baron. Entomologische Zeitschrift (Frank- 
furt), 43: 131. 



BOOK NOTICE 

A REVISION OF THE GENERA MELANOLOPHIA, PHEROTESIA, AND MEL- 
ANOTES1A ( Lepidoptera, Geometridae ) . By Frederick H. Rindge. Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 126(3) :241-434, text figs. 1-163, plates 3-9. 18 Feb. 1964. Paper, 
$4.50. 

This is an evaluation of taxonomic relationships among members of three closely 
related genera of Ennominae. Aspects of their phylogeny, distribution, and taxon- 
omy are discussed, in addition to presentation of keys, descriptions, and figures of 
genitalia and uppersides of the moths. In the work, 112 specific and subspecific 
names are recognized; 59 of them are proposed as new. Nearly all are Neotropical, 
largely centered in the highlands zone of South America. The new genus Melano- 
tesia is proposed for two species, side rat a Dognin and intensa Dognin, both of which 
occur in the Andes Mountains. — Editor. 



COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BUTTERFLIES OF JAPAN. By Mit- 
suo Yokoyama (revised by Teiso Esaki). [In Japanese], 153 pp., 71 colored plates, 
several distribution maps. Enlarged edition. Published by Hoikusha, 20, 1-Chome 
Uehikynhoji-Machi, Higashiku, Osaka, Japan. Price in Japan, 1400 yen (about $4). 
This is essentially the book that was published in 1955 which was reviewed by 
Dr. Harry K. Clench in The Lepidopterists News, 12:56:1958, with an addition, 
dated 1961, consisting of 17 pages of text and 8 plates. This addition describes and 
figures 22 species not in the 1955 edition. The text is in Japanese but the scientific 
names are latinized and there is a latinized index. — E. J. Newcomer. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 47 

NEW STATE RECORDS AND ANNOTATED FIELD DATA FOR 
LOUISIANA BUTTERFLIES AND SKIPPERS 

Edward N. Lambremont 1 and Gary N. Ross 
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Introduction 

During the past ten years an annotated list of the Rhopalocera of Lou- 
isiana was compiled (Lambremont, 1954; Ross & Lambremont, 1963). 
The present report constitutes a third paper in this series and summarizes 
collection data for 1962, 1963, and 1964. This supplement adds five new 
state records ( in the list these are marked with * ) for Louisiana, which 
now has recorded a total of 111 species of butterflies and skippers. 

Only those specimens that represent significant revisions of our earlier 
concept of distribution, abundance, range, or flight date, or that are new 
state records will be mentioned. Many additional collections that dupli- 
cate earlier data were made, but these will not be listed in this paper. 
We have followed the style used in the paper by Ross & Lambremont 
(1963) and the nomenclature of Ehrlich & Ehrlich (1961) for the 
butterflies and dos Passos (1964) for the skippers. 

The names of collectors and contributors are abbreviated as follows: 
ETA (Edward T. Armstrong), YHA (Yousef H. Atallah), JBC (Joan B. 
Chapin), HRH (Henry R. Hermann, Jr.), MMJ (Mary M. Johnson), 
ENL (Edward N. Lambremont), JBL (John B. Lambremont), BLM 
(Burt L. Monroe), LDN (Leo D. Newsom), DKP (Dale K. Pollet), 
GNR (Gary N. Ross), RHW (Ricard H. Witten), and RNW (Roger 
N. Williams). 

Satyridae 

Euptychia cymela cymela (Cramer). This satyr was collected in 
Allen, Calcasieu, Red River, Vernon, Webster, and Winn parishes ( — 
counties) in April, 1962. This extends our known distribution in a 
southwesterly direction. The species has not been found in the marshy 
southeastern one-third of the state, and appears to be associated princi- 
pally with the pin elands. 

Euptychia gemma gemma (Hiibner). This satyr has been recorded 
from Calcasieu Parish near the southwestern corner of the State, and 
also from Natchitoches Parish in the north-central and East Baton 



1 U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Louisiana State University, Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana. 



48 Lambremont & Ross: Louisiana butterflies Vol. 19, no. 1 

Rouge Parish in the south-central part of the State. Fresh specimens 
were caught in April, 1962 and 1964. Its overall distribution resembles 
that of E. cymela, although the record from Baton Rouge (13) was 
obtained on 16 Oct. 1963 (ENL) in an area well away from the pine- 
lands. This specimen was collected in a mixed live oak (Quercus virgini- 
ana Mill)-sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forest that has a 
very abundant population of Euptychia hermes throughout the spring 
and summer. 

Nymphalidae 

Chlosyne gorgone gorgone (Hiibner). This species was previously 
known only from the Shreveport area in the very northwest corner of 
Louisiana. We have collected it in abundance in Grant, Natchitoches, 
and Winn parishes in central Louisiana during the middle of April of 
1962 and 1964. At one location, two miles north of Pollock, Grant 
Parish, 18 April 1964 (JBL, ENL, and GNR), 9$ $ and 112 9 were taken 
in an open grassy field in the pinelands. Most were feeding on the aster 
Coreopsis hnceolata L. ( Compositae ) . Hundreds of other individuals 
were seen at this and other nearby localities. We feel that this species 
is clearly established as a Louisiana resident. 

Chlosyne nycteis nycteis (Doubleday). Lambremont (1954) listed 
two specimens from opposite sides of Louisiana, while Ross and Lam- 
bremont (1963) recorded no new collections of this species. We have 
found it to be locally abundant although one is likely not to see it except 
at scattered times. A sizable emergence occurred in a live oak-sweet 
gum forest bordering the senior author's home between 15-20 May 1963, 
five miles south of Baton Rouge, during which time 11 fresh males were 
taken. C. nycteis was taken also in Natchitoches, Red River, and West 
Feliciana parishes in April, 1963 (GNR and ENL). Thus, it appears to 
be generally distributed throughout Louisiana. 

Phyciodes texana seminole (Edwards). This species was taken in 
Iberville Parish south of Baton Rouge at Plaquemines, 4 May 1963 
(ETA). A late season individual was caught on the L.S.U. campus in 
Baton Rouge on 30 Nov. 1963, 13 (ETA). This butterfly is not very 
abundant in Louisiana, but has been collected at widely separated points 
at Shreveport and Baton Rouge. It flies from early in the season (April) 
until late autumn (November). 

*Polygonia comma (Harris). Three new specimens have been taken 
in Louisiana. All were captured in the Florida Parish area east of the 
Mississippi River and north of Lake Pontchartrain. The collection data 
are: West Feliciana: two miles NW of Tunica, 20 March 1963, 13,19 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49 

(GNR and ENL); East Baton Rouge: ten miles SE Baton Rouge, 22 
March 1964, 1$ (ENL, GNR, and JBL). The latter specimen was found 
dead on the shoulder of a road. 

Nymphalis antiopa ( L. ) . Lambremont ( 1954 ) and Ross and Lambre- 
mont (1963) recorded four individuals for Louisiana during late sum- 
mer and early autumn. The captures of two additional specimens have 
been called to our attention: St. John: Reserve, 14 May 1956, 12 (DKP) 
and East Baton Rouge: Baton Rouge, 5 May 1964, 1? (HRH). The 
latter mentioned specimen constitutes the earliest season record for this 
species. All six specimens known from Louisiana have been taken in the 
southeast portion of the State. 

Riodinidae 

Calephelis virginiensis (Guerin). Lambremont (1954) reported a 
single male specimen from St. Tammany Parish in his collection. We 
have taken two additional males from Grant: two miles N Pollock, 18 
April 1964 (GNR, ENL, and JBL). Both were obtained while they fed 
on blossoms of the aster Coreopsis lanceolata L. in an open grassy clear- 
ing beside a pine forest. 

Lycaenidae 

Satyrium liparops liparops (Bdv. & LeC). One additional specimen, 
from Grant Parish, was collected as a pupa on a sweet gum tree in a 
dense forest of sweet gum, live oak, and cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L. ) 
in the Kisatchie National Forest. The adult emerged 12 days later. The 
collection data are: 18 April 1964, 19 (ENL, GNR, and JBL). 

*Satyrium calanus calanus (Hiibner). This species constitutes a new 
Louisiana record, represented by six specimens recently collected in East 
Baton Rouge Parish. The first was taken in a light trap on the L.S.U. 
campus: Baton Rouge, 8 May 1962, 12 (JBC). The identification was 
confirmed by Mr. Harry K. Clench. Additional records are: Baton 
Rouge, 10 May 1963, IS (YHA) caught at night at a lighted window; 
five miles S Baton Rouge, 25 April 1964, 1$, 12 (ENL) taken at the 
edge of an oak forest and Baton Rouge, 13 May 1964, 13 and 20 May 
1964, 12 (RNW) caught feeding on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. ). 
Thus far we have this species only from the vicinity of Baton Rouge, but 
it has been taken in three consecutive years. 

Callophrys gryneus gryneus ( Hiibner ) . Ross and Lambremont ( 1963 ) 
reported a single female for Louisiana taken in March, 1962. This beau- 
tiful hairstreak now has been taken as follows: Natchitoches: two miles 
SW Derry, 19 April 1964, 4S S (GNR, ENL, and JBL); West Feliciana: 



50 Lambremont & Ross: Louisiana butterflies Vol. 19, no. 1 

16 6 and 39 9 at five different localities between 15 March and 1 April 
of 1963 and 1964 (GNR, ENL, and HRH). This species was always 
found on or near red cedar (Juniperiis virginiana L. ). Its distribution 
in the State in West Feliciana and Natchitoches parishes indicates that 
it is well established, although it occurs only locally in conjunction with 
red cedar. 

Callophrys henrici turneri (Clench). Two males were reported previ- 
ously (Ross and Lambremont, 1963) both in West Feliciana Parish. We 
have subsequently obtained 86 6 and 23 9 9 from four different loca- 
tions in the same parish. Collecting dates were from 15 March to 1 April 

1963 and 1964, with the largest single number (21) taken on 21 March 

1964 (GNR, ENL, and HRH). The adults were found on redbud (Cer- 
cis canadensis L. ) and red cedar. There is no doubt that this hairstreak 
is well established in this part of Louisiana. 

Callophrys irus (Godart). This species was listed by Lambremont 
(19.54) on the basis of Skinner's report (1907), although Skinner con- 
sidered C. irus and C. henrici conspecific. We have obtained a single 
specimen, a male with an unmistakable stigma on the upper forewing 
from Grant Parish: three miles E Bentley, 18 April 1964 (GNR, ENL, 
and JBL). It was resting on false indigo (Baptisia tictoria L. ) in a pine 
forest. 

Eurystrymon Ontario Ontario (Edw. ). Lambremont (1954) recorded 
one specimen from New Orleans. Now, a second specimen has been 
taken. The data are: East Baton Rouge: Baton Rouge, 11 May 1964, 
19 (MMJ). 

*Panthui(1es m-album (Bdv. & LeC). This species is here recorded 
for Louisiana for the first time. The collection data are: West Feliciana: 
two miles NW of Tunica, 20 March 1963, 19 (ENL and GNR). The 
specimen was taken in a dense uplands hardwood forest in the bluff 
lands of the Tunica Hills. 

Celastrina argiolus pseudargiolus (Bdv. & LeC). This lycaenid is not 
often seen in Louisiana. We have been told of several additional speci- 
mens from St. James and St. John parishes along the Mississippi River 
between Baton Rouge and New Orleans and also have collected a male 
in West Feliciana Parish on 15 March 1964 (GNR) and a female at 
Baton Rouge on 25 April 1964 (ENL). D. K. Pollet reported a female 
from Gramercy, St. James Parish, on 29 July 1959, which is the latest 
flight date known for this species in the State. 

PlERIDAE 

Anthocharis genutia genutia (Fabr.). Lambremont (1954) reported 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 51 

the falcate orange tip from Louisiana for the first time in Jackson and 
Lincoln parishes. It has since been obtained in Webster Parish (in the 
north), Natchitoches Parish (in central Louisiana), and West Feliciana 
Parish (in south-central Louisiana) flying in April. Five males and one 
female were taken on 4 April 1964 at Shongaloo in Webster Parish 
(LDN), and two males and two females were netted at two different 
localities (Grand Ecore and Montrose) in Natchitoches Parish on 19 
April 1964 (ENL, GNR, and JBL). The West Feliciana Parish speci- 
men was a male, taken on 22 April 1963 (RHW) at Retreat. Thus, this 
species is widely distributed in the State, but is much more abundant in 
the northern half. 

Hesperiidae 

Achalarus lyciades ( Geyer ) . Only three specimens were reported pre- 
viously, all taken in the northern and western parts of the State. One 
additional male was taken in Allen Parish, 25 April 1962 ( BLM ) . 

*Thorybes pylades ( Scudder ) . These four specimens constitute a new 
state record: Grant: two miles N Pollock, 18 April 1964, 2$ S (GNR, 
ENL, and JBL); Vernon: two miles NE Leesville, 19 April 1962, 1$ 
(GNR); Winn: one mile W Winnfield, 18 April 1964, IS (ENL, GNR, 
and JBL). The male from Vernon Parish was determined by Dr. J. M. 
Burns. All specimens were taken in pine forests. 

Pholisora catullus (Fabr.). Only three specimens were reported pre- 
viously. The new listings are: Grant: three miles E Bentley, 18 April 
1964, 15 (ENL, GNR, and JBL) and Winn: eight miles WSW Winn- 
field, 19 April 1964, 13 (JBL, ENL, and GNR). 

Megathymidae 

*Megathymus yuccae yuccae (Bdv. & LeC.). A single female has 
been taken which constitutes the first record of a member of this family 
for Louisiana. The data are: West Feliciana: one mile E Bains, 1 April 
1963 (GNR and ENL). No yucca plants were seen in the immediate 
area but a large colony of these plants is located about four miles NNW 
of Bains near the town of Weyanoke. This specimen was sent to Mr. H. 
A. Freeman who determined it to be typical M. yuccae and stated that 
it constitutes the most western record known for this subspecies. 

Acknowledgments 

We would like to express our appreciation to Dr. John M. Burns 
(Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut), Mr. Harry K. Clench 



52 Fleming: Catocala and Pohjgonia meet Vol. 19, no. 1 

(Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), and Mr. H. A. Freeman 
( Garland, Texas ) for the determinations that are mentioned in the body 
of this paper. We also wish to thank those persons listed in the paper 
who contributed material to this study. 

Literature Cited 

dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. The Lepi- 

dopterists' Society, Memoir, 1: 1-145. 
Ehrlich, P. R., & A. H. Ehrlich, 1961. How to Know the Butterflies. 269 pp. 

Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 
Lambremont, E. N., 1954." The butterflies and skippers of Louisiana. Tulane 

Stud. Zool., 1: 125-164. 
Ross, G. N., & E. N. Lambremont, 1963. An annotated supplement to the state 

list of Louisiana butterflies and skippers. J. Lep. Soc, 17: 148-158, 
Skinner, H., 1907. Studies of Thecla irus Godart and Thecla henrici Grote and 

Robinson. Ent. News, 18: 129-132. 



AN AGGRESSIVE ENCOUNTER BETWEEN CATOCALA CARA 

(NOCTUIDAE) AND POLYGONIA INTERROGATION IS 

(NYMPHALIDAE) 

Upon entering a wooded area of the city limits of Lafayette, Louisiana 
near the Vermilion River about 2:00 P.M. CST on 22 June 1962, I 
noticed Catocala cava (Guenee) turning up at every hand. I had con- 
sidered it generally a nocturnal species, seldom active during the day 
except when startled from its hiding place. Nothing occurred to change 
my mind until I noticed one of the underwings flying slowly near a 
wound in an elm tree. The moth settled and began feeding on the sap 
that issued from the wound. A Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius) 
was attracted to the same patch of sap. It darted at the underwing, 
which arose and engaged the butterfly in aerial combat for one or 
two minutes. Finally both insects settled, about three inches apart, and 
fed at the same bit of sap for about five minutes. Then the moth ran 
across the bark in the direction of the butterfly, its wings fluttering in 
short, rapid strokes that did not exceed a 45° angle above the body. 
The butterfly, evidently startled, flew off and did not return. 

Richard C. Fleming, Dept. Biology, Olivet College, Olivet, Michigan 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 53 

URBANUS PROCNE AND URBANUS SIMPLICIUS 
(HESPERIIDAE) 

J. W. TlLDEN 

125 Cedar Lane, San Jose, California 

While working with Urbanus from both Mexico and the United States, 
the author found that specimens from the United States previously 
referred to Urbanus simplicius (Stoll) would not key to that species in 
Evans (1952), but rather to U. procne (Ploetz). A large number of 
specimens has been examined including those in the collections of the 
California Academy of Sciences, the Los Angeles County Museum, 
and the collections of H. A. Freeman, Roy O. Kendall, and the author. 
Included are 150 or more specimens taken in the lower Rio Grande 
Valley of Texas in October and November, 1963, by Roy and Connie 
Kendall and the author. None of these specimens is simplicius. 

Evans (1952) gives a synonymy for each species. Lindsey, Bell, & 
Williams ( 1931 ) list procne in the synonymy of simplicius, as does 
Bell (1938). The figure of Lindsey, Bell, & Williams is apparently 
a copy of that of Skinner and Williams (1922), which is indeed of 
simplicius, but the specimen is from Puerto Barrios, Guatemala. If 
specimens from the United States had been critically examined, the 
differences between U. simplicius and U. procne should have become 
evident at that time. Both species are listed for the Nearctic area by 
dos Passos (1964). Evans (1952) mentions specimens of simplicius in 
the British Museum from Texas and Arizona, to Argentina. 

Ploetz described Goniurus procne from Brasil in 1880. Since that 
time most authors prior to Evans have considered procne a synonym 
of simplicius. However, the two species are easily separable. The 
genitalic differences appear too great to regard as individual. The 
vinculum of U. procne is even in outline from a lateral view, while 
that of U. simplicius is markedly curved. This is well shown in the 
figure by Skinner & Williams. In procne the dorsal edge (crista) of 
the valve has a dense brush or scopa which is lacking in simplicius. 
The dorsodistal spine of the cucullus (cuiller of Evans) is double in 
procne, and of only moderate length. In simplicius this spine is longer 
and single. The lower (ventral) edge of the valve bears a dense and 
more or less continuous fringe of hairs in simplicius (purposely omitted 
from Skinner & Williams' figure — see introduction to that paper). This 
feature is nearly absent in procne. 

There seem to be dependable differences in general appearance and 



54 Tilden: Urbanus in Texas Vol. 19, no. 1 

markings as well as in genitalia. The forewing of procne is narrower 
than that of simplidus. Representative measurements for procne fore- 
wing are: Forewing costa 22 mm, outer margin 15 mm, inner margin, 
15 mm. Comparable measurements for simplicius would be: Forewing 
costa, 22 mm, outer margin 17 mm, inner margin 15 mm. Procne usually 
has the tails of the hind wing shorter and directed more laterally, a 
feature that shows up in pinned specimens. This difference should 
be used with caution, comparing males with males and females with 
females, since all female Urbanus tend to have shorter tails than the 
males. 

There are two markings of value in separating these species. Firstly, 
near the apex of the forewing underside there is a dark smudge on the 
wing of simplicius. This is reduced to a narrow curved line or row of 
spots in procne. Secondly, the basal line of the hind wing, underside in 
simplicius connects directly to the second costal spot, forming a con- 
tinuous line. This basal line in procne is directed between the first 
and second costal spots and does not connect with either. This mark- 
ing alone is diagnostic and will enable one to separate specimens 
rapidly in a mixed series. 

The genitalia of both species are figured by Evans ( 1952 ) . Evans' 
figures do not show all the differences mentioned above. Evans also 
uses the color marking mentioned in the previous paragraph, but as 
far as I can find, the differences in wing width and the length of the 
tail are characters not previously used. Since these are qualitative, 
several specimens of one sex should be compared. One should not 
attempt to place a single specimen on tail length. 

So far the author has seen no specimens of U. simplicius from north 
of the Mexican border. It is possible that this species may occur in 
the United States. The great majority of records of simplicius from the 
United States have resulted from the belief that procne is synonym 
of simplicius. 

The present author feels that U. procne should be raised from the 
synonymy as has been done by Evans, and this name used for the brown 
Urbanus with costal fold and uncheckered fringes which is so frequently 
taken in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, less often elsewhere 
along the Mexican border, and for some distance northward. It remains 
to be proven that true Urbanus simplicius occurs in the United States. 

Literature Cited 

Bell, E. L., 1938. The Hesperioidea. Bull. Cheyenne Mountain Mus., 1, Part 1. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem. 
Lepid. Soc., New Haven, Conn., No. 1. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 55 



Evans, W. H., 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae, Part II. British 

Museum (Natural History), London. 
Lindsey, A. W., E. L. Bell, & R. C. Williams, Jr., 1931. The Hesperioidea of 

North America. Denison Univ. Bull., Jour. Sci. Lab., Vol. XXVI. 
Skinner, H., & R. C. Williams, Jr., 1922. On the male genitalia of the larger 

Hesperiidae of North America. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 48: 109-127. 



MULTIPLE CAPTURE OF HYPAUROTIS CRYSALUS AT LIGHT 

John H. Hessel 

6655 Calle de San Alberto, Tucson, Arizona 

In recent years several notes and short papers have been published 
in the Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society concerning captures of 
Rhopalocera at lights. I have on occasion observed Leptotes marina 
(Reakirt), Hemiargus isola (Reakirt), and Hylephila phyleus (Drury) 
attracted to lights at my home in Tucson. Since these three species 
abound in the immediate vicinity, I attached no special significance 
to their presence at lights. I accepted the suggestion of Throne ( 1961 ) 
and Welling (1963) that the butterflies had merely been awakened 
from their nearby resting sites. 

Therefore, when John F. Rurger, a graduate student in entomology 
at the University of Arizona, reported the capture of a female Hypaurotis 
crysalus (Edwards) at a black light he had operated on 26 June 1964 
at 6,700 feet in the Pinaleno Mts. of Arizona, I dutifully recorded the 
information and forgot about it. 

My memory was severely jolted when, on the night of 8 Aug. 1961, 
while collecting at a 6-watt G.E. black light at 6,050 feet in the Pinaleno 
Mts. my companion, Norman Seaborg, discovered a specimen of H. 
crysalus resting on the window of my car about 20 feet from the light. 
Since there was little activity at the light, the night being rather cool, 
I retired to my sleeping bag and left the vigil to Seaborg. When I 
awoke at 1:00 A.M. he told me that he had taken a second H. crysalus. 
While he was speaking a third specimen landed on the sheet. Ry 3:00 
A.M. two more had been captured, making a total of five specimens 
of which two were females and three males. With the exception of the 
report of "6 or 7" Pieris rapae ( L. ) at a street light mentioned by Phillips 
( 1962 ) , this represents the largest number of a single species of butterfly 
at a light on one night which I have seen recorded. 

A superficial search of the immediate area early the next morning 



56 Hessel: Hypaurotis at light Vol. 19, no. 1 

failed to turn up a single specimen of H. cry solus and there was no 
abundance of the oak on which the species apparently feeds higher on 
the mountain. It seems extremely unlikely that five specimens of this 
species would have chosen resting sites within a few feet of the light 
considering the apparent scarcity of the species in the area by day. 
Higher on the mountain we found numerous H. crysalus resting on 
the oaks. 

The behavior of the butterflies which were taken at light was quite 
different from the ". . . lively beast, darting out from its perch in the 
tops of oaks at the slightest provocation" described by Brown (1957). 
At the light the butterflies seemed stupefied and reluctant to move. 
They were easily captured with a cyanide jar and had to be nudged 
from the sheet. This lethargic behavior of butterflies at light was also 
noted by Andersen (1960), Donahue (1962), and Mather (1959). This 
would seem to indicate that a factor is operating other than a belief 
on the part of the insect that morning has arrived and it is time to get 
about the business of the day. An inability of the insect's eye to adapt 
itself to the light suggests itself but presents the paradox of a diurnal 
insect with a light adapted eye under normal daylight conditions and 
a loss of this adaptive ability under artificial light conditions. If the 
lethargy of the butterfly were due to low temperature then it is difficult 
to explain the phototactic response which caused the insect to fly 
to the light. 

It seems futile to speculate further at this time on possible explana- 
tions of the phenomenon of butterflies attracted to light. If the answer 
is to be found it will probably require rather sophisticated morphological 
and physiological investigations. Considering the observed behavior of 
H. crysalus, this species might prove to be particularly suited as an ex- 
perimental organism. 

Literature Cited 

Andersen, \V. A., 1960. Capture of Nymphalis j-album in Maryland at night. 

lour. Lepid. Soc, 14: 62. 
Brown, F. M., Colorado Butterflies (p. 125). Denver Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Donahue, J. P., 1962. Observations and records of butterflies attracted to light 

in India. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 16: 131. 
Mather, B., 1959. Vanessa atalanta taken at Atlantic City at 2 A M Tour Lepid 

Soc, 13: 18. 
Phillips, L. S., 1962. Nymphalis j-album captured at fluorescent light in Chicago. 

Jour. Lepid. Soc, 15: 101. 
Throne, A. L., 1961. Lycaenopsis pseudargiolus in light trap. Jour. Lepid Soc 

14: 242. 
Welling, E. C, 1963. Rhopalocera attracted by ultraviolet light in Central Amer- 
ica. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 37. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 57 

A COLLECTING TRIP IN YUKON AND ALASKA 

Allan H. Legge 
Box 278, Okotoks, Alberta, Canada 

During the summer of 1962, a companion and I had an extended oppor- 
tunity to collect Lepidoptera in the Yukon Territory and Alaska. Much 
of the collecting, as might be suspected, was done along the Alcan 
Highway. Of greater importance, however, were a few less frequented 
areas which were also sources of material on this rather widespread trip. 
Despite the weather, which was miserably wet, we were able to take 
approximately 3,500 specimens. Thirty percent of these were in excel- 
lent condition. It is significant to note the capture of eight species of 
the genus Erebia: fasciata Butler, theano (Tauscher), youngi Holland, 
erinnyn Warren, rossii ( Curtis ) , epipsodea Butler, disa ( Thunberg ) , and 
discoidalis (Kirby). A good series of each of the first six species was 
taken. Viewing the trip as a whole, 56 species of butterflies were re- 
corded. 

Our take-off point was Calgary, Alberta on the 11th of June. Three 
days found us on the Alcan Highway and our collecting began. The 
first stop of note was Mile 162. Here was the first appearance of Colias 
hecla Lefebre. As it turned out, we were to follow this species all the 
way to Dawson City, Yukon. In the next five miles we climbed 300 feet 
from the Sikanni River valley of Mile 162. This change in altitude was 
accompanied by a similar change in the species of butterflies to be 
found. The Papilio glaucus L. of Mile 162 were replaced by Fapilio 
machaon L. Flying among the machaon was Erebia discoidalis. The 
few specimens of the latter that were taken at this location were found 
in the boggy regions of a burned over hillside which was at the edge of 
a thickly forested area. 

By the middle of June we were on the Dawson-Mayo Highway at 
Mile 3.6 at which point three fresh Oeneis jutta ssp. were taken. At Mile 
12.6 we had increased 2,000 feet in elevation. Here the grassy hillsides 
yielded an excellent series of Oeneis chryxus caryi Dyar. The 20th of 
June found us on the Dawson Highway and our first encounter with 
Erebia epipsodea remingtoni Ehrlich and 1 Erebia disa. As was typical 
of every location at which the former was taken, tall green grass and a 
small amount of moisture was present. The one disa taken was found in 
heavy timber. Erebia discoidalis, as usual, were skirting the forest rims. 
By this time the heretofore abundant Papilio glaucus canadensis Roth. & 
Jord. were worn and gradually fading from the scene. Individuals of 



58 Legge: Collecting in Yukon Vol. 19, no. 1 

Colias hecla were so worn that I found it hard to believe they could 
still fly. 

The 24th of June put us into Klondike Pass in the Oglivie Mountains. 
Here at Mile 45 of what is called the Dempster Highway and at an 
elevation of 3,800 feet in the moist grassy tundra Erebia fasciata were 
taken in number. Nearly all of the specimens taken were fairly fresh 
and intact. However, by the 27th of June they were badly worn and 
becoming scarce. The previous year at this location only one fasciata 
was found, and this on the 6th of July. It seems apparent that due to 
the short growing season there is very little time when a region is dor- 
mant. The lepidopteral cycles seem to be built almost one on top of the 
other. Therefore, as can be seen, timing is a major factor in northern 
collecting. For example, Erebia rossii began to appear as fasciata disap- 
peared. To the right of the road at Mile 45 we climbed a ridge which 
took us up to approximately 5,000 feet. Here we were well above both 
the valley and the summit of Klondike Pass (4,300 feet). For the most 
part, this ridge was composed of very brittle black shale with only mi- 
nute splotches of mossy vegetation. It was at this location that we 
caught five Erebia youngi. Both males and females were relatively fresh 
and there was little variation between individuals of the respective 
sexes. (This was not the case in a Richardson Mountain location col- 
lected two weeks later; the variation between the sexes there was fan- 
tastic. ) About 150 feet below this ridge in a dry, grassy area two ex- 
tremely dark Erebia fasciata were taken. Both were males. The ventral 
side of one of them was completely free of any trace of mahogany suf- 
fusion. This was contrary to what was found in the valley tundra. 
Oeneis taygete fordi dos P. and Boloria frigga gibsoni (B. & B.) were 
also taken at Mile 45. Both species were fresh but only the Boloria were 
taken in any number. 

An interesting discovery was made at Mile 48 of Klondike Pass. On 
the opposite side of the valley from the road, on a hillside marked by 
melting snowbanks, I took 20 Parnassius eversmanni Men. It is interest- 
ing to note that there were ten males and ten females. This was the 
only location at which we ever saw this Parnassius in number in the 
four days that we spent in the area. Contrary to the 1961 trip, only one 
Boloria chariclea butleri (Edw. ) was taken. The previous year it had 
been extremely abundant. This may be a case of timing. 

As we traveled back into the Yukon valley on 27 June, Colias palaeno 
chippewa Edw. was out and fresh, while Colias hecla was no longer 
present. At Mile 7.5 one female Papilio machaon was taken. Both time 
and weather were against us here, so we were unable to collect at this 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 59 

point any longer. One Euphydryas anicia helvia (Scud.) was taken at 
Hunter Creek just off the Dawson Highway. Unfortunately we were 
early and unable to remain to obtain futher specimens. 

In examining the specimens of Boloria frigga (Thunb.), it was noted 
that a gradational sequence occurred as frigga saga (Staud. ) flowed 
into frigga gibsoni. The frigga taken in the valley of Yukon were much 
darker than those taken at Klondike Pass. These may be variations due 
to altitude or perhaps the junction of a Pleistocene separation. A very 
similar occurrence was noted as far as Boloria titania (Esper) and Bo- 
loria chariclea (Schneider) were concerned. The former was taken al- 
most everywhere along the Alaska Highway in July, while the latter 
was found only in Klondike Pass and McKinley National Park. For 
example, at Mile 253.6 on the Richardson Highway a nice series of fresh 
Boloria titania were taken. Two days later at Thorofare and Highway 
Pass in McKinley Park a beautiful set of fresh chariclea was taken. The 
females taken here were extremely dark in comparison to those found 
in Klondike Pass in 1961. A black radial suffusion from the body charac- 
terized the dark female. 

By far the most interesting area collected was in the Richardson 
Mountains. Of particular note is one location which yielded five species 
of Erebia. These were all taken with a vertical change in elevation of 
only 1,000 feet. The entire location consisted of a gently benched and 
rolling mountainside. Vegetation varied from bare rock covered with 
dried black lichen to mossy tundra. At the lowest elevation (3,400 feet) 
collected we were still approximately 1,200 feet above timberline. Peak 
elevation was 4,400 feet. Between 3,800 feet and 4,300 feet a large black 
Erebia was taken. This is believed to be Erebia erinnyn, 1 as the female 
has a large rusty suffusion on the forewings ventrally. It is significantly 
larger than Erebia magdalena Strecker from Colorado, which seems a 
direct contrast to Warren's 1 characterization of Yukon erinnyn and true 
magdalena from Colorado. As I have gathered from Mr. Don Eff in 
Colorado, the habitat of Erebia magdalena is high, dark rock slides near 
the early part of July. The Richardson erinnyn were taken on the 7th 
and the 11th of July. All specimens, both male and female, were fresh. 
Another individual was seen in a different location but was on a near 
vertical black bouldered rock slide. The apparent average elevation for 
flight concentration seemed to be about 4,000 feet. This was approxi- 
mately 1,800 feet above the timberline of the region. It must be borne 



1 Erebia erinnyn Warren, 1932, described from Asia, is not included in standard lists of North 
American Rhopalocera, although it was reported from the Yukon by Warren ( 1936, Monograph of 
the genus Erebia. British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London). The species is closely allied to E. 
magdalena, and presumably the Yukon erinnyn recorded by Warren is included with E. magdalena 
mackinleyensis Gunder in dos Passos' 1964 Synonymic List of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. — editor. 



60 Legge: Collecting in Yukon Vol. 19, no. 1 

in mind that at this latitude the timberline is approaching sea level for 
we are nearing the Arctic Plain. There could, therefore, be a consider- 
able correlation between the environment of magdalena at 11,000 feet in 
Colorado and erinnyn at 4,000 feet in the Richardson Mountains. Ap- 
proximately equal numbers of both sexes of erinnyn were taken. 

The Richardson Mountains locality yielded other lepidoptera but none 
were as plentiful as the Erebia. Two rather worn Papilio machaon were 
taken at 4,000 feet. It seems possible that these were carried up by the 
wind from a lower elevation. One rather small Boloria improba ( Butler ) 
was taken. Very few Oeneis were collected in this locality, and oddly 
enough, we took only females of Oeneis polixenes (F.) and Oeneis 
melissa gibsoni Holland. Better weather and more collecting time might 
have yielded some males. One additional male Oeneis which resembles 
O. polixenes peartiae (Edw. ) was also collected. It is considerably 
smaller than the polixenes at the same locality, and the coloration of the 
upperside is more grey than the buff of polixenes. Six males and three 
females of Oeneis brucei yukonensis were also taken. There are two 
female Oeneis which have as yet defied identification. In comparison 
with 1961, very few Boloria were captured. This last year, for example, 
Boloria astarte distincta (Gibson) (det. A. B. Klots) was not even seen. 
An interesting fact to note is that this year's collecting locations were 
farther north than those of the previous year. I feel that the lack of 
Boloria was due to elevation. Most of the localities were into the true 
Arctic tundra rather than taiga. 

Our next stop was Eagle Summit, Alaska, and for the first time in 
many days, we were blessed with good weather. In fact, over 175 speci- 
mens were taken in one day. Boloria napaea (Hoffmsgg. ), Colias nastes 
Bdv., and Colias palaeno chippewa were all taken in numbers. Very 
worn representations of Erebia youngi were on hand. These seemed to 
frequent the damp, boggy depressions lush in green growth. For the 
most part, we were late at this locality because all the specimens taken 
were somewhat worn. Parnassias eversmanni were taken but not in 
quantity. A female Oeneis melissa gibsoni is believed to have been 
taken on the summit itself. Another male Oeneis thought to be peartiae 
was captured. 

The next area of concentration was McKinley Park. Here we took 
Colias boothii Curtis, nastes and hecla all flying together and fairly fresh. 
According to persons living in the area, spring was six weeks late. The 
caribou, for example, did not arrive until the middle of July. The net 
result was a very apparent clustering of flight periods to complete the 
lepidopteral cycle in the remaining summer. As at every stop since the 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 61 

Yukon valley in late June, Colias palaeno chippewa were still flying in 
numbers in mid-July. Oeneis bore mackinleyensis dos P. were taken at 
Toklat River, while a few Oeneis polixenes were collected at Highway 
and Thorofare Pass. At 4,300 feet on Highway Pass, well above the road, 
one male Oeneis melissa gibsoni was taken. Toklat River yielded a nice 
series of Erebia theano alaskensis Holland in the grass amongst the 
scrub birch. 

We came across a very unusual spot in the Toklat River area. Two 
valleys came together forming a large, delta area at the base of Divide 
Mountain. Our major obstacle was fording the glacial streams. The 
water was extremely cold and swift. However, the fordings were well 
worth the cold feet because here, as well as on Highway and Thorofare 
Pass, Boloria napaea were taken in number and fresh. Recause this 
locality was maneuverable, it was the only area where Colias nastes was 
frequent enough to be taken in numbers. On Divide Mountain itself 
the gullies were amply boggy from the melting snow. It was here that 
Erebia youngi, Erebia fasciata and one female Erebia rossii were found. 
It should be mentioned that the female rossii was unusually large in 
comparison with those females taken in the Richardson Mountains and 
Klondike Pass in the Oglivie Mountains. Colias hecla was taken amongst 
the Erebia, but were somewhat fresher. 

Thorofare Pass yielded an excellent series of Boloria eunomia denali 
(Klots) in a boggy area below the road. Of note was the capture of 
Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas ( Rdv. ) at Toklat River and Highway Pass 
in McKinley Park. Four were taken, three males and one female. We 
spent seven days in McKinley Park but were only able to collect on two 
of these days because of torrential rain. 

On our way down the Alcan Highway, Mile 1119 yielded a nice fresh 
series of a very distinct population of Colias alexandra christina Edw. 
There was very little variation among the individuals of the respective 
sexes. This was not true of the other Colias nor is it true of Colias chris- 
tina in Alberta. Lycaena dorcas Kirby was also found here along with 
Speyeria mormonia spp. Roth were fresh. Mile 718 gave us Speyeria 
mormonia opis (Edw.), and fresh but scarce Lycaena mariposa Reak. 
and Plebejus argyrognomon (Bergstr. ). 

One of the most interesting areas from an ecological standpoint was 
Liard Hot Springs in British Columbia. Here hot sulphur waters spread 
over a large area of timber and muskeg. The hillside vegetation was 
abnormally large and the air was tainted with the smell of hydrogen 
sulfide. The temperature of the water was high enough to remove 
permafrost from the area. We were up to our waists in oozing mud 



62 Legge: Collecting in Yukon Vol. 19, no. 1 

many times. These lowland swampy areas yielded many Boloria selene 
(D. & S.) and titania. As we went to higher ground, Speyeria atlantis 
ssp. became more and more frequent and a good series of males was 
taken. 

In summary, we had a very successful trip in spite of the weather. A 
few questions have arisen in my own mind and so far remain unan- 
swered. The abundance of Erebia taken throughout the trip, the cor- 
responding decrease in Boloria relative to 1961, and the predominance 
of female Oeneis over males in the northern locations raise questions 
which can only be solved by continued collecting in the Arctic. Some 
species such as Boloria distincta may be biennial in nature. The short- 
ened summer season may play a significant part here. Most disturbing 
was the predominance in some species of females over males. This 
could be due to timing of sampling at given locations. It could, however, 
be nature's insurance that sufficient females will be bred to assure sur- 
vival of the species in this rigorous climate. At any rate, more data must 
be obtained. 

I hope in some way the bits and pieces of information that we ob- 
tained may be of some aid to others. 

I would like to thank my companion, Mr. Lawrence Davidson, for 
his aid and assistance and the park personnel of McKinley National 
Park for their time and interest, Western Minerals Ltd., of Calgary, 
Alberta for the use of their aircraft and camp facilities, and Mr. Don 
Eff for his help and advice in the preparation of this manuscript. 



BOOK NOTICE 

INDEX LITTERATURAE ENTOMOLOGICAE, Serie II, vol. I (A-E). By W. 
Derxen and U. Scheiding. I-XII + 1-697 pp. Published by the German Academy 
of Agricultural Sciences, Berlin. J. Nawrocki Street 1, Berlin-Friedrichshagen, DDR. 
Price 55,- DM. 

In the German Entomological Institute bibliographical studies have an old and 
important tradition. The first series of "Index Litteraturae Entomologicae," pre- 
pared by W. Horn and S. Schenkling, was published in 1928-1929. In the first 
series the entomological literature of the world prior to 1863 was recorded. 

The world entomological literature of the period of 1864-1900 (contains about 
90,000 citations ) will be published in four volumes and one volume of index. 

The first volume contains citations of the papers published in the mentioned pe- 
riod; the authors' names are recorded alphabetically ( Aagaard-Eysell ) . For most 
authors the important biographical dates are given. 

This monumental work was prepared by the collective of authors in the period of 
seven years. The "Index Litteraturae Entomologicae" is very important for all stu- 
dents in entomology. We wish the authors a successful continuation in their useful 
work. — Josef Mouciia, Narodni museum v Praze, Praha 1, Czechoslovakia 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 63 



RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to 
lepidopterists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended 
that every work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here. Papers 
of only local interest and papers from this Journal are listed without abstract. Read- 
ers, not in North America, interested in assisting with the abstracting, are invited to 
write Dr. P. F. Bellinger (Department of Biological Sciences, San Fernando Valley 
State College, Northridge, California, U.S.A.). Abstractor's initials are as follows: 

[P.B.]— P. F. Bellinger [W.H.] — W. Hackman [N.O.] — N. S. Obraztsov 

[I.C.] — I. F. B. Common [T.I.]— Taro Iwase [C.R.] — C. L. Remington 

[W.C.]— W. C. Cook [T.L.] — T. W. Langer [J.T.] — J. W. Tilden 

[A.D.]— A. DlAKONOFF [J.M.]— J. Moucha [P.V.]— P. E. L. Viette 

[J.D.] — Julian Donahue [E.M.] — E. G. Munroe 



B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Kawabe, Atsushi, "Descriptions of three new species of the Archipsini from Japan'' 

[in English; Japanese summary]. Trans. Lepid. Soc. Japan, 15: 1-7, 2 pis. 1964. 

Describes as new Clepsis monticolana (Mt. Tateyama, Toyama Pref., Honshu); 

Hastula hoshinoi ( Setagaya, Tokyo, Honshu ) ; Philedone violetana ( Nippara, 

Tokyo, Honshu). [P. B.] 
Komarek, O., "Rassen der Zygaena carniolica Scop, in der Tschechoslowakei. I. Teil" 

[in German; Hungarian summary]. Folia ent. hung., s.n., 11: 103-132, 2 maps. 

1958. As new describes a form "bohemica" from NE Bohemia (region of Hradec 

Kralove); other races from central Europe are discussed. [J. M.] 
Kumata, Tosio, "Descriptions of three new species of Lithocolletis feeding on Quer- 

cus in Japan (Lepidoptera, Gracilariidae ) ." Insecta matsumurana, 21: 62-68, 3 

figs. 1957. Describes as new L. nigristella (Sapporo; on Q. dentata), L. leuco- 

corona (Sapporo; on Q. dentata), L. cretata (Nopporo; on Q. serrata & Q. mon- 

golica). [P. B.] 
Kumata, Tosio, "Descriptions of two new species of the genus Lithocolletis feeding 

on Alnus in Japan (Lepidoptera, Gracilariidae)." Insecta matsumurana, 21: 132- 

137, 2 figs. 1958. Describes as new L. longispinata (Sapporo; on A. japonica), 

L. hancola (Sapporo; on A. hirsuta & A. japonica). [P. B.] 
Kumata, Tosio, "Descriptions of a new genus and a new species of Gracillariidae 

from Japan (Lepidoptera)." Insecta matsumurana, 24: 52-56, 2 figs. 1961. 

Describes as new CHRYSASTER (monobasic), C. hagicola (Sapporo, Hokkaido; 

reared from Lespedeza spp.) [P. B.] 
Kumata, Tosio, "Description of a new stem-miner of coniferous trees from Japan 

(Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)." Insecta matsumurana, 27: 31-34, 2 figs. 1964. 

Describes as new Spulerina corticicola (Zyozankei, Hokkaido; reared from Abies, 

Pinus, & Larix). [P. B.] 
de Laever, E., "Noctua (Lampra) interposita (Hiibner) bona species" [in French]. 

Lambillionea, 62: 18-19. "1962" [1963]. Gives characters & records of N. i. 

bar audi from Pyrenees & Italy. [P. B.] 
Langston, Robert L., "Philotes of central coastal California (Lycaenidae)." Jour. 

Lepid. Soc, 17: 201-223, 6 figs. 1964. Describes as new P. enoptes bayensis 

(China Camp, Marin Co.), P. e. tildeni (Del Puerto Canyon, Stanislaus Co.). 
Lempke, B. J., "Notes on some species of Nycteola Hb. (Lep., Noctuidae)." Ent. 

Berichten, 18: 161-164, 1 fig. 1958. Sinks pseudodilutana to cuneana, hungarica 

to asiatica; notes on these spp. & on N. populana & N. revayana; names a "form" 

of the latter. [P. B.] 



64 Recent Literature on Lepicloptera Vol. 19, 1 



Lenek, Oskar, "Eine gleichzeitige Zucht von Boarmia repandata L. und Boarmia 
maculata bastelbergi Hirschke" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 46: 127- 
130. 1962. Describes adults of B. m. bastelbergi & names 2 "forms." Compares 
larvae & pupae of these spp. [P. B.] 

de Lesse, H., "Speciation et variation chromosomique chez les lepidopteres rhopalo- 
ceres" [in French]. Ann. Sri. nat., Zoo!., ser.12, 2: 1-223, 222 figs. 1960. This 
important work on the speciation and the chromosomal variation in the Rhopalo- 
cera is divided in three parts. In the first the author studies the number of 
chromosomes in a large number of species. After indications on technique, a 
list of chromosome numbers for 174 species is given. The indication of these 
numbers is, for a great part, published here for the first time. The second part 
is devoted to the classification of Erehia of the tyndarus group. The author has 
published these last years a number of papers about this subject and the conclu- 
sions are exposed here. The species are the following: E. calcarius (n — 8), E. 
tyndarus (n =10), E. cassioides (n = 10), E. nivalis (n=ll), E. callias (n = 
15), E. h. hispanica (n = 25), E. h. rondoui (n = 24), E. i. iranica (n = 51), 
E. i. transcaucasica (n = ca.52). The geographic distributions of these are given, 
together with comparisons between classifications from study of the genitalia and 
from the number of chromosomes. In the third part, comparison is made between 
cytological results given by the E. tyndarus group and that obtained in other 
Rhopalocera, chiefly in the genus Lysandra. In this genus the European and 
Near East species and some natural hybrids inside the L. coridon group are stud- 
ied. At the end, a discussion on the variation of chromosome number and its 
interpretation is given. The study of the number of chromosomes is useful in 
taxonomy (it is a pity that the author uses the unusual term "taxinomie") in the 
Rhopalocera and in very rare cases is the exception. Owing to such cases, this study 
notes it is important to know the systematics of the group considered. See also 
Jour. Lepid. Soc, 14: 147, 1961. [P. V.] 

de Lesse, H., "Boloria napaea Hoffmsg. retrouve dans les Pyrenees orientales (Nym- 
phalidae)" [in French]. Alexanor, 1: 231-233. 1961. Description of B. n. py- 
re ncorientalis (E. Pyrenees, Eyre Valley) and confirmation of the presence of 
this species in this locality. [P. V.] 

de Lesse, H., "Variation chromosomique chez Agrodiaetus dolus Hb. (Lep. Ly- 
caenidae)" [in French]. Alexanor, 2: 283-286, i map. 1962. Chromosomal 
variations in A. dolus and description of A. d. pseudovirgilia ( Spain, W. of Burgos, 
near Villanueva de Aragon). [P. V.] 

de Lesse, H., "Lepidopteres Lycaenidae recoltes en Iran en 1961" [in French]. 
Alexanor, 2: 305-312; 3: 33-38. 1963. List of the Lycaenidae collected in Iran 
during a collecting trip in 1961. Descriptions of new Agrodiaetus: A. baltazardi 
(SE Iran, Kuh-i-Lalihzar), A. cyanea kermansis (same), A. modifii (NE Iran, 
Kopet Dagh). [P. V.] 

Lichy, Rene, "Documentos para servir al estudio de los lepidopteros de Venezuela 
6 a nota). Apuntes sobre los Agrias Doubleday (Nymphalidae-Charaxidinae)" [in 
Spanish; French & English summaries]. Rev. Facult. Agron., Maracay, 2: 5-52, 
30 figs. 1962. Gives history of studies on this genus in Venezuela; describes & 
figures the 7 spp. & sspp. found in this country, with data on the 23 known 
specimens. [P. B.] 

Lichy, Rene, "Documentos para servir al estudio de los Sphingidae de Venezuela 
(Lepicloptera, Ileterocera) ( 10" nota)" [in Spanish; French & English summaries]. 
Rev. Facult. Agron., Maracay, 2: 53-178, 55 figs. 1962. Describes as new Isog- 
nathus tepuyensis (Sierra de Lema); Perigonia pittieri (Rancho Grande Biological 
Station). Complete redescriptions of 12 other spp. (in Protoparce, Amblypterus, 
Isognathus, Leucorhampha, Hemeroplanes, Epistor, Pachygonia, & Xylophanes) 
which are new to Venezuela. [P. B.] 

Lipthay, B., "Eine neue Chamaesphecia-Art (Lepidoptera: Aegeriidae)" [in German]. 
Acta zool. Acad. Scient, liung., 7: 213-218, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1961. Describes as new 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 65 



C. sevenari ( Nogradszakal, N. Hungary; reared from Origanum vulgare); also 
names an "ab." [P. B.] 

Lorkovic, Zdravko, "Zwei neuerliche Publikationen liber einige Glieder der Erebia 
tyndarus-Grwppe (Lep., Satyridae)" [in German]. Ent. Tidskr., 82: 197-202. 
1961. E. calcarius tridentina von Mentzer is regarded as belonging to cassioides 
(sensu Lorkovic). The specimens from the vicinity of Courmayeur assigned by 
von Mentzer to E. neleus, E. aquitania, & E. nivalis are all regarded as belonging 
to E. cassioides. [P. B.] 

Lorkovic, Z., "The genetics and reproductive isolating mechanisms of the Pieris 
napi-bryoniae group." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 16: 5-19, 105-127, 6 figs. 1962. 

McDunnough, James H., "A study of some Scopariinae ( Lepidoptera ) of Nova 
Scotia, with particular reference to the female genitalia." Amer. Mus. Novit., 
no. 2054, 10 pp., 7 figs. 1961. Describes as new Eudoria persimilalis (Doyles, 
Codroy Valley, Newfoundland), E. heterosalis (Kearney Lake Road, Halifax Co., 
N.S.). Notes on identity, synonymy, & genital structure of the Maritime Provinces 
spp. of Eudoria & Scoparia, except centuriella & penumbralis. [P. B.] 

McDunnough, James H., "A study of the Blastobasinae of Nova Scotia, with partic- 
ular reference to genitalic characters ( Microlepidoptera, Blastobasidae ) ." Amer. 
Mus. Novit., no. 2045, 20 pp., 18 figs. 1961. Describes as new Blastobasis mari- 
timella ( Boulderwood, Halifax Co.); BLASTOBASOIDES (monobasic), B. 
differtella (White Point Beach, Queens Co.); Hypatopa titanella (Pudsey Point, 
Cumberland Co. ) ; HOLCOCEBINA, & type H. simuloides ( Lake Kejimukujik, 
Queens Co.), H. simplicis (Armdale, Halifax Co.). Discussion of genitalia in 
these genera & Holcocera, based on examination of type species. Describes geni- 
talia of Valentinia glandulella, Holcocera chalcofrontella, Holcocerina confluentella, 
& H. knmaculella. [P. B.] 

McDunnough, James H., "Some hitherto undescribed species of Sparganothinae 
from Nova Scotia, with notes on other indigenous species (Lepidoptera, Tortrici- 
dae). Amer. Mus. Novit., no.2040, 11 pp., 5 figs. 1961. Describes as new Spar- 
ganothis scotiana (L. Kejimukujik, Queens Co.), S. daphnana (White Point Beach, 
Queens Co.), S. salinana (Argyle, Yarmouth Co.). Notes on S. pettitana, S. 
reticulatana, & S. irrorea. [P. B.] 

McDunnough, James H., "Two new species of Coleophora from Nova Scotia (Lepi- 
doptera, Coleophoridae)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 2030, 4 pp., 2 figs. 1961. De- 
scribes as new C. detractella (Boulderwood, Halifax Co.), C. simulans (Cold- 
brook, Kings Co.). [P.B.] 

McGuffin, W. C, "Larvae of the Nearctic Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae ) ." 
Canad. Ent., suppl.8, 104 pp., 26 pis. 1958. Reviews external morphology of 
geometrid larvae. Gives keys to subfamilies, & to tribes, genera, & many spp. 
of Larentiinae. Describes larvae (one or more instars); records food plants, & 
gives notes on life histories & references to earlier accounts. Proposes MESOLEU- 
CINI to include Mesoleuca, Earophila, & Spargania. Discusses classification of 
subfamily & gives tentative phylogenesis. [P. B.] 

McHenry, Paddy B., "A rare paper of W. F. Kirby." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 16: 104. 
1962. 

McHenry, Paddy, "The generic, specific and lower category names of the Nearctic 
butterflies. Part 1 — the genus Pieris." Jour. Res. Lepid., 1: 63-71. 1962. Lists 
names, including those of nearctic genera of Pierinae, with complete citations, 
including exact dates, type selections for generic names, & location of types when 
originally stated. [P. B.] 

McHenry, Paddy B., "Generic or subgeneric names closely related to Argynnis." 
Jour. Res. Lepid., 2: 229-239. 1963. Catalogue of generic names, including 
type species, and list of names in current use, for the world fauna. [P. B.] 

McHenry, Paddy, "The generic, specific and lower category names of the Nearctic 
butterflies. Part 2. The genus Colias" Jour. Res. Lepid., 1: 209-221. 1963. 

Mack, Wilhelm, "Bemerkungen zur Frage der Artberechtigung von Euchloe orien- 



66 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, 1 



talis Brem. gen. aest. ausonia auct." [in German]. Nachrichtenbl. bayer. Ent., 
11: 78-80. 1962. Opposes view that ausonia is a distinct sp. rather than a second 
generation "form." [P. B.] 

Maclcay, Margaret Rae, "Larvae of the North American Olethreutidae (Lepidop- 
tera)." Canad. Ent., suppl. no.10, 338 pp., 161 pis. 1959. Careful descriptions & 
figures of larvae of some 185 spp. Keys are given to spp. and to species groups; 
the latter frequently do not correspond to genera based on adult structure. Sug- 
gestions for reclassification are made, on the basis of similarities in larval struc- 
ture and genitalia. Index to larvae and to host plants. [P. B.] 

MacNeill, C. Don, "The skippers of the genus Hespcria in western North America, 
with special reference to California (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae ) ." Univ. Calif. 
Publ. Ent, vol.35, 221 pp., 8 pis., 28 figs., 9 maps. 1964. Describes as new 
H. uncas macswaini (Blancos Corral, White Mts., Inyo Co., Calif.), H. u. gil- 
berti (2 mi. SE of Los Reyes, D. F., Mexico), H. pahaska martini (4.5 mi. SE 
of Ivanpah, New York Mts., San Bernardino Co., Calif.). Gives keys to North 
American spp. Redescribes spp. occurring west of Great Plains, & describes 
general biology & behavior of the group. It is no criticism of this useful mono- 
graph to say that it points out how much needs to be done in this difficult 
genus. [P. B.] 

Malicky, Hans, "Eine neue Procris-Art aus Spanien" [in German] . Ent. Berichten, 
21: 216-217, 3 figs. 1961. Describes as new P. (Jordanita) vartianae (Sierra de 
Alfacar, Granada, Spain). [P. B.] 

Marek, J., K. Spitzer, & J. Stary, "Noctua interposita Hiibner, 1789 in der Tsche- 
choslowakei" [in Czech; German summary]. Acta Soc. ent. Cechosloveniae, 61: 
190-193, 2 pis. 1964. The distribution of this sp. in S. Moravia with differential 
diagnosis of related spp. Genitalia & imagos are figured. [J. M.] 

Marion, H., "Complement au Catalogue Lhomme. Revision sommaire du genre 
Crambus d'apres la monographic de Bleszynski (Crambidae)" [in French]. Alex- 
anor, 1: 243-247. 1961. As is stated in the long title, this study is the revision 
of the French Crambus according to the publication of Bleszynski. [P. V.] 

Marion, H., "Revision des Pyraustidae de France (suite)" [in French]. Alexanor, 
2: 11-18, pis. F & I. 1961. Continuation of the revision of the Pyraustidae of 
France. Study of the genera Evergestis, Orenaia, & Titanio. [P. V.] 

Marion, H., "Revision des Pyraustidae de France (suite)" [in French]. Alexanor, 
2: 83-90, pis. G & H. 1961. End of the subfamily Evergestinae with the genera 
Metaxmetes, Cynaeda, Aporodes, Tegostoma, & Emprepes, and beginning of the 
Pyraustinae, with the genus Hcllula. [P. V.] 

Marion, H., "Complements au Catalogue Lhomme ( Phycitidae ) " [in French]. Alex- 
anor, 2: 271-275, 1 fig. 1962. Complementary notes to the Phycitidae in Lhom- 
me's catalogue: (1) roxburghii Gregson is only a "form" of Ephestia elutella, 
and (2) indication of a new locality for Hypochalcia bruandella. [P. V.] 

Marion, H., "I. Les Crarribus du groupe radiellus Hb. — II. Les Crambus du groupe 
myelins en France" [in French]. Bull. mens. Soc. linn. Lyon, 31: 138-148, 8 
figs. 1962. Studies of the Crambus belonging to the species groups radiellus & 
myelins. Describes as new Catoptria radiella mouterdella ( Forez Mts., Pierre- 
sur-Haute). [P. V] 

Marion, II., "Revision des Pyraustidae de France (suite)" [in French]. Alexanor, 
2: 173-180, 1 pi. 1962. Continuation, including Heliothcla, Catharia, & Pyrausta 
(part). [P. V.] 

Marion, II., "Revision des Pyraustidae de France. Nouveau complement au genre 
Scoparia" [in French]. Alexanor, 2: 224-226, 1 pi., 6 figs. 1962. New note 
about the Scoparia ambigualis species complex. [P. V.] 

Marion, II., "Revision des Pyraustidae de France (suite)" [in French]. Alexanor, 
2: 297-304, 1 pi., figs. 85-112. 1962. Genera: Panstegia, PYRAUSTEGIA 
(type diffusalis Gn.), MERIDIOPHLIA (type fascialis Hb.), Opsibotys, Uresi- 
phita, Nascia, c\ Lo.xostcgc. [P. V.] 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 67 



Meier, Herbert G., "PSYCHOCENTRA, gen. nov. ( Lepidoptera, Psychidae) (3. 
Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Psychiden)" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 
48: 32-35, 4 figs. 1963. New genus proposed for Epichnopterix millierei. [P. B.] 

Meier, H. G., "Rebelia (nee Psychidea) perlucidella Bruand (Lep., Psychidae). (4. 
Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Psychiden)" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 
48: 105-113, 5 figs. 1963. Selects lectotype & redescribes sp. [P. B.] 

Meier, Herbert G., "Zur Kenntnis der Gattungen PSEUDOBANKESIA gen. nov. und 
Bankesia Tutt (Lep., Psychidae) (5. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Psychiden)" [in 
German]. Mitt, miinchner ent. Ges., 53: 1-23, 16 figs. 1963. Type of new 
genus is alpestrella Heinemann. Redescribes P. alpestrella, P. macedoniella, Bank- 
esia, B. conspurcatella, & B. staintoni. [P. B.] 

Melville, R. V., "Report on Mr. C. W. Sabrosky's proposal for the suppression under 
the Plenary Powers of the pamphlet entitled "Nouvelle Classification des Mouches 
a deux ailes" by J. W. Meigen, 1800." Bull. zool. No-mend, 18: 9-64. 1960. 
The involved proposal for suppression of this work and the names of Diptera 
proposed in it includes also the suggestion that Noeza Walker, Penthesilea Rag- 
onot, Triphysa Zeller, Calybia Kirby, Graphium Scopoli, Xanthia Latreille, and 
their type species, be placed on the Official Lists, and that certain invalid names 
in Lepidoptera be suppressed. [P. B.] 

von Mentzer, Erik, "Weiteres iiber die Spezifizitat von Erebia neleus Frr. und Erebia 
aquitania Frhst., mit Erebia neleus ssp. noricana, ssp. nova (Lep., Satyridae)" [in 
German]. Ent. Tidskr., 82: 203-210, 2 pis. 1961. Describes as new E. n. noricana 
(Leiterbach, 1850-1900 m., Glockner-Gruppe, Karnten, Austria). Distinguishes 
E. neleus & E. aquitania on structure of $ genitalia. Agrees with Warren that 
the name cassioides must apply to the species with chromosome number n = 11. 
[P. B.] 

Mere, Robin M., E. C. Pelham-Clinton, & J. D. Bradley, "Lepidoptera in Ireland, 
May, 1961." Ent. Gazette, 13: 159-177, 1 pi., 5 figs. 1962. Account of collecting 
trip and lists of spp., including new records for Ireland; Bradley describes Coleo- 
phora pappiferella, Trifurcula griseella, & Nepticula serella, all new to British 
Isles. [P. B.] 

Miller, Lee D., "A new Hesperia from Arizona." Ent. News, 73: 85-90, 5 figs. 
1962. Describes as new H. susanae (Horseshoe Canyon, White Mts., Apache 
Co., Ariz., 8,000 ft). [P. B.] These populations have been assigned to Hesperia 
harpalus by MacNeill (1964; see above) and the name susanae accordingly has 
been given subspecific rank. [Editor] 

Miller, William E., "A new pine tip moth ( Olethreutidae ) from the Gulf of Mexico 
region." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 14: 231-236, 8 figs. 1961. Describes as new Rhya- 
cionia subtropica (Valparaiso, Florida). 

Monteiro, T., "Bryophaga tavaresi nov. sp. (Lep. Scythr. )" [in French]. Broteria, 
30: 149-155, 8 figs. 1961. Describes as new species of Scythrididae: B. tavaresi 
from Singeverga, Portugal. [P. V.] 

Monteiro, T., & G. Bernardi, "Note sur deux Lycaenidae iberiques decrits par Bryk 
(Lep. Lycaenidae)" [in French]. An. Fac. Cienc. Porto, 44: 5-7. 1962. Strymon 
ilicis pseudoaesculi is a synonym of S. esculi camboi, and Alicia medon heliomedon 
a synonym of A. cramera aridogenita. [P. V.] 

Moriuti, Sigeru, "Taxonomic notes on two Acrolepia-species of Japan (Lepidoptera: 
Acrolepiidae ) ." Jnsecta matsumurana, 27: 35-37, 2 figs. 1964. A. suzukiella 
(= dioscoreae) transferred from Argyresthia; A. postomacula (= argolitha) from 
Eidophasia; redescribes the latter (food plant Hosta lancifolia) . [P. B.] 

Moriuti, Sigeru, "Yponomeutoiden-Studien (IX). Eine neue Argyresthia- Art aus 
Japan (Lepidoptera, Argyresthiidae ) " [in German]. Trans. Lepid. Soc. Japan, 
15: 20-21, 10 figs. 1964. Describes as new A. mutuurai (Hokkaido, Isikari, 
Sapporo). [P. B.] 

Moucha, Josef, & Milan Chvala, "A new name for the preoccupied name Thecophora 



68 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, 1 



Lederer, 1857 ( Noctuidae ) ." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 13: 169-170. 1963. Proposes 
BILEYIANA. 

Mouelia, Josef, "Remarks to the family Psyehidac in Czechoslovakia" [in Czech; 
English summary]. Casopis Ndrodni Mas., 124: 93-95. 1955. The name "var. 
sudetica Skala" of Epichnopterix pulla must he regarded as a nomen nudum. 
[J. MJ 

Moucha, Josef, & Gill)ert Varin, "Contribution a letude des Satyridae. Chazara 
briseis parmonica ssp.n. de la Tschecoslovaquie" [in French]. Acta faunistica ent. 
Mus. nation. Pragae, 5: 57-60, 16 figs. 1959. New ssp. from S. Slovakia (Kovacov 
Hills); in W. part of Czechoslovakia lives ssp. batata Fruhst. [J. M.] 

Mukerji, S., & K. Krishnamorthy, "Studies on the genus Plusia with special reference 
to male genitalia (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera)." Proc. 42nd Indian Sci. Congr., 
part 111: 295. 1955. Abstract. Plusia oriclialcea placed in Autographa; P. nigri- 
signa in Chrysaspidia; P. limbirena placed in Eosphoropteryx. Chrysodeixis re- 
elevated, with C. chalcytes as type. PARAPLUSIA gen. nov. proposed, with 
Plusia confusa as type. [J. D.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Catalogue of Lederer types of Pyralidae in the British Museum 
(Natural History) with selections of lectotypes." Canad. Ent., 90: 510-517. 
1958. Notes on specimens representing 91 names; 44 lectotypes selected. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Canadian species of Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)." 
Canad. Ent., 91: 65-72, 11 figs. 1959. Describes as new D. rossi (Nahun, B. C, 
reared from Pinus ponderosa), D. pseudotsugella (Seton Lakes, Lillooet, B. C, 
reared from Pseudotsuga ik Abies). Notes on 7 other spp. Key to spp. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Four new species of Evergestis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)." 
Canad. Ent., 91: 406-411, 10 figs. 1959. Describes as new E. koepkei (Hda. 
Taulis, Peru), E. brunnea (same), E. anticlina ( C. Ceratia, Argentina), E. 
antofagastalis (Paposa, Antofagasta, Chile). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "New genera and species of Pyralidae (Lepidoptera)." Canad. Ent., 
91: 359-371, 27 figs. 1959. Describes as new Syllepis aurora (Sao Paulo de 
Olivenca, upper Amazon, Brazil); PECTINOBOTYS, & type P. woytkowskii 
( Sta. Teresa, Huanuco, Peru ) ; Megastes major ( Corupa, Sta. Catharina, Brazil ) ; 
GhesquierieUana thaumasia (Efulen, Cameroons); Rhectosomia braziliensis (Tere- 
sopolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), R. nomophiloides (La Paz, Bolivia), R. viriditincta 
(Corupa, Sta. Catharina, Brazil), R. antofagastalis (Paposo, Antofagasta, Chile), 
R. striata (Finca La Violeta, Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico); MALLERIA, & type 
M. argenteofulva (Corupa). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "New Pyralidae from the Papuan region (Lepidoptera)." Canad. 
Ent., 91: 102-112, 20 figs. 1959. Describes as new Glypodes obscura (War, 
Tami R., near Hollandia, New Guinea); Eoophijla latipennis (Dojo, near Hol- 
landia), E. latifascia (Dojo), E. thomasi (Dojo), E. persimilis (Dojo); Margaro- 
sticha papuensis (Bisianumu, Sogeri Plateau, Papua, 1,600 ft), M. aurantifusa 
(Bainyik, Sepik Distr., New Guinea), M. ncsiotes (St. Matthias Is.). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "New species and a new subspecies of Palpita (Lepidoptera: 
Pyralidae)." Canad. Ent., 91: 641-650, 9 figs. 1959. Describes as new P. 
kimballi (Englewood, Florida), P. viettei ( Gourbeyre, Guadelupe, W. Indies), 
P. forficifera (Nova Teutonia, Sta. Catharina, Brazil), P. persimilis (same), P. 
trifurcata (Boracea, Sales6polis, Sao Paulo, Brazil), P. isoscelalis gourbeyrensis 
(Gourbeyre), P. braziliensis (Rio Vermelho, Sta. Catharina, Brazil), P. travassosi 
(Boracea). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Pyralidae collected in Lower California by Mr. J. Powell (Lep- 
idoptera)." Canad. Ent., 91: 725-727, 4 figs. 1959. Describes as new Gyros 
powelli (La Grulla, 6,500 ft, Sierra San Pedro Martir). Transfers Diasemia 
zephyralis to Choristostigma; places Pyrausta inconcinnalis as ssp. of P. futilalis. 

Records of 10 spp. [P. B.] 



EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE JOURNAL 

Editor: Jerry A. Powell 

Associate Editor 

(Literature Abstracting): Peter F. Bellinger 

Associate Editor 

("Especially for Collectors"): Fred T. Thorne 

Editor, News of the Lepidopterists' Society: E. J. Newcomer 

Manager of the Memoirs: Sidney A. Hessel 

Editorial Committee of the Society: P. F. Bellinger, S. A. 
Hessel, E. G. Munroe, J. A. Powell, C. L. Remington 
(chairman), F. T. Thorne, E. J. Newcomer. 

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE JOURNAL 

Contributions to the Journal may be on any aspect of the collection and study 
of Lepidoptera. Articles of more than 20 printed pages are not normally accepted; 
authors may be required to pay for material in excess of this length. Manuscripts 
must be typewritten, ENTIRELY DOUBLE SPACED, employing wide margins and 
one side only of white, 8% X 11" paper. The author should keep a carbon copy of 
the manuscript. Titles should be explicit and descriptive of the article's content, in- 
cluding an indication of the family of the subject, but must be kept as short as possi- 
ble. Authors of Latin names should be given once in the text. Format of REFER- 
ENCES MUST CONFORM TO EXACT STYLE used in recent issues of the Journal 
Legends of figures and tables should be submitted on separate sheets. 

Reprints may be ordered, and at least 25 gratis separates (including any other 
material published on these pages) will be provided, if requested at the time galley 
proof is received. 



Address correspondence relating to the Journal to: Dr. J. A. Powell, 112 Agricul- 
ture Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., U. S. A. 

Material not intended for permanent record, such as notices, current events, anecdotal 
field experiences, poems, philatelic Lepidoptera, etc. should be sent to the News 
Editor: E. J. Newcomer, 1509 Summitview, Yakima, Wash., U. S. A. 

Address remittances and address changes to: George Ehle, 314 Atkins Ave., 
Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A. 



Memoirs of the Lepidopterists' Society, No. 1 ( Feb. 1964 ) 

A SYNONYMIC LIST OF THE NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA 

by Cyrdl F. dos Passos 

Price: Society members — $4.50, others — $6.00; postpaid 

Order from the Society Treasurer. 



Printed in U. S. A. 

Allen Press 
Lawrence, Kansas 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society Vol. 19, no. 1 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Larval food plants and distribution notes for twenty-four 
Texas Hesperiidae 
by Roy O. Kendall 1-33 

Status of Agraulis vanillae in Missouri and Kansas 

by William H. Howe 33-34 

Oscar Theodor Baron (1847-1926) 

by F. Martin Brown 35-46 

New state records and annotated field data for Louisiana 
butterflies and skippers 
by Edward N. Lambremont and Gary N. Ross 47-52 

Urbanus procne and Urbanus simplicius ( Hesperiidae ) 

by J. W. Tilden 53^55 

FIELD NOTES 

An aggressive encounter between Catocala cava ( Noctuidae ) 
and Polygonia interrogationis ( Nymphalidae ) 
by Richard C. Fleming 52 

Multiple capture of Hypaurotis crysalus at light 
by John H. Hessel 55-56 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 
A collecting trip in Yukon and Alaska 

by Allan H. Legge 57-62 

BOOK NOTICES 46, 62 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 63-68 



Volume 19 1965 Number 2 



Journal 



of the 



Lepidopterists' Society 

Published quarterly by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCIETY DES LfiPIDOPTfiRISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 

TAXONOMY OF NEARCTIC HOLOMELINA 

NEW SUBSPECIES OF MEGATHYMUS 

DISTRIBUTION AND HOSTS OF PHILOTES 

FOODPLANT OF SCHINIA OLIVACEA 

ARIZONA BUTTERFLIES 

(Complete contents on back cover) 

15 July 1965 



THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 
1965 OFFICERS 

President: F. H. Rindge (New York, N. Y., U. S. A.) 

1st Vice President: I. F. B. Common (Canberra, Australia) 

Vice President: Ramon Agenjo (Madrid, Spain) 

Vice President: H. E. Hinton (Bristol, England) 

Treasurer: George Ehle (Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A.) 

Asst. Treasurer: Sidney A. Hessel (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.) 

Secretary: John C. Downey (Carbondale, 111., U. S. A.) 

Asst. Secretary: Floyd W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Terms expire Dec. 1965: Shigeru A. Ae (Showaku, Nagoya, Japan) 

Lincoln P. Brower (Amherst, Mass., U. S. A.) 

Terms expire Dec. 1966: Charles P. Kimball (Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A.) 

W. Harry Lange, Jr. (Davis, Calif., U. S. A.) 

Terms expire Dec. 1967: Hmosm Kuroko (Fukuoka, Japan) 

D. F. Hardwick (Ottawa, Canada) 

and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor 



The object of The Lepidopterists' Society, which was formed in May, 1947, and 
formally constituted in December, 1950, is "to promote the science of lepidopterology 
in all its branches, ... to issue a periodical and other publications on Lepidoptera, 
to facilitate the exchange of specimens and ideas by both the professional worker and 
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aims (Constitution, Art. II). A special goal is to encourage free interchange among 
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The Lepidopterists' Society is a non-profit, scientific organization. The office of 
publication is Yale University, Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut. Second 
class postage paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 



Journal of 
The Lepidopterists' Society 

Volume 19 1965 Number 2 



SOME TAXONOMIC NOTES ON THE NEARCTIC 

HOLOMELINA (ARCTIIDAE) WITH A PARTIAL 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Ring T. Carde 
Dept. Biology, Tufts University, Medford, Mass. 

It is well known that species determination in the genus Holomelina 
Herrich-Schaeffer (not Eubaphe Hiibner) 1 is difficult. Moreover, the 
exact application and rank of many of the taxa are certainly questionable. 
This paper is the first in a series on the biology and species relationships 
of the Holomelina. The objectives of the present paper are: (1) to pro- 
vide a reliable key to the Nearctic Holomelina exclusive of the aurantiaca 
and opella complexes, (2) to make preliminary comments on the taxon- 
omy of these complexes as they now stand, and (3) to explain several 
systematic changes from the current classification as exemplified by 
McDunnough ( 1938 ) . Future manuscripts will include taxonomic studies 
of new species, as well as analyses of distributional, biological, and genetic 
data. 

I. The Holomelina aurantiaca complex 

McDunnough's synonymic list cites eight of the twenty-five new world 
species as occurring north of Mexico, including the generotype, aurantiaca 
( Hiibner ) . This species is the main constituent of a complex that ranges 
from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, southward through Florida and the 
Greater Antilles, westward into the Dakotas, Wyoming, Utah, and New 
Mexico, and thence southward at least to Guatemala. Throughout much 
of this distribution, several sibling species associate sympatrically with 
aurantiaca, or replace it entirely. A dozen species or forms have been 



1 The genus Eubaphe Hiibner (1823, Zutrage z. exot. Schmett., 2: 20) has been widely used 
in the Arctiidae, but when first published, it was monobasic, having as its type, E. lobula Hbn., 
a geometrid; aurantiaca Hbn. which is sometimes cited as the type of Eubaphe, was not described 
until a later date (1827-1831, loc. cit., 3: 9). The next valid name to replace Eubaphe in the 
Arctiidae appears to be Holomelina Herrich-Schaeffer (1856, Samml. aussereurop. Schmett., 1: 
15, 17), the type of which is aurantiaca (Fletcher, 1954). 



70 Carde: Nearctic Holomelina Vol. 19, no. 2 

described with the complex; but most of the original descriptions are 
inadequate, and often the types have been lost, or their identity is un- 
certain, so that most have been placed in the synonymy with aurantiaca. 

Clearly at least two of these are referable to separate species. The first, 
Holomelina ferruginosa ( Walker ) was described in 1855 from St. Martin's 
Falls on the Albany River, Hudson Bay, Canada and had been assigned 
specific rank through the time of McDunnough. Because of a lack of 
clear-cut, structural differences in male genitalia, Forbes (1960) recog- 
nized only aurantiaca and lamae ( Freeman ) as distinct. He did not com- 
ment on ferruginosa, presumably due to a lack of reference material. 
Biologically, however, ferruginosa is certainly a separate species, and in 
addition has priority over two forms, "immaculata" and "trimaculosa," 
cited by Forbes under aurantiaca. 

Data assembled from other collectors show that in northern areas where 
both species are limited to one generation per year, flight periods must be 
nearly identical and ecological isolating factors are as yet unrecorded. 
As no difference in the genitalia which might present a physical barrier 
to copulation has been detected, it is likely that some sort of ecological 
(i.e., physiological) preference creates a degree of isolation. Moreover, 
one would expect such siblings to occupy different niches to minimize 
competition; the mechanism is most likely multifactorial. In other popu- 
lations, for example, there are evidences of behavioral barriers. Connecti- 
cut aurantiaca females fly readily, though not quite so far and actively 
as the males; while ferruginosa females are reluctant to fly at all. Dif- 
ferent mating times are also quite probable. Under 16-hour photoperiod 
laboratory conditions, one aurantiaca complex strain from New Jersey 
mated approximately four hours before light switch-off, while a lamae 
strain from Maine mated some four hours after switch-off. 

In Connecticut, the total situation is quite different, since ferruginosa 
is single brooded and seems to be isolated by flight period and environ- 
ment from its double-brooded sibling, aurantiaca. The author has taken 
aurantiaca over the last five years in several Connecticut localities be- 
tween 5^16 June and 3-23 August in open, and often abandoned, 
fields. H. ferruginosa has been collected at Branford, Connecticut (the 
only known occurrence in the state) in 1963-1964 between 5-30 July. 
The habitat is somewhat open, grassy woods. At present the exact south- 
ern extension of the two species in this type of relationship is uncertain, 
but its distribution is at least New Jersey through Illinois, according to 
the report of Wyatt (1939) giving similar observations from Illinois. 

The third species, Holomelina lamae ( Freeman ) , was described in 1941 
from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia with a sphagnum bog habitat and 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 71 

is currently known from Manitoba, northern Wisconsin, and coastal 
Maine and New Hampshire. H. lamae, like ferruginosa, seems structurally 
identical to aurantiaca, but lamae populations are strictly confined to 
this distinct, localized environmental niche, and are thereby isolated from 
the other two sibling species. Ferguson (1953) reports that in Nova 
Scotia aurantiaca and ferruginosa may fly within sight of the bog, but 
do not enter, so that one may conclude that such isolation is both eco- 
logical and behavioral. Ferguson also notes that lamae is active diurnally, 
while the two sibling species in question generally fly only when flushed; 
lamae, on the other hand, is not attracted to "blacklight" as are the other 
two. 

Further information on relationships between these sibling species will 
come from hybridization studies currently in progress. It would be diffi- 
cult to measure quantitatively genetic interchange among the three, if 
such occurs, as each so-called population exhibits extensive but parallel 
variation, presumably under the control of similar genes. Probably no 
attempt to describe these siblings could be completely successful, as the 
number of individual variants in a given population as well as clinal 
divergence preclude the use of any single character as an absolute. Yet 
cautious utilization of the following descriptions should suffice for eastern 
material with the exception of Florida. 

Holomelina aurantiaca ( Hubner ) 
Eubaphe aurantiaca Hubner, 1827, Zutrage z. exot. Schmett., 3: 9 

male. Upperside: Forewing pale orange to brown, often with a darker, obscure 
postmedial band and discal spot; fringe concolorous. Hindwing light orange to 
carmine red, rarely light yellow, rarely immaculate, usually a complete, distinct 
terminal band, often with discal spot; fringe either concolorous with terminal band 
or with ground color. Underside: Immaculate reddish orange, the forewing being 
a shade deeper than the hindwing. 

female. Upperside: Forewing pale orange, in northern material suffused with 
brown, more heavily over the basal two-thirds; dark, transverse postmedial bands 
alternate with light orange, partially overscaled with brown; usually a dark, obscure 
discal spot; whitish cream spots below origin of Cu 2 and beyond (especially in 
northern specimens). Hindwing light orange, discal spot usually present, terminal 
markings rarely absent, mostly comparatively reduced to irregular blotches or spots 
in submarginal area. Underside: Forewing immaculate orange. Hindwing lighter, 
with reduced terminal markings of the upperside, or immaculate. 

Palpi, head, and thorax orangish brown to ocher, abdomen orange, often with 
dorsal and lateral spots on segments, sometimes appearing as an unbroken line or band. 

Length of forewing: apex to base, in male 9.5 mm to 11.0 mm, average 10.0 mm; 
in female 10.0 mm to 12.0 mm, average 11.0 mm; average for both sexes, apex to 
outer angle 6.0 mm. Hindwing: outer angle to base, 8.0 mm; base to end of vein 
Cux, 8.0 mm. 



72 



Carde: Nearctic Holomelina 



Vol. 19, no. 2 




.'.-• 
* 



^mp ■^i^^^ 







I 







^^W 





Explanation of plate 

Adults of Holomelina (upperside). Top row, H. aurantiaca (Hiibner): left, 
$, Simsbury, Hartford Co., Connecticut, VIII-11-64; middle, $, same data; right, $, 
Farmington, Hartford Co., Conn., VI-9-60. Second row, H. ferruginosa (Walker): 
left, $, Branford, New Haven Co., Conn., VII-5-63; middle, $, same locality, VII- 
18-63; right, 2, same locality, VII-22-63. Lower row, H. lamae (Freeman): left, 
$ , Seawall Bog, Acadia National Park, Mt. Desert Island, Maine, VII-25-64; middle, 
2 , same data; right, $ , same data. 



Holomelina ferruginosa ( Walker ) 
Crocata ferruginosa Walker, 1854, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., 2: 535 

male. Upperside: Forewing immaculate light orange or orange generally suffused 
with brown, darker basally with a dark postmedial and often medial and submarginal 
bands parallel to outer margin; rarely small whitish cream spots in submedian inter- 
space; dark, indistinct discal spot or bar in darker specimens; fringe concolorous 
with forewing or fuscous. Hindwing lighter than forewing, usually light orange, 
often immaculate, rarely pale yellow; terminal band at times present, fragmented into 
a series of blotches, larger subterminally with upper portions more distant from 
outer margin, rarely nearly complete; fringe concolorous with ground color or fuscous. 
Underside: Forewing salmon pink, brighter subcostally, more orange near outer 
margin. Hindwing immaculate light orange. 

female. Upperside: Forewing orange, suffused with brown, a dark wavy post- 
medial band; whitish cream spots usually present. Dark discal spot often elongated 
into bar over discocellular area; fringe concolorous or dark brown. Hindwing orange 
or yellowish orange; terminal band rarely nearly complete, not quite to outer margin, 
usually broken into two irregular blotches, the larger submedially; a thick discal 
dash, spot or outwardly convex crescent over middle discocellular area. Underside: 
Forewing brownish orange; upperside discal spot or dash, traces of upperside post- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 73 



medial as black spots and bars repeated as well-defined black markings. Hindwing 
has the definitive black terminal markings of the upperside, though somewhat re- 
duced. 

Length of forewing: in male 12.0 mm to 13.0 mm, average 12.5 mm; in female 
11.5 mm to 13.0 mm, average 12.0 mm; apex to outer angle average, 8.0 mm in male, 
7.0 mm in female; outer angle to base average, 9.5 mm in male, 9.0 mm in female. 
Hindwing: base to end of vein Cui, 10.0 mm in male, 8.5 mm in female. 

Holomelina lamae ( Freeman ) 
Eubaphe lamae Freeman, 1941, Canad. Ent., 73: 123 

male. Upperside: Forewing dark brown; in most populations (not Maine) a 
definitive whitish cream spot just below origin of Cu 2 ; an obscure black spot at 
upper end of cell. Hindwing light orangish yellow to yellow with a broad, black 
terminal band extending over at least 40%; inner edge of terminal band sinuous and 
extending to base along anal veins over fold or inner margin; discal spot large, black, 
distinct, frequently fused to or included in terminal band; fringe fuscous. Underside: 
Forewing salmon pink with a black discal spot. Hindwing orangish yellow, suffused 
with black markings in terminal area, especially subterminally, not over veins. 

female. Upperside: Forewing brown, as in male, except with distinct orange 
tinge distally; generally with a larger whitish cream spot below origin of Cu 2 , 
often with additional spots in submedian interspace; dark postmedial band present, 
often obscured. Hindwing light orange or yellowish orange, occasionally with a 
broad, black terminal band, not quite to outer margin, usually fragmented into spots 
and bars larger subterminally and streaked towards base as black shading in the anal 
region; black discal spot large, distinct, often elongated into a bar; fringe orange- 
yellow. Underside: As in male, with terminal band of secondaries repeated below. 

Palpi, head, and thorax reddish brown to orange; abdomen lighter, more often 
with black dorsal spots on each segment, rarely fused. ( In some females such spots 
may extend into wide bands, and the basal segment is wholly blackish.) 

Length of forewing: in male 8.5 mm to 9.5 mm, average 9.0 mm, in female 9.5 
mm to 10.5 mm, average 10.0 mm; apex to outer angle average 5.5 mm in both sexes; 
outer angle to base average 6.5 mm in male, 7.0 mm in female. Hindwing: base to 
end of vein Cui average, 7.0 mm in both sexes. 

II. The status of Holomelina opella nigricans 

Crocata opella Grote, 1863, and C. nigricans Reakirt, 1864, were both 
described from Pennsylvania; and although distinct in appearance, have 
been regarded as forms of a single species by recent authors. Larval 
descriptions of Holomelina opella by Dyar in 1897 and of nigricans by 
Forbes in 1910 indicate that these forms have differences in early stages. 
The obvious inference submitted by Forbes ( 1910, 1960), is that nigricans 
is an independent taxon. However, no morphological dissimilarities be- 
tween the male genitalia (which might be considered mechanical repro- 
ductive barriers ) have been noted in northern material. Even if these were 
present, they might not necessarily represent a significant reproductive 
isolating factor. 

Brown ( 1961 ) believes that different flight periods and discrete larval 
differences in themselves do not signify "specificity." The criterion that 
Brown emphasized in his statistical treatment of wing character variation 



74 Carde: Nearctic Holomelina Vol. 19, no. 2 

in two closely sympatric Coenonympha (Satyridae) populations was gene 
flow from one pool to another, and for him such probable "contamination" 
or interchange of a great extent precluded any determination of "spe- 
cificity," even though the units in question apparently were not reproduc- 
tive isolates, and presumably discrete to a certain degree. Brown viewed 
the contaminating genes as essentially relative to superficial appearance 
and not involving any physiological divergence. However, as was pointed 
out in discussion of the aurantiaca complex, such factors may be difficult 
to determine, especially in view of several practical considerations, viz., 
yearly fluctuations in the population levels, and difficulty in obtaining 
wild females and population samples. In addition there is some question 
as to the identity of the "nigricans" type, so that for the present the author 
refuses to admit an unqualified separation of opella and opella "nigricans," 
and prefers to postpone answering the question by treating the two as a 
complex. 

III. The priority of Holomelina fragilis 

McDunnough (1938) recognized both fragilis (Strecker) and costata 
(Stretch) as species. A recent examination of the fragilis types indicates 
that they are conspecific with costata. H. fragilis was described in 1878 
from Pagosa Springs, Colorado, seven years before costata was described 
from Texas (collected by Belfrage, but exact type locality unknown). 
Considerable variation in the gray ground color of the forewing and 
amount of crimson suffusion is not clearly associated with either a cline 
or subspeciation as indicated by previous authors. Thus H. costata palli- 
pennis (Barnes and McDunnough), described from Glenwood Springs, 
Colorado, should also fall as a synonym of H. fragilis. H. fragilis speci- 
mens have a pronounced tendency to fade, and this in particular is likely 
responsible for past confusion. 

A PARTIAL KEY TO NeARTIC HOLOMELINA 

1. Palpi approximately equal to half head vertex width 2 

Palpi approximately equal to or greater than head vertex width 4 

2. HW immaculate orange ocher; FW light fuscous-gray suffused with crimson; 

underside and costa scarlet fragilis (Strecker) 

HW terminally shaded with black-brown s 3 

3. FW underside crimson with black marginal band; FW upper gray-brown with 

crimson costa; HW crimson to red-yellow with black-brown terminal band 

intermedia ( Graef ) 

FW underside mostly gray or gray-black, crimson costally; FW upper dark gray 
with crimson costa; HW crimson with light black terminal band ._ laeta (Guerin) 

4. FW yellow-brown with crimson costa; HW crimson with black sinuous terminal 

band running from below base on inner margin to near apex i 

ostenta (Hy. Edwards) 

Costal edge concolorous with FW or indistinct HW discoidal spot present 5 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 75 



5. Males (frenulum simple, hooks present) 6 

Females (frenulum multiple, hooks lacking) 7 

6. HW in northern material generally solid blackish; or FW costal edge contrast- 

ing; HW markings indistinct; clasper apex forked opella complex 

HW usually largely orange or bright yellow; clasper apex slender, simple 

aurantiaca complex 

7. HW with indistinct discoidal spot, and all blackish or mixed with reddish or 

yellowish ocher with black shaded terminally from inner margin .. opella complex 
HW very rarely immaculate, usually black in terminal area and discal spot; 
in some species shaded towards base along inner margin or fold; FW in 
northern material often with white spots; abdomen usually with lateral or 
dorsal black spots aurantiaca complex 

Summary 

1. This paper is the first in a series on the Holomelina; it suggests 
several taxonomic changes and indicates areas of uncertainty currently 
under investigation. 

2. The aurantiaca complex is widely distributed and consists of sev- 
eral sibling species; those not in confusion are ferruginosa (Walker) and 
lamae ( Freeman ) . Identification and several discrete barriers to possible 
hybridization of these siblings are discussed. 

3. Preliminary biological evidence suggests that opella and nigricans 
are independent taxa. 

4. H. costata and costata pallipennis are synonymized under fragilis 
( New Synonymy ) . 

5. Males in certain populations of the aurantiaca and opella complexes 
are very close in maculation and consequently are best determined by 
genitalia. 

Acknowledgments 

The writer would like to express his sincere thanks to Mr. A. K. Wyatt 
(Chicago) for checking types, Prof. W. T. M. Forbes (Cambridge, 
Mass.), Mr. D. C. Ferguson (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.), and 
Dr. C. C. Roys (Tufts University, Medford, Mass.) for helpful advice, 
and Dr. C. L. Remington (Yale University) for kindly encouragement and 
counsel throughout much of this work. 

For loan of material, the author wishes to thank Dr. P. J. Darlington, 
Jr. ( Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge ) , 
and Dr. F. H. Rindge (American Museum of Natural History, New York). 

Literature Cited 

Brown, F. M., 1961. Coenonympha tullia on islands in the St. Lawrence River. 

Cand. Ent., 93: 107-117. 
Ferguson, D. C, 1953. On the identity and status of Eubaphe lamae Freeman 

( Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). Cand. Ent., 85: 371-373. 



76 Carde: Nearctic Holomelina Vol. 19, no. 2 



Fletcher, D. S., 1954. A revision of the genus Eubaphe (Lepidoptera : Geometri- 

dae). Zoologica, 39: 153-166. 
Forbes, W. T. M., 1910. New England caterpillars, no. 2. Eubaphe nigricans 

Reakirt. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 18: 163-164. 
1960. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, pt. IV. Mem. Cornell 

Univ. Agri. Exp. Sta., 371: 1-188. 
Freeman, T. N., 1941. New species of Canadian Lepidoptera. Cand. Ent., 73: 

123. 
Dyar, H. C, 1897. The larva of Crocota opella Grote. Psyche, 8: 119. 
McDunnough, J. H., 1938. Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the 

United States of America. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1: 1-275. 
Walker, F., 1855. Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. Het, 2: 535. 
Wyatt, A. K., 1939. Notes on certain forms of Eubaphe. Cand. Ent., 71: 96-99. 



PROBABLE SECOND U.S. RECORD FOR EREBIA DISCOIDALIS 

On 24 May 1964 W. R. Pieper, Ray Glassel, and I were collecting 
in Lake County, Minnesota. About 20 miles north of Two Harbors, 
we stopped at the little town of McNair. The general area is one of 
acid bogs, characterized by black spruce, white cedar, and tamarack. 
Ground cover is mostly mosses (sphagnum, hipnum, haircap, etc.) 
with occasional gatherings of checkerberry, Labrador tea, leather-leaf, 
and claytonia. 

Just behind the buildings at McNair (NE 14; S 24, T 56 N, R 11 W) 
is an open, grassy meadow, sparsely dotted with speckled alder and 
quaking aspen, both of shrub size. In this meadow we captured three 
badly worn but typical red-disked alpines, Erebia discoidalis (Kirby). 

Macy and Shepard (1941) 1 list the only U.S. record for this species 
as Itasca Park (Clearwater County), Minnesota on 31 May 1935. The 
most recent literature that I have is Ehrlich and Ehrlich ( 1961 ) , 2 where 
the Itasca Park record is again cited as the only U.S. record. We have 
reason to believe, then, that the three specimens taken by us on 24 
May are the second documented occurrence of Erebia discoidalis for 
the U.S. If any readers know of other specimens, I would be interested 
in the details. 

Ronald L. Huber, 480 State Office Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota 



1 Ralph W. Macy & Harold H. Shepard, Butterflies (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1941), p. 91 

2 P. R. Ehrlich & A. H. Ehrlich, How to Know Butterflies (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co., 
1961), p. 97. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 77 

THE LIFE HISTORY OF PROBLEM A BYSSUS ( HESPERIIDAE ) 

Richard Heitzman 

3112 Harris Ave., Independence, Mo., U.S.A. 

Existing in widely scattered colonies from Florida to Texas and north 
to southern Illinois and Iowa, Problema byssus Edwards, is a real prize 
for the skipper enthusiast. Here in Missouri, in the western part of 
its range it is confined to the few remaining areas of virgin prairie. 
Although byssus is an extremely local species it is often found to be 
abundant once a colony is located. The host plant in this region is 
a tall broad-leaved grass, Tripsacum dactyloides L. (gama grass). This 
plant grows in large beds, usually in the dampest part of the prairie 
locale. The golden byssus confines its activities to the area of the grass 
beds, rarely straying farther away than the nearest flowers. Although 
gama grass grows in many locations other than virgin prairie, Problema 
byssus seems unable to adjust to another habitat. 

The species is single brooded, adults flying from early June (males) 
to late July (stray females). The males emerge at least a week ahead 
of the females and spend most of their time battling among themselves 
and visiting nearby flowers. They are especially attracted to milkweed 
(Asclepias), Indian hemp (Apocynum), and purple cone flower (Echina- 
cea). With the emergence of the first females the habits of the males 
undergo a radical change. From this point on the males are seldom 
observed fighting or visiting flowers. Most of their time is now spent 
in slow, skipping flight back and forth across the grass beds in search 
of emerging females. The males are active, powerful fliers, difficult 
to catch. The females are less active, with a slow sluggish flight, rarely 
straying from the grass beds. 

The following life history observations were conducted over a five- 
year period, 1959 through 1963, on collections taken in the largest known 
colony in this area. Numerous observations of wild larvae were made 
during this period in the same locale located just south of Holiday, 
Kansas, in Johnson County. 

Egg. Chalky white, no pattern visible under 25 power magnification. Shape 
hemispherical, flattened at apex. Width and height about 1.5 mm. 

Ova are deposited at random on both upper and lower sides of the 
leaves. The larvae emerge in eight to nine days. 

First Instar Larva. Body pale green, sparsely covered with short white hair; 
a tiny white mark dorsally at each intersegmental fold; prothoracic shield dark 
brown, almost black; head dull red brown with numerous yellow hairs, mandibles 
black. 

The larva first eats the entire eggshell and then wanders about the 



78 



Heitzman: Problema life history 



Vol. 19, no. 2 








Att 





Explanation of Plate 

Mature larva, lateral aspect and enlarged view of head case. Egg, lateral and 
dorsal aspect. Pupa, ventral and lateral aspect. Adult male and female from 
Holiday, Johnson County, Kansas. 



grass blade and selects a spot for its first tent. No preference of position 
was noted, some larvae choosing the tip, others the base or middle area 
of a grass blade. The larvae cut a section across the leaf about one- 
fourth inch deep and fasten the edge back making a tent about one 
inch in length. The tent is held in place by strong silk strands placed 
at one-sixteenth inch intervals. On the second day the larvae begin 
eating, choosing a spot just above the tent. 

Second Instar Larva. Body color pale watery green, translucent, with blotchy 
appearance; body without noticeable taper, sparsely covered with bristly white 
hairs, several longer ones on the anal segment; spiracles protruding, giving appear- 
ance of a row of warts along each side; prothoracic shield dark brown; head dull 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 79 



orange brown, mandibles darker brown; a pale gray band beginning at base of 
each mandible and extending across face parallel to epicranial suture, following 
suture to crown; frons slightly raised, dark brown; another dull gray band beginning 
at back of mandibles follows outer edge of epicranial plates to crown; head thinly 
covered with white bristles. 

The larval tent in this instar measures about two and a half inches 

in length and is made by folding together an entire leaf and sealing the 

edges with silk. 

Third Instar Larva. Body color pale green, translucent, with a few long hairs 
on last abdominal segment, thickly dusted with minute black dots; first spiracle 
on each side enclosed by a silvery wart; prothorax white, prothoracic shield black, 
extending from spiracle to spiracle; body without noticeable taper; head pale 
orange brown; two cream-colored bands starting at crown, paralleling epicranial 
suture to base of mandibles, another cream-colored line follows outer edges of 
epicranial plates from base of mandibles to crown, a cream-colored line circles the 
back of head bordering prothorax; frons darker brown and slightly raised; head 
thinly covered with short white bristles. 

Fourth Instar Larva. Body color pale yellow green, last abdominal segment 
dull yellow; body covered with minute short white hair and thickly sprinkled with 
very tiny black warts; head light red brown with two white stripes starting at base 
of mandibles, extending to crown parallel to epicranial suture and continuing 
around and down outer edge of epicranial plates; frons with two white vertical 
lines; labrum white, noticeably extended, mandibles much darker brown; prothorax 
white; prothoracic shield black. 

This is the instar in which hibernation takes place. Larvae reared 
on potted grass plants in the house continue to feed for several weeks 
at a very retarded rate. Wild larvae, however, follow an entirely differ- 
ent pattern of behavior. Shortly after entering the fourth instar the wild 
larvae construct a silken lined chamber from three to six inches in 
length within the larval tent. Although still very active when disturbed, 
the larvae make no further attempt to eat and their coloring undergoes 
a radical change. The entire body becomes a pale creamy white covered 
with minute black bristles. The head turns to a purplish black color 
with a blistered appearance. There is no visible pattern on the head. 
The hibernation stage is probably triggered by rain and cool nights 
which begin to occur in late August in this area. Without these stimuli 
the larvae being reared on potted grass in the house continue to feed 
at a slow rate and begin entering the fifth instar in late September. 
By late April the first warm spring rains have aroused the quiescent 
larvae and they cut through their silken shroud and begin devouring 
the tender new leaves of the host plant. For about a week they feed 
hungrily, growth is fairly rapid but there is no change in the previously 
described drab coloration of the larvae. After feeding for seven to ten 
days the larvae enter the fifth instar. 



80 Heitzman: Problema life history Vol. 19, no. 2 



Fifth Instar Larva. Body color pale yellowish green, last two abdominal seg- 
ments paler, covered with numerous short white bristles; integument translucent, 
heart appearing as a bright green middorsal line; a pale yellow shading at each 
intersegmental fold; pro thoracic shield white with a thin black edging from spiracle 
to spiracle; abdominal area pale greenish white; head deep reddish brown with 
white bands and markings, area at back of head white; two white bands parallel 
stalk of epicranial suture to crown and on around outer edges of epicranial plates 
to base of mandibles; a small vertical white dash at either side of the frons; man- 
dibles dark brown edged with white, labrum white; entire head with a rough 
texture; frons dark brown with a small central white area, edged with narrow 
white lines. 

Sixth ( Final ) Instar Larva. Length 37-43 mm; body color dull blue green with 
a yellowish overcast dorsally; last two abdominal segments powdery white ventrally 
due to thick pads of wax flake secretions; integument translucent with the darker 
green heart clearly visible; intersegmental folds appear as yellow rings; body thickly 
covered with minute white hair when viewed under magnification; spiracles cream 
colored with a minute green wart above and below each; prothoracic shield dark 
brown dorsally; body with almost no noticeable taper; head small (only about 
half the circumference of body), pale reddish brown with cream-colored areas; 
outer edges of the epicranial plates edged with cream from crown nearly to base 
of mandibles; arms of epicranial suture narrowly edged, ere am -colored; two broad 
cream-colored lines parallel stalk of epicranial suture; two pale vertical areas located 
in lower central portion of each epicranial plate; frons cream-colored centrally; 
mandibles reddish brown; a few short white bristles on head, which has a slightly 
blistered appearance. 

In the last instar the larva rolls a leaf and fastens it for several inches 
with a heavy silken strand about every fourth of an inch for the length 
of the tent. These tents measure from seven to nine inches in length 
and are open at the top and bottom. The tent is provided with a thin 
lining of silk. As the larvae near full growth they construct their tent 
from two grass blades. The larvae eat the first few inches from one 
leaf and where the base of the tent is to begin they eat all but the 
midrib for about one-half inch. The base of the other grass blade is 
then eaten away in the same manner and the two blades drawn together 
and fastened with strong silken strands. This makes a beautiful piece 
of camouflage as it appears to be a single grass leaf. Wild larvae are 
observed feeding in the daylight but when approached or the plants 
are touched they rapidly move backwards to the center of the tent. 

Cocoon. Dense, of shiny white silk. 

The cocoon is spun among the rubbish at the base of the plants, 
among the grass stems, or in a rolled up leaf near the host plant. In 
the breeding cage cocoons were also spun on the top and sides of the 
cage in both vertical and horizontal positions. Pupation occurs three 
days after the start of the cocoon. 

Pupa. Long and slender, 6-7 mm at widest point, 23-27 mm in length; color 
a beautiful pastel cream with a few tiny brown dots; cremaster a tapering, ventrally 
curving point, strongly inbedded in silk lining of cocoon. 

Emergence of adults occurs about two weeks following pupation. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 81 

The time spent in each instar is variable; the following represents an 
average life cycle. 

egg : Eggs laid in late June emerge eight to nine days later. 

first instar : Six to seven days. 

second instar : Seven to eight days. 

third instar : Eleven to thirteen days. 

fourth instar : About eight and a half months, the hibernation stage 
covering the period from late August to late the follow- 
ing April. 

fifth instar : Ten to thirteen days. 

final instar : Ten days to a little over two weeks ( females seem to 
develop more slowly). 

pupa : Thirteen to sixteen days. The first adults normally 

emerging about the start of the second week in June. 

My thanks go to Dr. John R. Reeder of Yale University for the host 
plant determination and to William Howe of Ottawa, Kansas, for the 
illustration of the life history. 



BOOK REVIEW 



PRODROMUS LEPIDOPTERORUM SLOVACIAE [Prodromus of the 
Lepidoptera of Slovakia]. By Karel Hruby. 1964. 962 pp., 3 maps. Pub- 
lished by the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Klemensova Street 27, Bra- 
tislava, Czechoslovakia. Price 83,- Kcs. 

Slovakia is an interesting and beautiful country in Central Europe. 
There are a number of different land formations; in the southern part it 
is the great Lowland of the river of Danube with xerothermic localities, 
in the north there are the mountains of which the Tatra is the highest 
(with the Peak of Gerlach 2,663 m). 

The fauna of Lepidoptera of Slovakia was intensively investigated, but 
results of this work were published in different languages and dispersed 
in short faunistic contributions. Therefore, comprehensive research 
work was very difficult. Hruby's work is of great importance for the 
students of Lepidoptera in Central Europe. 

The introductory parts of the book are written simultaneously in Slo- 
vak and Latin. These chapters treat the history of faunistic work of the 
Slovak Lepidoptera and zoogeography and ecology of butterflies and 
moths (pp. 5-59). The bibliography (pp. 60-98) contains 889 citations 
published in the period of 1772-1960. Lists of revised collections and of 
all recorded localities (pp. 99-127) conclude this part of the Prodromus. 



82 McFarland: Automeris and Hemihyalea Vol. 19, no. 2 

The main part of the book (pp. 128-882) is the systematic survey of 
all species of Lepidoptera and their localities in Slovakia. In this coun- 
try 2,696 species are recorded. 

The index of authors and species (pp. 883-962) finishes this monu- 
mental work. "Prodromus Lepidopterorum Slovaciae" is the first com- 
plete work about Lepidoptera of Slovakia. 

(The author, Professor of Genetics of Charles University, Prague, died 
in an automobile accident on 10 Dec. 1962). 

Josef Moucha, Narodni museum v Praze, Praha 1, Czechoslovakia 



FIELD NOTES ON AUTOMERIS ZEPHYRIA (SATURNIIDAE) 

AND LARVAE OF HEMIHYALEA EDWARDSI (ARCTIIDAE) 

IN NEW MEXICO 

In Juan Tabo Canyon, not far from the type locality of Callophrys 
(Sandia) macfarlandi Ehrlich & Clench, I captured a fresh specimen of 
Automeris zephyria Grote, at black light, in May, 1958. Near the town 
of Cedar Crest, southeast of Sandia Crest, another specimen of A. zeph- 
yria was taken on the porch of a restaurant, where it had come to a 
lighted window on 14 June 1961. 

On the morning of 15 June 1961, while collecting near Highway 66, 
in the foothills east of Albuquerque, large numbers of last instar larvae 
of Hemihyalea edwardsi Packard were observed on scrub oak; also pres- 
ent, in smaller numbers, were the larvae of an unidentified Hemileuca 
( Saturniidae ) . In some cases, the abundant Hemihyalea larvae had 
nearly stripped the oaks. They were crawling over the trunks and 
branches in bright sunlight, which is of interest as the larvae of H. 
edwardsi are strictly nocturnal under usual conditions. They normally 
hide in crevices in the trunk by day, and come out to feed at dusk, or 
after dark. 

There are some really excellent locations for moth collecting in the 
Sandia Mountains. In the spring of 1958, I had great success with a 
portable black light in Juan Tabo Canyon, off a side road which led 
into a wash with running water. Another very fine collecting area was 
along the road, from three to ten miles south of the small town of Placi- 
tas, on the northeast side of Sandia Peak. Vegetation is varied and 
luxuriant on the northern and eastern slopes of Sandia, being entirely 
different from the sparse growth on the southern and western slopes. 
The road to Sandia Crest (10,700 feet elev. ) presents a variety of rich 
collecting spots, in several different plant associations. 

Noel McFarland, South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 83 

TWO NEW SUBSPECIES OF MEGATHYMUS YUCCAE (Bdv. & LeC.) 

FROM TEXAS 

H. A. Freeman 1 
1605 Lewis Drive, Garland, Texas 

There has been some confusion for a number of years concerning the 
status of specimens of Megathymus yuccae from Stephensville southward 
through San Antonio to Laredo. Don Starlings and I have referred to 
this large region as a "flux" area where specimens seemed to indicate 
characteristics of several subspecies. Recent studies have presented proof 
that actually we are dealing with a distinct subspecies showing relation- 
ships more closely to wilsonorum Starlings & Turner than to stallingsi 
Freeman, with which we had previously primarily associated it. With 
the naming of this subspecies the status and distribution of the various 
subspecies of yuccae in Texas is clarified. 

Megathymus yuccae kendalli Freeman, new subspecies 

female. Upper surface of primaries: flat black, with fairly heavy overscaling of 
yellowish gray hairs and scales near base; a few light gray scales near apex. Spot 1 
(cell spot), squarish, light yellow; subapical spots (2, 3, 4) white, broad, 2-3 mm 
in width, submarginal spots 5 and 6 narrow, yellowish white; spot 7 square, 4 mm 
wide and may or may not reach under inner edge of spot 6; spot 8 very much like 7; 
spot 9 shaped like a broad V with the point directed toward base of wing; all three 
spots (7, 8, 9 ) light yellow. Fringes sordid gray, checkered with black at ends of 
veins. 

Under surface of primaries: dull black, with entire outer margin overscaled with 
gray. All spots reappear, somewhat lighter than above. 

Upper surface of secondaries: flat black, with a few light hairs near base; marginal 
border narrow, sordid grayish yellow. Discal spots are well defined, fairly small, 10 
and 11 usually fused together. Only rarely a phantom spot in space 14. Fringes 
concolorous with marginal border. 

Under surface of secondaries: gray around marginal area becoming dull black over 
discal and basal regions. Two white subcostal spots usually present, the larger one 
nearer base, broadly linear, the smaller one much narrower. 

Abdomen dull black above, beneath only a little lighter. Thorax dark grayish 
black above, somewhat lighter beneath. Palpi white. Antennal club black with some 
white beneath, the remaining portion black, ringed with white above, nearly all 
white beneath. 

Length of forewing 30 to 36 mm, average 33 mm. Wing measurements of holotype: 
forewing, apex to base 33 mm, apex to outer angle 20.5 mm, outer angle to base 
25 mm; hindwing, base to end of Vein Cui 25.5 mm. 

male: Upper surface of primaries: flat black, with fairly heavy overscaling of 
yellowish gray hairs and scales near base; a narrow overscaling of light gray near 
apex. Spot 1 (cell spot) small and oval. Spots 2 through 6 white. Spot 7 just 
barely reaches inner edge of spot 6. Spots 7 and 8 rounded on inner edge, 2.5 mm 
wide. Spot 9 somewhat pointed on inner surface, 3 mm wide. Spots 7, 8, and 9 light 
to medium dull yellow. Fringes gray, checkered with black at ends of veins. 



1 I wish to express my deepest thanks to the National Science Foundation for GB-398 which 
is making this research on the Megathymidae possible. 



84 Freeman: More Megathymus subspecies Vol. 19, no. 



Under surface of primaries : dull black, some grayish scales near apex. All spots 
reappear, lighter than above, especially 7, 8, and 9. 

Upper surface of secondaries: flat black, some yellowish hairs near base; marginal 
border narrow to medium width, dull yellow. Fringes concolorous with marginal 
border. 

Under surface of secondaries: very similar to female. 

Abdomen, thorax, palpi, and antennae as in female. 

Length of forewing 24 to 30 mm. Wing measurements of the allotype: forewing, 
apex to base 26.5 mm, apex to outer angle 17 mm, outer angle to base 19 mm, hind- 
wing, base to end of vein Cui 18 mm. 

Holotype, female, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, 12 March 1957, 
reared in Yucca constrict a Buckley, pH 7.3; allotype, male, same location 
and foodplant, 24 April 1958; both were collected by Roy O. and Connie 
Kendall and will be placed in the American Museum of Natural History. 
Described from 135 specimens ( 72 males and 63 females ) all reared 
from larvae; 101 specimens were collected by Roy O. and Connie 
Kendall at San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. February, March, and 
April, 1957-61, in Yucca constricta Buckley; 32 specimens were collected 
by Stallings & Turner at San Antonio in the same foodplant, March-May, 
1948-56. One male and one female collected by the author at the same 
general area March, 1950, pH 7.3, same foodplant. There are five male 
and 11 female paratypes in the Kendall's collection; 18 male and 14 
female paratypes in the Stallings & Turner collection. Paratypes will be 
placed in the Yale University collection and U. S. National Museum. The 
rest of the paratypes are in the author's collection. 

Associated with this subspecies but not made a part of the type series 
are specimens collected at the following locations: Inks Lake State Park, 
Burnet County; U. S. Highway 81, Medina County; Hondo, in cemetery; 
12 miles southeast of Laredo, on Highway 83; Eckert, Llano County; 
Burnet, Burnet County (Yucca rupicola Scheele); Stephensville, Erath 
County (Yucca pallida McKelvey); Bluff Dale, Erath County (Yucca 
pallida McKelvey and Yucca necopina Shinners); and Cleburne State 
Park, Johnson County, all in Texas. 

I take pleasure in naming this new subspecies for my good friends Roy 
O. and Connie Kendall who collected most of the type series. 

This subspecies is found 50 miles southwest of Cedar Hill, Dallas 
County, Texas ( which is the southernmost record for M. yuccae sfallingsi 
Freeman ) southward to the Mexican border at Laredo ( Map 1 ) . On the 
west it is replaced by M. y. louiseae Freeman, which occurs at Bracket- 
ville northward to San Angelo. It does not extend over to eastern Texas 
where M. y. reinthali Freeman occurs, except just east of San Antonio in 
the Floresville area, where Yucca louisianemis Trelease occurs in sandy 
soil in wooded areas, where the pH is acid. M. y. kendalli has not been 
taken in the lower Rio Grande Valley where M . y. wilsonorum S. & T. is 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



85 



immsmmmmmm- 




Explanation of plate 

Adults of Megathymus yuccae; left, upperside; right, underside. Top row: M. 
yuccae kendalli paratype $ , San Antonio, Texas, 22 April 1948. 2nd row: M. yuccae 
kendalli paratype $ , San Antonio, Texas, 4 April 1948. 3rd row: M. yuccae winkensis 
paratype $, Wink, Texas, 24 March 1963. Lower row: M. yuccae winkensis para- 
type $, Wink, Texas, 11 March 1963. 



86 Freeman: More Megathymus subspecies Vol. 19, no. 2 

found. The former is associated with open country where the pH is on 
the alkaline side usually around pH 7.3-7.5. In most places the soil is 
rather rocky and scrub cedars (Juniperus) and mesquite are the dominant 
plant associates. The center of distribution of kendalli appears to be the 
San Antonio area, where most specimens have been taken from Yucca 
constricta Buckley. 

In comparing this subspecies with the others found in this general part 
of Texas, it differs from stallingsi in the following ways: stallingsi has the 
spots bright lemon yellow, whereas in kendalli they are dull, light yellow; 
the ground color in stallingsi is dark, shiny black, in kendalli it is flat 
black; in stallingsi spot 7 reaches under spot 6 usually, while in kendalli it 
just barely reaches the inner edge of spot 6 and often may be separate 
from it; in stallingsi the females have spots 7 and 8 usually wider than 
spot 9, but in kendalli they are usually somewhat narrower than spot 9. 
M. y. kendalli differs from reinthali in the following ways: the spots are 
much darker yellow in reinthali; the ground color of reinthali is dark, 
shiny black, while in kendalli it is flat black; the spot shape differs in the 
females, reinthali has all of the spots on both wings larger and better 
defined than in kendalli; in reinthali spot 7 reaches well under spot 6 
usually, while in kendalli it may or may not reach the inner edge of spot 
6. M. y. kendalli differs from louiseae in the following ways: in louiseae 
the spots are yellowish white, while in kendalli the spots, although light, 
are still darker yellow than in louiseae; the spots are better defined in 
kendalli in both sexes than they are in louiseae; the marginal border of 
the secondaries is somewhat more narrow in kendalli than in louiseae; 
the wing shape is different in both sexes, while kendalli has broader 
wings. M. y. kendalli differs from wilsonorum in the following ways: the 
wing shape differs, kendalli has broader wings; the marginal border of 
the secondaries of both sexes in wilsonorum is much wider than in ken- 
dalli; as a general rule individuals of wilsonorum are larger than those of 
kendalli; spot 7 is well separated from spot 6 in wilsonorum, while in 
kendalli most specimens have spot 7 just barely reaching to the inner edge 
of spot 6. The genitalia place kendalli closer to wilsonorum than to any 
other subspecies of yuccae. 

Several years ago Stallings & Turner found some old tents of Megathy- 
mus yuccae in Yucca campestris McKelvey at Wink, Texas. Using the 
information provided by them, I made two collecting trips to this area, 
one in November, 1962 and the other in November, 1963, to obtain speci- 
mens for study. As this area is very sandy and presents a habitat some- 
what different from any other in Texas, I was certain that we had 
something different even before any specimens were seen. The pH is 
acid being pH 5 for the study habitats. After the first specimen emerged 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 87 



it was obvious that we had a new subspecies, the description of which 
follows. 

Megathymus yuccae winkensis Freeman, new subspecies 

female. Upper surface of primaries: dark grayish black, with fairly heavy over- 
scaling of grayish yellow hairs and scales near base; a narrow, grayish line of 
overscaling from apex to about middle of wing just inside fringe. Spot 1 (cell spot) 
broadly rectangular, yellowish white; three narrow white spots between cell spot 
and costa; spots 2, 3, and 4 white, broad, 3 mm; spots 5 and 6 prominent, white, 
1-2 mm wide; spot 7 reaches to inner edge of spot 6, in some cases one-half the 
way under it; spot 7 broadly rectangular, 4.5 mm wide; spot 8 broadly rectangular, 
5.5 mm wide; spot 9 bent inward at bottom, sharply pointed toward base of wing, 
not as wide as spot 8, 4 mm wide; all three spots (7, 8, 9), yellowish white, on 
some specimens almost completely sordid white. Fringes sordid white, checkered 
with black at ends of veins. 

Under surface of primaries: dull grayish black, with the outer margin overscaled 
with light gray scales. All spots reappear, of the same general coloration as above. 

Upper surface of secondaries: dark grayish black, with some slight, lighter over- 
scaling near base; a broad, yellowish white, marginal border 3-4 mm in width; 
usually a white spot near costa. Markings light yellowish white; spots 10 and 11 
usually fused, rather small, 1.5 mm wide; spot 12 rounded, 2.5 mm wide, spot 13 
somewhat rectangular, 2-3 mm wide; usually a prominent spot in space 14 varying 
from phantom-like to a well-defined triangular spot. Fringes concolorous with 
marginal border. 

Under surface of secondaries: dull grayish black, the spots reappearing as lighter 
areas. Two well-defined, linear, subcostal white spots. A brown, circular dot just 
above spot 10. 

Abdomen dark grayish black above, slightly lighter beneath. Thorax grayish black 
above, somewhat lighter beneath. Palpi clear white. Antennae with club black, the 
remaining portion white with minute black rings between segments. 

Length of forewing 31-34 mm, average 33 mm. Wing measurements of holotype: 
forewing, apex to base 33 mm, apex to outer angle 19 mm, outer angle to base 23 
mm; hindwing, base to end of vein Cut 23.5 mm. 

male. Upper surface of primaries: dull grayish black, with heavy overscaling of 
yellowish gray hairs and scales at base; some light grayish overscaling near apex. 
Cell spot ( spot 1 ) small, oval, white; three linear, white streaks above cell spot near 
costa; spots 2, 3, and 4 form a curved line, prominent, white, 2-3 mm wide; spots 
5 and 6 prominent, white; spot 7 usually extending one-half the distance beneath 
spot 6; spots 7 and 8 roughly square, 2—3.5 mm wide; spot 9 directed inward along 
vein, a light streak on vein on outer surface, 3.5 mm wide; spots 7, 8, 9 white in 
some cases with a very slight yellowish cast. Fringes light gray, checkered with 
black on veins. 

Under surface of primaries: dull grayish black, apical area overscaled with grayish 
scales. The spots reappear, of the same general coloration as above. 

Upper surface of secondaries: dark grayish black, some yellowish gray overscaling 
near base; a broad, sordid white, marginal border, 3-4 mm in width. Most veins are 
black, extending through this area. One specimen with two small but distinct discal 
spots. Fringes same color as marginal border. 

Under surface of secondaries: similar to female except grayish overscaling is a 
little more uniform in appearance. 

Abdomen, thorax, palpi and antennae same as in female. 

Length of the forewing 23 to 30 mm, average 29 mm. Wing measurements of 
allotype: forewing, apex to base 29.5 mm, apex to outer angle 18 mm, outer angle 
to base 21 mm; hindwing, base to end of vein Cui 19.5 mm. 



88 Freeman: More Megathymus subspecies Vol. 19, no. 2 

Holotype female, Wink, Winkler County, Texas, 16 March 1964, 
reared in Yucca campestris McKelvey; allotype male, same location and 
foodplant, 9 March 1964, both were collected by the author and will 
be deposited in The American Museum of Natural History. 

Described from 36 specimens (22 males and 14 females) all reared 
from larvae. Three males and one female were taken six miles north of 
Pyote, Ward County, Texas, November, 1962 and emerged during Febru- 
ary and March, 1963; four males and five females were collected three 
miles south of Wink, Winkler County, Texas, November, 1962 and 
emerged during March and April, 1963; 15 males and eight females were 
collected at the northern edge of Wink, November, 1963 and emerged 
during March, 1964. All specimens were collected by H. A. Freeman. 
The type locality is the northern edge of Wink where the soil is red sand 
having a pH of 5. The elevation is 2,700 feet and the most predominant 
type of vegetation other than the foodplant, Yucca campestris McKelvey, 
was mesquite, tumbleweed, cacti, sand burs, and Mahonia. Apparently 
this subspecies is restricted to the above-mentioned areas, where the soil 
is acid. This is the only acid Yucca location that I have so far found in 
western Texas. 

The two subspecies of Megathymus yuccae that show closest relation- 
ship to winkensis are arizonae Tinkham and reubeni Stallings, Turner, & 
Stallings. In comparing the males of winkensis with arizonae the follow- 
ing differences are noted: the wing shape is somewhat broader in ari- 
zonae than it is in winkensis; the ground color in winkensis is grayish 
black, while in arizonae it is brownish black; the coloration of spots 7, 8, 
and 9, as well as the marginal border of the secondaries in winkensis is 
light whitish yellow, while in arizonae the same areas are a darker dull 
yellow. In comparing the males of winkensis with reubeni the following 
differences are noted: the wing shape is somewhat broader in reubeni 
than in winkensis; reubeni has heavier white overscaling along the outer 
margins and all spots seem to fuse together more than they do in winken- 
sis; the ground color of reubeni is flat black, while in winkensis it is more 
grayish black; and on the lower surface of the secondaries the subcostal 
spots are better defined in reubeni than they are in winkensis. In com- 
paring the females of winkensis with arizonae the following are noted: 
the ground color in winkensis is grayish black, while in arizonae it is 
more brownish black; the spots are lighter in color in winkensis than in 
arizonae; the wing shape is somewhat broader in arizonae than it is in 
winkensis; in arizonae the discal band of spots on the upper surface of 
the secondaries are better defined than in winkensis, and the phantom 
spot in space 14 is broadly V-shaped with the point directed toward the 
base of the wing, while in winkensis this spot is more of a distinct, tri- 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



89 



angular blotch; there are usually two white, oval spots below the outer 
subcostal spot on the lower surface of the secondaries in arizonae, while 
in winkensis these spots are obsolete. In comparing the females of 
winkensis with reubeni the following differences are noted: the wing 
shape is slightly broader in reubeni than in winkensis; spot 7 usually 
reaches to the cell spot in reubeni, while this rarely occurs in winkensis; 
all spots are larger and more fused together in reubeni than they are in 
winkensis; there is more white overscaling in the outer margins of reubeni 
than in winkensis; the phantom spot in space 14 on the upper surface of 




Explanation of map 

Distribution of the subspecies of Megathymus yuccae (Boisduval & LeConte) in 
Texas. 1, M. yuccae reinthali Freeman; 2, M . y. coloradensis Riley; 3, M. y. stallingsi 
Freeman; 4, M. y. louiseae Freeman; 5, M. y. wilsonorum Stallings & Turner; 6, M. 
y. reubeni Stallings, Turner, & Stallings; 7, M. y. kendalli Freeman; 8, M. y. winkensis 
Freeman. 



90 Freeman: More Megathymus subspecies Vol. 19, no. 2 

the secondaries in reubeni is more like that in arizonae than it is to 
winkensis; there is greater contrast on the lower surface of the secondaries 
in reubeni than in winkensis; and in reubeni the discal band on the upper 
surface of the secondaries is more yellow than spots 7, 8, and 9, while 
in winkensis they are all of the same light whitish yellow coloration. 

Literature Cited 

Comstock, J. A., & C. M. Dammers, 1934. The metamorphosis of three California 

diurnals. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci, 33: 79-92, 2 pi. 
Freeman, H. A., 1943. Notes on and redescriptions of Megathymus yucca (Bdv. & 
LeC. ) and its subspecies. Ent. News, 54: 211-217. 
1951. Ecological and systematic study of the Hesperioidea of Texas. So. Meth- 
odist Univ. Studies, No. 6: 1-64. 
1958. A revision of the genera of the Megathymidae, with the description of 

three new genera. Lepid. News, 12: 81-92, 1 pi. 
1963a. Megathymus yuccae in Texas, with the description of two new subspecies. 

Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 89-99, 2 pi. 
1963b. Type localities of the Megathymidae. Jour. Res. Lepid., 2(2): 137-141. 
1964. The effects of pH on the distribution of the Megathymidae. Jour. Res. 
Lepid, 3 ( 1 ) : 1-4. 
Riley, C. V, 1876. Notes on the Yucca Borer, Megathymus yuccae (Bdv. & LeC). 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 3: 323-343, figs. 25-31. 
1877. Additional notes on Megathymus yuccae. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 3: 
566-568. 
Stallings, D. B, &. J. R. Turner, 1956. Description of a new subspecies of the 
Megathymus yuccae (Bdv. & LeC.) complex. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 55: 
150-152, 3 pi. 
1958. A review of the Megathymidae of Mexico, with a synopsis of the classifica- 
tion of the family. Lepid. News, 11: 113-137, 8 pi. 
1960. A new species of Agathymus and a new subspecies of Megathymus. Ent. 
News, 71: 109-115, 2 pi. 
Stallings, D. B, J. R. Turner, & V. N. Stallings, 1963. Two new species and 
one new subspecies of Megathymidae from Mexico and Texas. Jour. Lepid. 
Soc, 17: 81-88, 3 pi. 
Tinkham, E. R, 1954. The biology and description of a new giant skipper from 
Arizona. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci, 53: 75-87, 2 pi. 



BOOK NOTICE 

ENTOMOLOGIE V. [Entomology, vol. V.]. By Jan Obenberger. 1964. 775 pp., 
846 figs, and 12 pis. (of which 6 in color). Published by the Czechoslovak Acad- 
emy of Sciences. Vodickova Street, Praha, Czechoslovakia. Price 71,- Kcs. 

The fifth volume of the monumental Obenberger's work "Entomologie" (in 
Czech) contains the orders Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. 

The part on Lepidoptera (pp. 69-410, figs. 66-477, 12 pis.) contains a short 
review on the world system of families with a number of illustrations. In the intro- 
ductory chapters the morphology and anatomy of all stages of Lepidoptera are dis- 
cussed in detail. 

The part on Lepidoptera in this entomological work is the most comprehensive 
study about the general problems of this order in the Czech language. 

[The author, Professor of Entomology of Charles University, Prague, died at 29 
May 1964].— Josef Moucha, Narodni museum v Praze, Praha 1, Czechoslovakia 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 91 

A NOTE ON PYRGUS COMMUNIS AND 
PYRGUS ALBESCENS (HESPERIIDAE) 

J. W. TlLDEN 

125 Cedar Lane, San Jose, California 

The status of Pyrgus communis Grote and Pyrgus albescens Ploetz is 
one of the unsettled problems in the study of American Hesperiidae. 
P. albescens has been considered a form or a subspecies of P. communis, 
or a distinct species. P. communis occupies a more northern range than 
does P. albescens, a range that comprises most of temperate Canada, 
the whole of the United States except the lower elevations of the south- 
west, and the Gulf Region of Texas. P. communis also occurs in Mexico, 
as noted by Evans (1953). P. albescens occupies areas in the south- 
west, in the southern Gulf Region of Texas, and south into Mexico. 

A large number of specimens was examined in the course of this 
study. Specimens from east of the Great Plains proved to be P. com- 
munis, as did those from Colorado, Utah, and localities north of these 
states. Brown et al. (1956) did not find P. albescens in Colorado, but 
Evans (1953) mentions a specimen in the British Museum from that 
State. Specimens from northern Arizona, northern and central California, 
and western Texas were P. communis. 

Specimens from southern and southeastern California were usually 
P. albescens. P. albescens has been recorded from Baja California by 
Rindge (1948), Powell (1958), and MacNeill (1962). Powell notes 
that a specimen from Descanso (about 35 miles south of the United 
States border) is intermediate between P. albescens and P. communis 
in genitalic structure, as is characteristic of populations in the San 
Diego area. 

In Arizona, specimens from north of the Mogollon Rim were P. com- 
munis, as were those from higher elevations in the isolated ranges to 
the south. The higher elevations of such ranges as the Santa Catalina 
Mountains and the Santa Rita Mountains yield P. communis, while the 
open desert usually is inhabited by P. albescens. At Sycamore Canyon, 
Santa Cruz County, Arizona, specimens with genitalia of both types 
were taken. This is a locality of intermediate elevation. 

Specimens from the Davis Mountains, Cuesta de Burro Mountains, 
and other mountains in western Texas ( Trans-Pecos ) were P. communis. 
East of the Pecos River, at Del Rio, Laredo, Rio Grande City, and on 
to Brownsville, only P. albescens was found. P. albescens seems to be 
the only one along the Gulf Coast, from at least San Patricio County 



92 Tilden: Unsettled Pyrgus status Vol. 19, no. 2 

in the north, south to the Mexican border. This species was recorded 
from Bayside, Refugio County; Welder Wildlife Refuge, San Patricio 
County, and Lake Corpus Christi, Live Oak County, south to Browns- 
ville, Port Isabel, Southmost and Boca Chica, all Cameron County. 
P. albescens thus occupies the entire Rio Grande Plains region. Ap- 
parently P. communis is absent from this region entirely. This is Plant 
Area 3 of Kendall & Freeman (1963) and all of Vegetational Area 6 
plus the southern half of Vegetational Area 2, of Gould (1962). 

P. albescens was also taken on the Off-Shore Islands [Mustang Island, 
Nueces County, 15 October 1963, Kendall & Tilden; Padre Island, 
Nueces County, same date and collectors; Lower Padre Island (offshore 
from Port Isabel), Cameron County, 24 October 1963, Tilden]. 

However, specimens examined from San Antonio, Bexar County, and 
from Palmetto State Park, Gonzales County, were P. communis. 

On the basis of available data, it appears that P. communis occupies 
cool and temperate regions, even when such areas occur as islands sur- 
rounded by deserts. P. albescens seems to be adapted to low-elevational 
warm areas, which may be either dry (Arizona, southern California) 
or humid (Gulf Region of Texas). 

Most specimens are not difficult to discriminate by genital characters. 
By brushing away the hairs from the tip of the abdomen of the male, 
the tip of the valve (cucullus; cuiller of Evans) can be seen easily. 
If necessary a thin piece of paper may be thrust between the two valvae 
enabling better visual examination. The tip of the cucullus is prolonged 
and bidentate in P. communis but is very short and monodont in P. 
albescens. Occasional specimens are intermediate, or tend to vary 
somewhat. Most specimens seem to be recognizably one or the other, 
and some populations seem quite homogeneous, especially in the north- 
ern and eastern parts of the range. However, intermediate populations 
occur, as in the San Diego region of California, and presumably others 
might be found with further study. 

The phenotypes of the two are so similar that separation by size or 
color is untrustworthy. In long series, P. communis appears a bit larger, 
and with the ground color a rather dark gray. P. albescens in series ap- 
pears somewhat smaller, the ground color a lighter gray, and in some 
specimens at least, the white markings more extensive. These differences 
will not hold for all specimens. No really reliable visual discrimination 
is possible in many instances. 

The smaller average size and slightly lighter coloration of P. albescens 
might be expected of a desert population, as compared with a related 
population living in a more temperate climate. What significance the 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 93 

relatively minor difference in shape of the valve of the male may have 
is certainly obscure, but the geographical manner in which the two con- 
ditions of the valve tend to segregate, even if incompletely, suggests 
some selective value. 

There has been no general agreement as to what taxonomic level best 
expresses the slight but perceptible differences between the insects 
which have been named P. communis and P. albescens. One solution 
is to regard each as a valid species that replaces the other in the proper 
environment. This course has been taken by Klots ( 1951 ) and by Brown 
et al. (1956). The genitalic differences suggest this view. Yet it seems 
unlikely that this treatment would have been proposed by these workers 
had they been aware of the degree of intergradation that takes place 
along some of the interfaces. 

A second course is to regard each as a subspecies that replaces the 
other in the proper environment. This view is taken by Evans (1953), 
by McDunnough (1938), and by dos Passos (1964). This interpreta- 
tion also presents some problems. If the ranges are mapped in southern 
Arizona, we find the interesting condition of one subspecies (P. com- 
munis communis) existing as small islands surrounded by populations 
of the other (P. communis albescens). 

P. communis and P. albescens, while perceptibly different, do not 
seem to exhibit the degree of differences usually associated with either 
specific or subspecific status. Since each occupies a range, with inter- 
gradation along the lines of meeting and in some instances over con- 
siderable areas as well, they do not seem to be forms of one another 
in the usual sense of the term. There seems to be no taxonomic category 
that expresses their relationship precisely. 

Literature Cited 

Brown, F. M., D. Eff, & B. Rotger, 1956. Colorado Butterflies, Part V. Hesperi- 

idae, Megathymidae. Proc. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist., No. 7, Denver, Colo. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A Synonymic List of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem., 

The Lepid. Soc., No. 1. Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 
Evans, W. H., 1953. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae, Part III. British 

Museum (Natural History), London, England. 
Gould, F. W., 1962. Texas Plants — a Checklist and Ecological Summary. Agric. 

& Mechanical Coll. Texas, Texas Agric. Exp. Sta., College Station, Texas. 
Kendall, R. O., & H. A. Freeman, 1963. The Butterflies and Skippers of Texas. 

Rob & Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation, Sinton, Texas. 
Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Company, 

Boston, Mass. 
MacNeill, C. D., 1962. A preliminary report on the Hesperiidae of Baja California 

(Lepidoptera). Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., 30: 91-116. 
McDunnough, J., 1938. Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United 

States of America. Part I. Macrolepidoptera. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



94 Shepard: Corrected Washington Erebia Vol. 19, no. 2 



Powell, J. A., 1958. Additions to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Baja 

California Norte. Lepid. News, 12: 26-32. 
Rindge, F. H., 1948. Contributions toward a knowledge of the insect fauna of 

Lower California. No. 8. Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 

4th ser., 24: 289-312. 



EREBIA DISA MANCINUS IN WASHINGTON STATE: 
. A CORRECTION 

Leighton (1946) 1 recorded the satyrid Erebia disa mancinus Double- 
day from Skyline Ridge, Mt. Baker, Whatcom County, Wash. This record 
was based on the J. F. G. Clarke collection. Leighton didn't mention that 
the Clarke records were taken from a set of file cards. Clarke had pre- 
pared a complete file of his Lepidoptera collection before leaving Wash- 
ington State University. This file is now in the W.S.U. Entomology 
Department. Leighton never actually saw the specimens. The card with 
E. disa title bears the following information: "Erebia disa mancinus D. 
& H., #157.3-1577, Skyline Ridge, Mt. Baker Dist, Wash., July 26, 1925. 
In coll. J. F. Clarke." 

This determination was incorrect and rectified by Clarke in 1929. The 
W.S.U. Entomology Department reprint file contains a typed manu- 
script by Clarke. 2 In it he refers to E. vidleri Elwes from the Mt. Baker 
Dist. and the Olympic Mts. Also E. epipsodea Butler is recorded from 
Spokane. In addition to this the W.S.U. entomology collection contains 
four males of E. vidleri collected by Clarke in 1932. They are dated (two 
males ) Aug. 26 and ( two males ) Aug. 27. All specimens are from Skyline 
Ridge, Mt. Baker Dist., Wash. The two specimens of E. vidleri (Clarke, 
1929) from the Olympic Mts. are also in the W.S.U. collection. 

Thus it appears that the Erebia disa mancinus from Washington are 
only misdetermined E. vidleri. Leighton obviously never saw the manu- 
script of Clarke. An unfortunate mistake was published and is corrected 
here. 

Jon H. Shepard, Dept. of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. 



iB. V. Leighton, The butterflies of Washington (Univ. of Wash. Press, 1946), Vol. 9, p. 47-63. 
- J. F. Clarke, A preliminary list of the Lepidoptera of Washington, 1929, 37 pages, typed 
manuscript. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 95 

DISTRIBUTION AND HOSTS OF FIVE PHILOTES IN 
CALIFORNIA (LYCAENIDAE) 

Robert L. Langston 

University of California, Berkeley, Calif., U.S.A. 

In central coastal California, five entities of Philotes are known to 
occur: Philotes battoides bernardino, P. enoptes bayensis, P. enoptes 
smithi, P. enoptes tildeni, and P. sonorensis (Langston, 1964). 

The detailed area of this study encompasses the region in northern 
and central California from Humboldt County to San Luis Obispo County 
on the coast, and inland to the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. This 
area includes both the immediate coastal ranges (North Coast Range, 
Santa Cruz Mountains, and the Santa Lucia Range), and the inner coast 
ranges ( Mt. Hamilton and Diablo Ranges south to the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains ) . 

Two of these Philotes (bernardino and sonorensis) occur to the east 
and are much more widespread to the south of the above-defined central 
coastal area. Confirmed records of these localities are indicated on the 
state maps (Figs. 1 and 3). However, for brevity, this additional distri- 
bution is cited by county only. 

Host plant associations are included under each Philotes along with the 
distributional records. The data given in detail (locality, date, numbers, 
and collector) are those that have come to my attention from several 
lepidopterists since an earlier paper (Langston, 1964) was submitted for 
publication. Also included are 1963 and 1964 data accumulated subse- 
quent to this paper. Previously published data ( Mattoni, 1954; Langston, 
1964) are given by locality only, but are repeated here to denote the 
remaining symbols on the central coastal map (Fig. 2). 

In an attempt to more easily picture the distributional patterns, the 
counties are listed from north to south, rather than alphabetically. The 
localities within each county are also listed from north to south, in com- 
bination with west to east, insofar as possible. 

Philotes battoides bebnardino Barnes & McDunnough 

Philotes battoides bernardino Barnes & McDunnough, 1916, Contr. Nat. 

Hist.Lepid. N.A.,3(2): 116. 

The San Bernardino blue is a late spring and early summer flier. Within 
the counties where detailed records are given below, it has been asso- 
ciated with Eriogonum fasciculatum foliolosum (Nuttall) S. Stokes. 

In southern California it has also been found, in most instances, on 
E. f. foliolosum. In addition it has been taken on E. fasciculatum fascial- 



Langston: Further Philotes records 



Vol. 19, no. 2 



latum Bentham along the immediate coast of southern California. In the 
desert and east slope areas it was found on E. fasciculatum polifolium 
(Bentham) S. Stokes and E. fasciculatum flavoviride (Munz & Johnston) 
S. Stokes. 



Paicines, 12 mi. 
4 mi. E, VI-15-1963, 5 8 8,7 



Central coastal records: 

San Benito Co.: Tres Pinos, 3 mi. S, VI-15-1963, 4 8 8,2 9 9 
S, VI-15-1963, 3 8 8,4 9 9; Pinnacles Nat. M 
9 9 (all R. L. Langston). 

Monterey Co.: Arroyo Seco; Arroyo Seco, 4 mi. E. 

Fresno Co.: Coalinga, 10 & 16 mi. NW, VI-7-1957, 2 8 8 (O. E. Sette). 

San Luis Obispo Co.: Creston, 3 mi. S, V-4-1962, 1 5 (R. W. Thorp); Simmler 
13 mi. WNW, VI-7-1957, 1 8 (O. E. Sette). 









) '4L 


m 






■t$> '■ 


' %£&* 




'■■'• i . 


. 9t x : 


$ x 


%Y 


4& 


'■A h ~ 


mm* 


\-r 







Philotes battoides bernardino 




Explanation of Map 1 

Geographic distribution of Philotes battoides bernardino Barnes & McDunnough 
in California. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 97 



Kern Co. (western part only): Frazier Park, VII-20-1963, 1 2 (J. A. Powell); 
Lebec, VI-9-1957, 2 $ $ (P. A. Opler); Tehachapi, 5 & 6 mi. NW, VI-14-1957, 6 
8 8 (O. E. Sette); near Woodford (Keene P. O.), VI-26-1955, 1 $,2 2 2 (J. A. 
Powell). 
California county records ( see map 1 ) : 

Inyo, Tulare, Kern, Ventura, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, San 
Diego. 
Baja California Norte: 

South to Cedros Island (Rindge, 1948); Sierra San Pedro Martir (Patterson & 
Powell, 1960). 

Philotes enoptes bayensis Langston 

Philotes enoptes bayensis Langston, 1964, Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 208 

("1963"). 

This blue is a late spring and early summer flier. In Contra Costa and 
Solano counties oviposition and larval feeding are known to occur upon 
Eriogonum latifolium auriculatum (Bentham) S. Stokes. In Marin and 
Sonoma counties it is associated with Eriogonum latifolium nudum 
(Douglas ex Bentham) S. Stokes. In these counties auriculatum and 
nudum are both white-flowered varieties, and tend to hybridize, so that 
in certain areas (particularly Marin County) the two are almost in- 
separable. Within the area studied, these plants come into bloom in mid- 
May and extend into July, with early or "fresh" blossoms in evidence 
during the flight of P. enoptes bayensis. 

The discovery of some papered specimens collected in 1907 that had 
been stored in the basement at the California Academy of Sciences, ex- 
tended the range of this insect to the north — into Humboldt and Men- 
docino counties. These two counties are not shown on the central coastal 
map ( Fig. 2 ) , but the localities as noted by the collector are given below. 
Additional data is given in parenthesis to indicate the areas in relation to 
places that appear on most state maps. 

The complete known distribution is as follows: 

Humboldt Co.: Fruitland (near Eel River, SE of McCann), VI-15-1907, 1 $, 2 
2 2, VI-17-1907, 8 $ $, 14 2 2 (John Strohbeen). 

Mendocino Co.: Blue Rock (Creek 2 mi. S of Bell Springs), VI-18-1907, 1 8 
(John Strohbeen). 

Sonoma Co.: Duncan Mills, 2 mi. E to 3 mi. NE, VII-9-1961, 3 $ $,1 2, VII- 
6-1962, 6 8 8,3 2 2, VI-29-1963, 1 2, VI-30-1963, 6 8 8,2 2 2 (N. L. LaDue), 
VII-5-1964, 3 8 8,1 $ (R. L. Langston); Duncan Mills, 2 mi. W, VII-5-1964, 4 
8 8,1 2 ; Occidental, 2 mi. W, VII-4-1964, 3 $ $ , 12 2 $ ; Forestville, 3 mi. W, 
VII-4-1964, 7 8 8,5 2 2; Graton, 3 mi. W, VII-4-1964, 2 8 8 , 2 2 2 (all R. L. 
Langston ) . 

Marin Co.: China Camp, near Point San Pedro, V-30-1961, 2 8 8 (N. L. LaDue); 
Paradise Cay, 3 mi. SE of Corte Madera, V-30-1961, 27 8 8 & 2 2, V-22-1962, 
4 8 8,2 2 2, V-29-1962, 37 8 8 & 2 2 (N. L. LaDue); Tiburon, 2 mi. NE; hill 
above Tiburon, V-23-1964, 2 ,8 8, 1 2 (R. L. Langston). 

Solano Co.: Carquinez Strait at Glen Cove. 



98 Langston: Further Philoles records Vol. 19, no. 2 



Contra Costa Co. : Point San Pablo, Richmond, VI-12-1964, 7 ^,3 2$ ( R. L. 
Langston); Point Richmond, V-30-1963, 13 6 S , 5 $9, VI-1-1963, 24 6 S,9 9 9, 
V-17-1964, 17 $ S,9 9 9, V-27-1964, 18 ^,9 99, VI-6-1964, 10 $ $ ,' 6 99, 
VI-12-1964, 17 S 6, 16 9 9 (all R. L. Langston). 

Philotes enoptes smithi Mattoni 

Philotes enoptes smithi Mattoni, 1954, Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 53: 160. 

This blue is a late summer flier, and has been associated with Eriogonum 
parvifolium Smith. 

Surveys were made in 1962 and 1963 between the northern and southern 
records indicated. Although the foodplant was found in abundance along 
the immediate coast (particularly near Point Lobos and to the north of 
Big Sur), no additional colonies of P. enoptes smithi were found. At- 
tempts were previously made to discover the race both to the north and 
south of the open circles on the map (Fig. 2), as noted by Langston 
( 1964 ) . The localities below have been published ( Mattoni, 1955; Lang- 
ston, 1964), and are not given in further detail. 

The complete known distribution is as follows: 

Monterey Co.: Marina Beach, dunes; Seaside, dunes, VIII-19-1963, 2 <3 <$ , 3 9 9 
(R. L. Langston), VII-26-1964, 8^,3 9$ (P. A. Opler); Monterey, "sand hills"; 
Paraiso Springs; Burns Creek, State Hwy. 1 (Type locality); Dolan Creek, State 
Hwy. 1; Lucia, 3 & 4 mi. SE, VIII-6-1956, 6 $ S, 4 9 9 (O. E. Sette); Gorda, 4 
mi. N. 

Philotes enoptes tildeni Langston 

Philotes enoptes tildeni Langston, 1964, Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 212 ("1963"). 

This blue is a late summer flier, and has been taken in association with 
yellow-flowered varieties of Eriogonum latifolium Smith. The plant sub- 
species varied with localities, and is cited with the detailed records below. 
All of these plants come into bloom in August and extend until October, 
with early or "fresh" blossoms in evidence during the flight of P. enoptes 
tildeni. 

Additional surveys extended the range of this insect considerably, into 
San Benito, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo counties. Colonies could 
occur all along the Diablo Range between these new records and the 
northern locales. Much of the range is rather inaccessible, with the greater 
part of the existing roads following the valleys. 

The complete known distribution and associated plants are as follows: 

Santa Clara Co.: Arroyo Bayo, E base of Mt. Hamilton; San Antonio Valley, E & 
NE of Mt. Hamilton [Eriogonum latifolium nudum (Douglas ex Bentham) S. Stokes]. 

Stanislaus Co.: Del Puerto Canyon, 22 mi. W of Patterson, IX-11-1963, 12 $ $ , 
2 9 9 (R. L. Langston & J. A. Powell); 18 mi. W of Patterson [£. latifolium auricu- 
latum (Bentham) S. Stokes]. 

San Benito Co.: Call Mts. above New Idria, VIII-27-1964, 4 9 9 (Langston, 
Powell & P. A. Opler) (E. latifolium auriculatum) . 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



99 



Scale 

o io 20 30 40 so Kilomefers 




Philotes battoides 
bernardino 



Philotes enoptes 



# bayensis 
O smithi 
3 tildeni 



A Philotes sonorensis 



Explanation of Map 2 
Geographic distribution of Philotes in central coastal California. 



100 Langston: Further Philotes records Vol. 19, no. 2 



Monterey Co.: Parkfield, 3 mi. SE, VIII-23-1963, 1 9 (Powell) [E. latifolium 
saxicola (Heller) S. Stokes]. 

San Luis Obispo Co.: Cottonwood Pass, 6 mi. NE of Cholame, VIII-23-1963, 1 
6 (Powell), VIII-26-1963, 5 $ $, 1 9 (Powell & O. E. Sette), IX-20-1963, 1 9 
(Sette), IX-1 1-1964, 3 6 6,2 9 9 (Langston & Powell) (E. latifolium indictum 
Jepson); Simmler, 8 mi. W, IX-1 1-1964, 4 6 6 , 4 9 9 (Langston, Powell & A. J. 
Slater) (E. latifolium saxicola). 

Philotes sonorensis ( Felder & Felder ) 

Lycaena sonorensis Felder & Felder, 1865, Reise Freg. Novara, Lepid. 

2(2): 281. 

The Sonora blue is an early to late spring flier. Adults have been taken 
from early February to May depending on elevation, and exposure of the 
rocky areas upon which the foodplant occurs. Latitude appears to have 
little effect, as the adult flight in many seasons is as early in northern as 
in southern California. 

The larvae are known to feed on various members of the stonecrop 
family (Comstock, 1927; Comstock and Coolidge, 1930). In southern 
California P. sonorensis has been associated with stonecrops with erect, 
terete leaves (Stylophyllum), and others having angular fleshy rosettes 
(Sedum and Dudleya). However, recent classifications place all of the 
California Stylophyllum and many species of Sedum in the genus Dud- 
leya. In the central coastal area, Philotes sonorensis has been found to 
be associated exclusively with Dudleya cymosa setchellii ( Jepson) Moran. 1 
Exact host determinations would be necessary to know whether this blue 
feeds on anything other than Dudleya under present taxonomic concepts. 

Central coastal records: 

Santa Clara Co.: Alum Rock Park, 11-21-1954, 1 6, III-l 1-1956, 2 $ $, 2 9 9, 
11-22-1964, 7 SS, 1 9, III-7-1964, 1 6, 11-11, 13-1965, 2 $ 6 (P. A. Opler), 
111-21-1957, 3 9 9, IV-2-1960, 1 $ (O. E. Sette), 11-12-1964, 12 $ $, 5 9 9 (R. 
L. Langston), 11-14-1965, 4 6 $, 11-19-1965, 10 $ $, 4 9 9 (A. J. Slater); Arroyo 
Del Valle, E base of Mt. Hamilton. 

Stanislaus Co.: Adobe Creek; Del Puerto Canyon, 22 mi. W of Patterson, III-5- 
1963, 1 9, IV-30-1963, 1 6, 11-22-1964, 2 6 $ (Langston); 21 mi. W of Patterson, 
11-22-1964, 3 6 6, 5 9 9 (Langston). 

San Benito Co.: Pinnacles Natl. Mon., north road, 111-31-1962, 1 $ (D. C. 
Rentz). 

Monterey Co.: Carmel, 10 mi. S, IV-14-1963, 1 6 (D. W. Conard); Big Sur, 
V-4-1952, 2 9 9 (T. W. Davies); Partington Canyon, 9 mi. S of Big Sur, IV-21- 
1956, 5 6 6 (P. A. Opler), V-ll-1964, 2 8 S (R. M. Brown). 

San Luis Obispo Co.: Paso Robles, 111-10-1894, 1 6 (W. G. Wright); Atascadero, 
III-6, 7, 8-1932, 7 6 6, HI-13, 16-1932, 4 $ $, IV-4-1932, 1 6 , 111-14, 26-1935, 
2 6 6, IV-5-1935, 1 $, 1 9 (V. L. Clemence). 
California county records ( see map 3 ) : 



1 During recent collecting in Placer county (N. Fork, American River E. of Auburn, 111-23-1965, 
Langston), two females were taken resting on Dudleya cymosa cymosa (Lemaire) Britton & Rose 
(det. by Reid V. Moran, San Diego Nat. Hist. Mus. ). In Tuolumne and Mariposa counties, 
Dudleya cymosa minor (Rose) Moran was found in abundance, but the small number of males 
collected were not directly associated with this plant. 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



101 






Philotes sonorensis 




Explanation of Map 3 
Geographic distribution of Philotes sonorensis (Felder & Felder) in California. 

Placer, Tuolumne, Mariposa, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, San Bernardino 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Imperial. 
Baja California Norte: 

South to vicinity of Punta Prieta (Powell, 1958). 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to acknowledge the helpful cooperation of the following for 
making available specimens for examination, and data from private and 
institutional collections in their care: Noel L. LaDue, Sacramento; C. D. 
MacNeill, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; Lloyd M. 
Martin, Los Angeles County Museum; Paul A. Opler, San Jose; J. A. 



102 Langston: Further Philotes records Vol. 19, no. 2 

Powell, California Insect Survey, Berkeley; O. E. Sette, Los Altos; and 
J. W. Tilden, San Jose State College. The assistance of Helen K. Shar- 
smith, Herbarium of the University of California, Berkeley, and that of 
J. T. Howell, California Academy of Sciences, is greatly appreciated for 
the many plant determinations. 

Literature Cited 

Comstock, J. A., 1927. Butterflies of California. Published by the author; Los 

Angeles, Calif., 334 pp., 63 pi. 
Comstock, J. A., & C. Coolidge, 1930. The life history of Philotes sonorensis 

Felder. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 29: 17-21. 
Langston, R. L., 1964. Philotes of central coastal California ( Lycaenidae ) . Jour. 

Lepid. Soc, 17: 201-223 ("1963"). 
Mattoni, R. H. T., 1954. Notes on the genus Philotes (Lycaenidae : Lepidoptera ) . 

Description of three new subspecies and a synoptic list. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. 

Sci., 53: 157-165. 
Patterson, D., & J. A. Powell, 1960. Lepidoptera collecting in the Sierra San 

Pedro Martir, Baja California. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 13: 229-235 ("1959"). 
Powell, J. A., 1958. Additions to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Baja 

California Norte. Lepid. News, 12: 26-32. 
Rindge, F. H., 1948. Contributions toward a knowledge of the insect fauna of 

Lower California. No. 8. Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 

34: 289-312. 



BOOK REVIEW 



FAUNA OF THE U.S.S.R., LEPIDOPTERA, VOL. 4, PART 2, TINEI- 
DAE, PART 2. SUBFAMILY NEMAPOGONINAE. By A. K. Zagula- 
jev, 5 May 1964, 424 pp., 385 text figs., 2 colored pis. Published by the 
Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Moscow & Leningrad, 
U.S.S.R. (new series no. 86) [In Russian]. 

This new volume of the "Fauna" forms the second part of the exten- 
sive monograph of the interesting family, of which the third part has 
been published already four years ago (cf. my review in this journal, 
vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 130-132, 1961). The present volume comprises an 
extensive treatment of the second subfamily, the chiefly mycetophagous 
Nemapogoninae, with regard to the species occurring in the Soviet Union 
and the adjoining countries. The source of the material is the same as 
before, the collections in Leningrad and Moscow, personal collecting 
by the author, and Wocke collection. 

The set up of the work is about the same as of the third part. A 
chapter on general morphology of adult and immature stages comprises 
55 pages; it is followed by remarks on biology; on classification and 
phylogeny; and on geographical distribution. Then a chapter on eco- 
nomic importance of the insects is added where the injury, the measures, 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 103 

and the technique of their application are described. Several species 
belonging to the subfamily represent serious temporary or permanent 
pests of certain stored products, as grain, grain products, products of 
bakeries, and also dried fruits and dried mushrooms (used for food). 
An extensive list of literature completes the general part. 

In the special part the subfamily Nemapogoninae is treated systemat- 
ically, starting with an extensive description of the subfamily in order 
to discriminate it from the closely allied first subfamily, Scardiinae. The 
Nemapogoninae are divided into three new tribes, viz. 1. Triaxomerini, 
containing the genera N eurothaumasia Le March (6 species), Triaxo- 
masia g. n. (1), Triaxomera Zag. (3), and Nemaxera g. n. (1). 2. Nema- 
pogonini, with Petalographis Zag. (2), Nemapogon Schr. (2), Anemapo- 
gon Zag. (8), Paranemapogon g. n. (2), Archinemapogon Zag. (5), and 
Longiductus g. n. (5), and 3. Haplotineini, with a single genus, Haplo- 
tinea Diak. & Hint. (3). Altogether 11 genera with 57 species, five of 
which are new, are treated. 

For the identification of the genera three different kinds of keys are 
presented, based on external characters, on male, and on female genital 
characters. For identification of the species three similar kinds of keys 
are available and besides, a key based on larval chaetotaxy. 

Numerous text figures illustrate head with mouthparts, wing neura- 
tion of all genera; and the adult and the male and female genitalia of 
every species. 

Larval chaetotaxy of more injurious species is given and illustrated. 
Seventeen species are illustrated on colored plates. 

For the classification of genera wing venation, mouthparts, and geni- 
talia of the two sexes are used. In this part abbreviated literature refer- 
ences are given not only for the species (as in the previous part) but 
also for the genera which is a better practice. The merits of the present 
(second) part of the monograph are similar to those of the already 
published third part, but exceed that in the completeness of description, 
the number of treated species in this subfamily being the same, while 
the amount of pages doubled. Therefore, the work may justly serve as a 
standard which the student of any other group of Microlepidoptera may 
copy to his advantage. 

The author may be congratulated with this excellent piece of work. 
It forms a further step towards the completion of the revision of the 
Palaearctic representatives of the Tineidae and a sound basis for further 
study of the taxonomy of this interesting group. I have no doubt that 
the concluding part, Scardiinae, will follow soon. 

A. Diakonoff, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, NETHERLANDS 



104 Phillips: Odd Boloria flight Vol. 19, no. 2 



FLIGHT HABITS OF BOLORIA TODDI 

While collecting butterflies along the Beaver River about four miles 
west of Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, Iowa, on 3 September 1964, 
from 12:45 to 1:45 P.M., I made the following observations on Boloria 
toddi toddi Holland. The habitat is an open place in a wooded river 
bottom which is used as pastureland. Flowers in bloom were: Helenium 
autumnale L. ( sneezeweed ) , Solidago (tall goldenrod), Veronia altissima 
Nutt. ( tall ironweed ), and Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) ( bull thistle ) . Trees 
in this particular spot are a few scrubby Crataegus (hawthorn) and 
Gleditsia triacanthos L. (honey locust). 

I was investigating Phyciodes thaws (Drury) and Euptoieta claudia 
(Cramer), which were quite plentiful, especially on the sneezeweed, 
when something flew by that looked like a tiny Speyeria; I assumed it was 
a Boloria. I tried to capture it but to no avail. However, I was surprised 
in a few moments to see it or another one fly past again. Then by careful 
observation, I was able to ascertain that this particular Boloria had set up 
a territory, roughly 100 feet north and south by 500-600 feet east and 
west. By standing in one spot I found that the butterfly would fly past 
me periodically. Presently, I discovered that there were two individuals 
and that both were following the same pattern of flight. Both butterflies 
circled back and forth in a roughly clockwise motion, east to west, never 
alighting during the hour-long observation period and never flying very 
high. The flight was jerky and fast with a circular, zigzag pattern making 
the butterflies extremely difficult to capture. They eluded the net very 
easily. Finally, after three quarters of an hour, I managed to capture one 
of them, a male, and was thus able to identify the species. The remaining 
one I made no attempt to capture. 

The two B. toddi paid no attention to the flowers that were in bloom. 
Occasionally a P. tharos that was present on the sneezeweed flowers 
would rise up to engage in aerial conflict with the B. toddi as they flew 
past, but they did not seem to pay much attention to the apparently ag- 
gressive Phyciodes. The Phyciodes also flew at the E. claudia very ag- 
gressively. 

The two Boloria's were in good condition, with very bright colors, and 
looked as though they were freshly emerged. According to Klots ( 1951, 
Field Guide to the Butterflies: 92) this butterfly is double brooded. The 
two individuals which I observed must have represented the second 
brood, since they were so fresh late in the season. 

This may be a new record for B. toddi in the Cedar Falls area, as this is 
the first time I have observed the species in this area. 

Leonard S. Phillips, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago 16, III. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 105 

LARVAL FOODPLANT AND DISTRIBUTION NOTES FOR 
SCHINIAOLIVACEA (NOCTUIDAE) 

Roy O. Kendall 

135 Vaughan Place, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. 

J. B. Smith (1906) described Schinia olivacea from a female taken in 
October, 1895 at Beeville, Bee County, Texas. The type is in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York (Rindge, 1955). Today, this 
insect remains rare in collections. 

Based on collection and rearing records, it appears that olivacea is 
double brooded with perhaps a partial third. It has a pupal diapause. 
Its flight is from March to November with greatest emergence in June. 
Of the 49 known examples, all from Texas, 11 were collected in May and 
21 in June. 

Rearing records 

Bexar county, texas: In 1958 three larvae were found eating leaves 
of Sida physocalyx Gray ( Malvaceae ) . The plant was growing on a lime- 
stone bluff in the southeastern portion of the Edwards Plateau. The date 
was recorded on a field label and kept with the larvae. When they died 
of unknown causes the label was destroyed and the exact date lost. It 
was not known at that time that these were immatures of olivacea, They 
were, however, distinctive enough to unmistakably remember. 

Live oak county, texas: On Texas Highway 9 at La Parra Creek, 12 
October 1963, several larvae were found feeding on foliage of Sphaeralcea 
lindheimeri Gray (Malvaceae) growing in the dry, sandy creek bed. 
Some larvae were parasitized by ichneumonids. The first of four larvae 
pupated 2 November and a female emerged 20 November 1963. The 
remaining larvae pupated in due course but remained in diapause until 
the following year. Adults emerged: 7 June ( $ ), 8 June ( 3 ), and 15 
June ( S ). 

San patricio county, texas: At the Welder Wildlife Foundation 
Refuge on 14 September 1963, along a trail near the Aransas River, a few 
larvae were found feeding on S. lindheimeri together with larvae of 
Pyrgus communis ( Grote ) ( Hesperiidae ) . All the Schinia larvae died of 
parasitism except one which pupated within a day or two; a male emerged 
29 September 1963. 

Larvae rest on top of the leaves. They are much lighter in color than 
the foliage, causing them to be conspicuous. The foodplants grow in 
open areas but may be somewhat hidden by grass or other low vegetation. 



106 Kendall: Rare Schinia reared Vol. 19, no. 2 



Other collection records 

Andre and May Elise Blanchard ( in lift. ) collected most of 39 examples 
using a black-light trap of a model designed by Mr. Joe P. Hollingsworth, 
Agricultural Engineer, College Station, Texas. A few, however, came to 
an 85-watt, high-pressure, mercury vapor lamp set on a white sheet 
spread on the ground. The date and location of these examples follow. 

San Patricio County: Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, 22 to 24 
August 1962 (6), 11 to 13 May 1963 (10), 3 July 1963 (1), 7 October 
1963 (1), and 22 April 1964 (1); Kimble County: V-H Ranch near 
Junction, 14 June 1963 (2), 28 & 29 June 1963 (10); Uvalde County: 
Garner State Park, 13 April 1964 (1), 10 May 1964 (1), 1 to 3 June 1964 
(5); Zapata County: Zapata, 4 June 1964 (1). 

The writer and Mrs. Kendall collected two males feeding on the blos- 
soms of Mimosa malacophylla Gray ( Leguminosae ) about 11:00 A.M. 
C.S.T. 6 July 1963 at Lake Corpus Christi State Park, San Patricio County. 
Also, in the same county at the Welder Wildlife Refuge, a female was 
collected 14 October 1963 at a 15-watt ultraviolet light. 

In the American Museum of Natural History is the type female, one 
other taken by Buchholz at Kerrville, Kerr County, Texas on 8 June 1948 
and five of those collected by the Blanchards at the Welder Wildlife 
Refuge and Junction. In the U. S. National Museum there is one example 
taken at San Benito, Cameron County, Texas during the period 16 to 23 
March; year unknown. In addition, there are three examples collected 
by the Blanchards at the Welder Wildlife Refuge. 

Acknowledgments 

The author is very grateful to Mr. Andre Blanchard for furnishing 
collection data and encouraging preparation of this paper. Identification 
of Schinia specimens from this study was made by R. R. McElvare, 
Southern Pines, North Carolina. Special thanks go to Dr. F. H. Rindge 
(American Museum of Natural History) and Dr. E. L. Todd (U. S. 
National Museum) for verifying dates of specimens in the museum col- 
lections and providing other valued information. 

Literature Cited 

Jones, F. B., C. M. Rowell, Jr., & M. C. Johnston, 1961. Flowering Plants and 

Ferns of the Texas Coastal Bend Counties. Sinton, Texas; Rob & Bessie Welder 

Wildlife Foundation, 146 pp. 
Rindge, F. H., 1955. The type material in the J. B. Smith and G. D. Hulst collections 

of lepidoptera in the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. A.M.N.H., 

New York, 106(2): 91-172. 
Schulz, E. D., 1928. Texas Wild Flowers. Laidlaw Brothers, Chicago. 
Smith, J. B., 1906. New Noctuidae for 1906.— No. 1. Jour. New York Ent. Soc, 

14: 9-30. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 107 

SOME COMMENTS ON ARIZONA BUTTERFLIES 
(PAPILIONOIDEA) 

Keith S. Brown, Jr. 

Faculdade Nacional de Farmacia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 

The following records are offered primarily to stimulate additional 
research on the butterflies of southeastern and east-central Arizona. 
The author spent his childhood in the foothills of the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains south of Tucson and has returned and collected there numerous 
times in recent years and has regularly visited and collected in the 
White Mountains of east-central Arizona during the summer months. 
The author has been reassigned to Brazil and will not be able to con- 
tinue investigations in Arizona; thus the questions raised by the follow- 
ing data must be answered by others. 1 

The list represents the experience of the author and thus will conflict 
at certain points with known data (for example, on the abundance of 
Speyeria mormonia luski). The author has not collected at all in the 
traditionally rich areas of Verde Valley, Mingus Mountain, Yuma, San 
Francisco Peaks, Grand Canyon, and White Mountains in June. How- 
ever, it is hoped that the following summary, representing repeated 
and broad-range collecting in the areas and seasons mentioned, will be 
of use in stimulating and aiding future studies. 

For clarity, nomenclature follows the most recent systematic checklist 
(dos Passos, 1964). 

Explanation of List 

The following list, containing the names and data on all of the butter- 
flies observed and/or captured by the author in the areas described, is 
coded for brevity; for a few species further notation (unusual records, 
etc. ) follows the coded information. 

The first figure of each code group represents the region and habitat 
of the butterfly ( Roman numerals I-VI ) ; the second, the season ( letters 
A-D); and third, the frequency (lower case letters). Each code group- 
ing thus describes the occurrence of the species (a butterfly may have 
several such groupings). 

Region and Habitats. I = Southeastern Arizona; desert scrub, stream- 
side, desert watering place; elevation generally below 4,000 feet. Ex- 
amples: Tucson Country Club; Continental area (particularly along 



1 Further specific data and, in some cases, representative specimens are available for purposes 
of additional research from the author. 



108 Brown: Arizona butterflies Vol. 19, no. 2 

the Santa Cruz River); Desert Corral in the Santa Rita Experimental 
Range; Sonoita River near Patagonia (also partly habitat II). 

II = Southeastern Arizona; foothill canyons, including interdigitations 
into zone I along watercourses; Upper Sonoran and lower Transition 
zones; elevation 4,000-6,000 feet. Examples: Santa Rita Ranch Head- 
quarters and hills above; Sawmill Canyon (west slope of Santa Rita 
Mts.) near Upper Sawmill Well; Florida Canyon (west slope of Santa 
Rita Mts.) particularly near the Santa Rita Experimental Station; Madera 
Canyon (west slope of Santa Rita Mts.) below the Lodge; Gardner 
Canyon (east slope of Santa Rita Mts.); Sunnyside Canyon (west slope 
of Huachuca Mts.); Miller, Carr, and Ramsey canyons (east slope of 
Huachuca Mts.); Cave Creek Canyon (east slope of Chiricahua Mts.); 
Sycamore Canyon (Ruby Road, Pajarito Mts.). This is generally by 
far the most fruitful collecting habitat, but only a few of the above- 
mentioned localities will be outstanding in a given year. In the spring 
season, the grassy hillsides are often better than the canyon bottoms. 

III = Southeastern Arizona; mountainsides including upper canyons; 
generally Transition zone; elevation 6,000-9,000 feet. Examples: Upper 
Madera Canyon (west slope of Santa Rita Mts.); trails up Mt. Wrightson 
(Santa Rita Mts.); and Carr and Miller peaks (Huachuca Mts.), from 
either side of the ranges; road to Onion Saddle and Rustler Park (Chiri- 
cahua Mts.). 

IV = Southeastern Arizona; mountaintops; generally Canadian and 
Hudsonian zones; elevation 8,000-10,000 feet. Examples: top of Mt. 
Wrightson (Santa Rita Mts.); meadows and rocks of the upper parts 
of the Huachuca Mts.; Rustler Park and above in the Chiricahua Mts. 

V = East-central Arizona; White Mountains, moderate elevations; gen- 
erally Transition zone; elevation 5,000-7,500 feet. North Fork of the 
White River, from roughly its intersection with the Lower Log Road 
south of McNary up to the Ditch Camp area; similar conditions are 
present along the stream near Alpine on the New Mexico border ( Route 
666). 

VI = East-central Arizona; White Mountains, high elevations; Cana- 
dian and Hudsonian zones, forest, streamside, and meadow (cienega); 
elevation 8,000-10,000 feet. Examples: Large cienega area surrounding 
Green's Peak; Sheep's Crossing, Little Colorado River; wet meadow 
and forest area on high roads from Green's Peak area to Vernon. 

Seasons. A = Spring (generally March and April). 
B = Early Rainy Season ( generally July to mid-August; specimens 
caught in September, if any are left, will be very worn). 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 109 

C = Late Rainy Season ( generally mid-August through September; 
specimens caught in July, if any appear, will be fresh males ) . 

D = General Summer ( usually late June through at least October, 
with a succession of overlapping broods; some fluctuation in abundance 
during the period). 

It should be emphasized that the above seasons are exceedingly vari- 
able, being highly dependent upon moisture (date, frequency, and 
quantity). Collecting in late August, particularly in southern Arizona 
(in general, the seasons are far more regular in the White Mountains), 
one could find typical species of either season "B" or season "C," de- 
pending upon the major rainy season; and the spring season, which 
often starts in February, may be delayed well into April in a dry or 
cold spring. Furthermore, one can collect in season "B" in one canyon 
and season "C" in another canyon a few miles away, subject to their 
local precipitation histories. One would do well to inquire locally as 
to recent rains (number and amount) and do a good amount of travel- 
ing in order to find area where the proper combinations have occurred 
to produce a "good" season. Too little rain results in exceedingly sparse 
collecting; too much, in difficult collecting due to luxuriant growth of 
plants and lack of concentration of the butterflies along the watercourses. 

Frequencies. ?l = abundant ( over 50 seen in a day's collecting ) . 

c = common ( 10 to 50 seen per day ) . 

u = uncommon ( less than 10 seen per day ) . 

r = rare ( a few seen per season ) . 

s = stray ( one or a few in many years' collecting ) . 

1 = local ( restricted to a few favored localities ) . 

i = irregular ( numbers fluctuate very widely from year to year, not 
always correlated with rainfall). 

List of Species 

Battus philenor ( Linnaeus ) : I-AD-a; II-AD-a. 

Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll: II-D-iu. 

Papilio bairdii Edwards: II-D-iu. 

Papilio Cresphontes Cramer: I-D-c; II-C-lc. 

Papilio multicaudata Kirby: II-D-c; III-D-c; V-D-u. 

Papilio eurymedon Lucas: II-D-s. No captures have been made in south- 
ern Arizona, but this species has been seen twice: Florida Dam (lower 
Florida Canyon, west slope of the Santa Rita Mts.), June, 1950, fresh 
male; and Gardner Canyon (east slope of the Santa Rita Mts.), July, 
1951, very worn male. 

Neophasia menapia (Felder & Felder): V-B-lic. 



110 Brown: Arizona butterflies Vol. 19, no. 2 



Neophasia terlootii Behr: III-B-lu. 

Appias drusilla subsp.: II-B-s. A single male specimen, moderately 
fresh and identical with specimens from central Mexico [d. drusilla 
(Cramer)] in the American Museum of Natural History, was captured 
at Santa Rita Ranch Headquarters (elevation 4,600 feet) on the north- 
west slope of the Santa Rita Mts. in August, 1951 (Fig. 1). This may 
represent a northwestern extreme for the range of this species (al- 
though one specimen in the American Museum is labeled "Cali- 
fornia?" ) . 

Pieris sisymbrii Boisduval: II-A-u. All females in the author's collection 
represent the yellowish form "flava" Edwards; this form also seems 
to predominate among female specimens from the Rocky Mountain 
area in the American Museum. 

Pieris protodice Boisduval & LeConte: I-D-c; II-D-c; V-D-u; VI-D-u. 
gen. vern. vernalis Edwards: II-A-lc. The maculation of spring speci- 
mens is highly variable, many resembling typical forms of P. occiden- 
talis Reakirt; however, all specimens I have seen from or taken in 
Arizona correspond to protodice by recently described criteria ( Chang, 
1963). 

Pieris napi subsp.: V-B-ic. A very heavily marked form. 

Pieris rapae ( Linnaeus ) : II-D-lr. 

Colias eurytheme Boisduval: II-D-c; III-D-u; IV-D-u; V-D-c; VI-D-u. 
"hybird" form ariadne Edwards: II-C-u. 

Colias philodice Godart: II-C-lc. This species was abundant in the Sul- 
phur Springs Valley, along the west side of the Chiricahua Mts., on 
20 September 1963; several forms (Figs. 9-12) were in evidence. Only 
one specimen from Arizona (Casa Grande, 20 November 1961, R. 
Sternitzky) is present in the American Museum collection; the author 
has never seen philodice in the State except on the one occasion. 
Hovanitz (1950) describes the species as being ". . . limited south- 
ward by . . . the highlands of the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, and 
the Valley of the Rio Grande River . . ."; thus this may represent 
an extension of the known range. 

Colias cesonia (Stoll): I-D-a; II-D-a; III-D-u; IV-D-u. 2 aberration: 
I-C-s; II-C-s. This variety, resembling the form amorphae (Hy. Ed- 
wards) of the more western C. eurydice (Stoll), has the markings of 
the FW above tending toward obsolescence (Fig. 2). (The Antillean 
and South American subspecies of cesonia, cynops (Butler), inca 
(Tessmann), seem to show this feature normally in the females.) The 
author has three captures from Arizona: Green Fields School, north- 
west of Tucson (elevation 2,100 feet), September, 1950; Florida 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



111 



Canyon, Santa Rita Mts. (elevation 4,000 feet), September, 1957; and 
Sunnyside Canyon, Huachuca Mts. (elevation 5,800 feet), 18 Septem- 
ber 1963. All of these represent the form rosa M'Neill. 

Phoebis sennae eubule ( Linnaeus ) : I-D-a; II-D-a; III-D-c. 

Kricogonia lyside (Godart): II-B-ic; III-B-liu. 

Eurema boisduvaliana Felder & Felder: II-B-iu. 




Explanation of Plate 

Figs. 1-12. Butterflies collected in southeastern Arizona. 1, Appias drusilla 
(Cramer), Santa Rita Mountains, Aug., 1951; 2, Colias cesonia (Stoll), aberration, 
Sunnyside Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, 18 Sept. 1963; 3, 4, Euptoieta hegesia 
hoffmanni Comstock (3, dwarf, 4, normal), Santa Rita Mountains; 5-8, Asterocampa 
subpallida (Barnes & McDunnough) (5, 6, $ upper- and undersides; 7, 8, 9 upper- 
and undersides), Santa Rita Mountains; 9-12, Colias philodice Godart (9, 10, $ ; 
11, $ yellow form, 12, ? white form), Sulphur Springs Valley, 20 Sept. 1963. 



112 Brown: Arizona butterflies Vol. 19, no. 2 

Eurema mexicana (Boisduval): I-AD-a; II-AD-a; III-D-u. 

Eurema proterpia (Fabricius): I-D-c; II-D-c. "gen. hiem." gundlachia 
( Poey ) : II-C-lc. In favored localities in September, both sexes of 
this species may be found representing all forms from typical proterpia 
through typical gundlachia. The American Museum collection con- 
tains also many such intermediates. 

Eurema nicippe (Cramer): I-AD-c; II-AD-c; III-D-u. 

Nathalis iole Boisduval: I-D-c; II-D-c; V-D-c. 

Anthocaris pima Edwards: II-A-ic. 

Anthocaris sara inghami. Gunder: II-A-lu. 

Euchloe creusa subsp.: II-A-la. 

Euchloe ausonides subsp.: II-A-lu. The correct status of the Euchloe 
species in southern Arizona is very uncertain. If one employs the cri- 
terion of the angularity of the costal margin of the HW to differentiate 
between creusa and ausonides? the vast majority of the specimens are 
creusa. However, this criterion does not correlate well with the more 
generally accepted criterion of the width of the black bar at the end 
of the cell of the FW. It would be best to reserve judgment on these 
forms until better statistical work is available. 

Apodemia mor mo me jicanus (Behr): II-B-lu. 

Apodemia palmerii ( Edwards ) : II-C-lc. 

Apodemia nais ( Edwards ) : V-B-c. 

Lephelisca nemesis ( Edwards ) : I-C-lc; II-C-lc. 

Emesis zela ares (Edwards): II-C-lc. form cleis (Edwards): II-B-lu. 

Hypaurotis crysalus ( Edwards ) : III-C-lr. 

Atlides halesus (Cramer): II-B-lu. 

Mitoura siva (Edwards): II-AB-lu. 

Stnjmon leda (Edwards): I-D-lc; II-D-lc. 

Strymon leda ines ( Edwards ) : I-D-lc; II-D-lc. 

Strymon melinus subsp.: II-D-c; V-D-c; VI-D-u. Variable; several forms 
are present in the author's collection from Arizona. 

Strymon sylvinus itys (Edwards): II-B-lr; V-B-u. 

Callophrys apama ( Edwards ) : V-B-lc. 

Lycaena rubidus sirius ( Edwards ) : V-B-c. 

Brephidium exilis (Boisduval): I-C-lu; II-C-lu. 

Leptotes marina (Reakirt): I-D-a; II-D-a. 

Hemiargus ceraunus gyas ( Edwards ) : II-C-c. 

Hemiargus isola (Reakirt): I-C-c; Il-C-a; IV-C-lc; V-C-c; VI-C-lc. 

Lycaeides melissa subsp.: V-C-lu. 

Plebejus acmon (Westwood & Hewitson): II-AC-c; V-C-lc. 



2 E. ausonides has a more distinct angle. The author thanks O. E. Sette for this useful criterion. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 113 

Everes comyntas herrii (Grinnell): V-D-u. 

Celastrina argiolus cinerea (Edwards): II-D-u; III-D-lc; V-D-a. 

Libytheana bachmannii larvata (Strecker): I-AD-ia; II-AD-ia; III-D-u. 

Anaea aidea morrisonii (Edwards): II-D-s. 

Asterocampa celtis antonia ( Edwards ) : I-D-u; II-D-u. 

Asterocampa leilia ( Edwards ) : I-D-c; II-D-u. 

Asterocampa subpallida (Barnes & McDunnough) : II-B-lic. The author 
first captured a worn female of this species in the Santa Rita Moun- 
tains (Santa Rita Ranch Headquarters) in September, 1950; this may 
represent the earliest record outside of the Baboquivaris (Ford, Lep. 
News, 5: 88, reported the "first individual outside the Baboquivaris" 
from lower Madera Canyon in September of 1951). At any rate, it 
is now regular and in some years common at certain favored localities 
in the Santa Ritas (e.g., the Santa Rita Experimental Range head- 
quarters, in lower Florida Canyon, Figs. 5-8). 

Limenitis astyanax arizonensis Edwards: II-D-u; III-D-u; V-D-u. 

Limenitis archippus obsoleta Edwards: I-C-lc; II-C-lc. 

Limenitis weidmeyeri sinefascia Edwards: V-B-c. 

Limenitis bredowii eulalia (Doubleday): II-D-a; III-D-a; V-D-a. 

Vanessa atalanta ( Linnaeus ) : II-A-lu; IV-C-lu; V-D-lr. 

Vanessa virginiensis (Drury): II-D-lu; IV-D-lu; V-D-u. 

Vanessa cardni (Linnaeus): I-D-u; II-D-a; III-D-c; IV-D-la; V-D-c; 
VI-D-c. 

Vanessa carye Hiibner: V-B-lr. 

Junonia coenia nigrosuffusa Barnes & McDunnough: I-C-lu; II-C-lu. 

Nymphalis milberti (Godart): V-D-u; VI-D-u. 

Nymphalis antiopa ( Linnaeus ) : II-AB-lu; V-D-c; VI-D-c. 

Polygonia satyrus marsyas ( Edwards ) : III-A-lu; V-D-c. 

Polygonia hylas (Edwards): V-C-r; Vl-C-la. Most specimens resemble 
P. f annus (Edwards) closely; a few (about 15%) possess clear gray 
undersides, lacking even the silver mark. More work seems to be 
needed for this species or complex. 

Polygonia zephyrus ( Edwards ) : V-D-c; VI-D-lu. 

Chlosyne lacinia (Geyer): I-D-c; II-D-la. This includes the various so- 
called subspecies [adjutrix Scudder, rufescens (Cockerell), crocale 
(Edwards), nigrescens (Cockerell)], which occur sympatrically and 
intergrade completely. 

Phyciodes texana (Edwards): I-D-lc; II-AD-lc. 

Phyciodes tharos pulchella ( Boisduval ) : V-B-c. 

Phyciodes mylitta (Edwards) (various forms): II-C-lu; IV-C-c; V-D-a; 
VI-D-c. 



114 Brown: Arizona butterflies Vol. 19, no. 2 

Phyciodes campestris Camillas Edwards: V-D-a; VI-D-c. 

Phyciodes picta Edwards: I-C-c; II-C-lc. 

Melitaea dymas chara Edwards: II-AD-a. 

Melitaea perse Edwards: II-D-a. 

Melitaea theona thekla Edwards: V-D-lc. 

Melitaea theona bollii Edwards: I-C-lu. 

Melitaea pola arachne Edwards: V-D-c. 

Euphydryas anicia magdalena Barnes & McDunnough: V-B-lu; VI-C-lc. 

Speyeria n. nokomis ( Edwards ) : V-C-lc. 

Speyeria nokomis coerulescens (Holland): III-C-lu. The author ran 
across a colony of this subspecies while on a pack trip in the upper 
Huachuca Mts. in August, 1950 (unfortunately sans net); both sexes 
were observed within five feet. An attempt to relocate the colony in 
1963 was fruitless; the general area is in a spring-fed meadow near the 
top of Sunnyside Canyon. 

Speyeria atlantis naasicaa ( Edwards ) : V-B-a; VI-D-u. 

Speyeria mormonia luski ( Barnes & McDunnough ) : V-C-lr. 

Speyeria aphrodite byblis (Barnes & Benjamin): V-B-c. 

Euptoieta claudia (Cramer): I-D-c; II-D-c; V-D-u. 

Ettptoieta. hegesia hoffmanni Comstock: II-B-lir. This species seems to 
be rare in southeastern Arizona. Both the typical form (Fig. 4) and 
the dwarf form (Fig. 3) may be captured; the latter corresponds to a 
series in the American Museum labeled "Sonora," while the former is 
identical with a series labeled "Flagstaff, Arizona," which, if it is 
labeled properly, must have been captured in a truly extraordinary 
year. The author's specimens were taken in the early 1950's at the 
Santa Rita Ranch Headquarters in the Santa Rita Mountains. 

Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus): I-D-c; II-D-c. 

Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus): I-C-c; II-C-c; V-D-u. 

Danaus gilippiis strigosus (Bates): I-D-a; II-D-a; V-D-u. 

Euptychia dorothea (Nabokov): II-B-lu; III-B-c. 

Euptychia henshawi Edwards: II-C-c; III-C-a. 

Euptychia ruhricata Edwards: II-B-u; III-B-c. 

Paramecera xicaque (Reakirt): III-B-lu. 

Cercyonis pegala olympus ( Edwards ) : V-B-lu. 

Cercyonis oetus (Boisduval): V-B-c. 

Gyrocheilus patrobas tritonia (Edwards): Il-C-ic; III-C-c; V-C-lc. This 
species was common along the North Fork of the White River in the 
area south of McNary in early September, 1963. The form captured 
tends to possess appreciably more blue in the marginal markings on the 
HYY underneath than average specimens from southeastern Arizona, al- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 115 

though there is some overlapping and the difference should be ana- 
lyzed statistically (perhaps with the aid of a spectrometer). It would 
also be interesting to compare this type, presumably from the northeast- 
ern extremity of the butterfly's range, with specimens from the Prescott 
area, presumably the northwestern extremity (and rather different 
from the White Mountains in climate). 

Acknowledgments 

The author is indebted to the American Museum of Natural History, 
and particularly to F. H. Rindge and J. C. Pallister, for assistance in 
work in the fine collection housed therein; and to O. E. Sette and P. R. 
Ehrlich for additional assistance in this report. 

Literature Cited 

Chang, V. C. S., 1963. Quantitative analysis of certain wing and genitalia charac- 
ters of Pieris in western North America. J. Research Lepidoptera, 2: 97-125. 

dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Lep. Soc. 
Memoir No. 1, New Haven, Conn. 145 pp. 

Hovanitz, W., 1950. The biology of Colias butterflies. I. The distribution of the 
North American species. Wassman Jour. Biol., 8: 49-75. 



A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SPREADING MINUTE MOTHS 

G. G. Lewis 

Entomology Research Institute, Canada Dept. Agric, Ottawa, Ontario 

For many years glass tubes containing cyanide have been used for 
killing small moths. These were experimentally replaced with plastic 
ones in order to reduce the danger of breakage. It was noted, however, 
that in the plastic tubes minute moths were forcibly drawn to the sides 
by static electricity, and held there until death. After death there was no 
static electric attraction, but many of the scales were left adhering to the 
tube, and spoiling the specimens. Because of this disadvantage I no 
longer use plastic tubes for killing. 

With this static electric attraction in mind, a special spreading board 
was designed. The board (Fig. 1) consists of a solid piece of one-inch 
lumber, 2% inches wide and 12 inches long. The top is rabbeted along 
each side to a width of one-half inch and a depth of one-eighth inch. A 
strip of cork is glued in the rabbet on each side. Another strip of cork is 
glued to the bottom, flush with all edges of the board. A strip of "Plexi- 
glass," one-inch wide and one-sixteenth inch thick is glued to the top of 
the nonrabbeted center portion of the board. Before it is glued onto the 
board, the plastic strip is sawed for three-quarters of its width at intervals 



116 



Lewis: Spreading micros 



Vol. 19, no. 2 



of one inch. The saw kerf should be about one mm wide. After the 
plastic is glued to the board, holes are drilled in the center of each saw 
kerf through the wood, but not through the cork lining the bottom. This 
hole is almost as wide as the saw kerf and allows the insect pin to be 
inserted in the cork at the bottom of the board. 

To use this spreading board, the little moth is slightly anesthetized in 
a tube containing acetic ether. It is immediately pinned through the 
center of the thorax (usually a No. 000 pin). It is important that the 
pin be inserted absolutely perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 
moth's body. Because the moth is not dead the muscles are relaxed, and 
the wings can be gently blown from behind with a puff of breath, until 
they are semispread. The pin is then inserted through the hole and into 
the cork at the bottom of the board. Because the moth is alive, static 
electricity causes the wings and antennae to adhere to the plastic. The 
wings and antennae are now manipulated into the correct position using 
a No. 000 insect pin. The point of the pin is not inserted in the wings 
but is used to push the wings into place by inserting it under the trailing 
edge of each wing near the body. When the wings are in the right posi- 
tion, a strip of thin cellophane is placed over them on each side of the 
body, and the ends of each strip are pinned to the cork at the sides of the 
board. The moth is now killed by placing the open end of an uncorked 
killing tube, containing acetic ether in cotton, over the moth and leaving 
it there a minute or two until the moth is dead. The static electric attrac- 
tion is now gone, but the cellophane strips hold the wings in place until 
the moth is removed from the board. 

This technique is particularly suitable for narrow-winged moths with 
long fringes, such as Gracillariidae, Lyonetiidae, Coleophoridae, Nepticu- 
lidae, and Tischeriidae. 




Fig. 1. A new type of spreading board for minute moths. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 117 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA PALAEARCTICA 

Editor's note. — Announcement of one of the most ambitious projects in the history 
of the study of Lepidoptera, the projected series Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, has 
recently been made by Dr. H. G. Amsel of the Landessammlungen fiir Naturkunde, 
Karlsruhe, Germany. The following English translation of the preface to the work is 
presented in order to acquaint lepidopterists throughout the world with the scope 
and aims of this magnificent project. 

According to present plans, the various families of Palearctic Microlepidoptera will 
appear in no fixed order or succession. Families or subfamilies will each be published 
as a volume, to be prepared as authoritative specialists are available. The first volume 
comprises Dr. Bleszynski's monograph of the Crambinae, consisting of some 800 pages 
of text, about 890 text figures, and 444 colored figures. Volume 2, scheduled for 
publication early in 1965, will contain Dr. Sattler's study of The Ethmiidae. A treat- 
ment of the Tineidae by Dr. Petersen is projected as the third volume in the series. 

Persons desiring further information or wishing to subscribe to the work should 
contact Dr. Amsel, or Verlag Georg Fromme & Co., Spengergasse 39, Vienna 5, 
Austria. 

Preface 

The death of Edward Meyrick in 1938 was a turning point in the study 
of Microlepidoptera, signifying more than the passing of a famous and 
respected author. In 420 publications Meyrick had described some 16,000 
species of Microlepidoptera, thereby putting in the shade, from a purely 
numerical point of view, the descriptive work of any single person in the 
biological sciences. His breadth of scope was as amazing as the volume 
of his work: he alone envisaged the Microlepidoptera Fauna of the entire 
world, of which he formed a single collection numbering about 100,000 
specimens, and in most cases his sure eye pointed the right way. But al- 
ready during his lifetime it had become clear that the science of Micro- 
lepidoptera would enter a blind alley sooner or later unless new methods 
of study were found. The volume of new description increased to such 
a degree that gradually the comprehensive mastery failed, which at the 
beginning of our century still resided in a few such brains as Meyrick, 
Walsingham, and Rebel, and it became clear that, more exact, and indeed, 
in some groups, extremely refined methods of investigation were already 
in use, so in Microlepidoptera too a completely new system need be 
developed. 

Although at the turn of the century authors were still to some extent 
able to work generally and independently, the volume of the literature 
and material made obligatory a strong specialisation, which naturally led 
to co-operation. The methods which are now scientifically requisite in- 
tensified this process, if only because of the time involved. But the de- 
cisive step forward was made when the value of the genital morphology 
was appreciated as being of fundamental importance. From year to year 
it became more generally recognised that the current method of taxonomic 



118 Amsel: Microlepidoptera Palaearctica Vol. 19, no. 2 

work was not merely inadequate but must inevitably lead to incompre- 
hensible chaos. Meyrick's view that a species could be so clearly de- 
scribed that it could be recognised from the description of the external 
features proved to be a serious error. Numerous species can only be 
distinguished in the morphology of their genitalia, and indeed the depic- 
tion of the genitalia almost always provides the truly unambiguous 
method of recognising a species. In particular the works of many authors, 
which have appeared since World War II, have shown that systematic 
revisions of groups furnished a quite new picture of the situation. For 
instance, Petersen established, in the relatively small Palearctic Tineidae 
group, the existence of sixty synonyms, and made such generic changes 
that hardly one stone of the old system remained on another. In the 
Crambinae, a comparatively small subfamily of the Pyralidae, Bleszynski 
proved that sixty-seven species, from various regions, belonged to quite 
different subfamilies or even families, and also established countless 
synonymies. 

In view of this situation, the present author was forced more and more 
to contemplate a new and fundamental work on the Palearctic Micro- 
lepidoptera, and his decision to publish "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica" 
was reached nine years ago. After protracted negotiations with authors, 
publishers, and scientific institutes, it was finally possible to overcome 
the almost insuperable difficulties in the path of this undertaking. Not 
the least among the reasons for this final success was a particularly 
favourable combination of circumstances such as have rarely occurred in 
biological literary history. Never before was so large a number of inter- 
nationally outstanding specialists of East and West available simul- 
taneously to undertake such a task; never before had there been a 
Microlepidoptera-specialist such as Dr. Gregor, combining the highest 
scientific and artistic qualifications; seldom, too, had a publishing firm 
been prepared to issue so comprehensive a work, at the same time so 
specialised and so wide in scope, and with the barest prospects of profit; 
never before had the happy circumstance occurred, to find as a leader 
of a great and capable printing works such a person as H. Reisser, who 
being himself an experienced lepidopterist, was delighted to give his per- 
sonal and unremitting attention to such a project. Finally, both the 
German Exploration Corporation and the Baden- Wiirttemberg Ministry of 
Culture evinced an extraordinary comprehension for our efforts and en- 
abled the almost insuperable financial difficulties to be overcome. Many 
others played a valuable role, but it would take too long to mention them 
all by name. 

At the Xlth International Congress of Entomology at Vienna the meet- 
ing of a large number of contributors to "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica" 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 119 

was first possible, and the plotting of the general scheme which the 
enterprise was to follow. This scheme was the subject of further pro- 
longed correspondence, with the following result: 

1. All scientific work on the Palaearctic Microlepidoptera will be co- 
ordinated into the framework of "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica"; such 
co-ordination has hitherto been lacking, and this lack was one of the 
main causes of the present impossible situation in the systematic field. 
In the course of this co-ordination, individual authors will be enabled to 
work through respective groups as represented in the greatest museums 
and also the principal European private collections. 

2. The study of each species will begin with an examination of the 
type specimen or series. 1 Specific determinations, hitherto made on the 
sole basis of literary studies have often led to the most grotesque mistakes. 
An investigation of types will provide an indisputable proof of what is 
really meant by a described species. The synonyms and uncertain species 
can be compared and their identity resolved, thus providing a sober 
foundation for all future scientific work. All purely compilatory work is 
to be avoided; instead all conclusions will rest on material that has been 
currently investigated. 

3. In order to achieve the indisputable identification of all the species, 
the study of each one will begin with the establishment of the genitalia- 
morphology of both sexes, with due regard to all the characters of sys- 
tematic value. Black and white drawings of the genitalia, coloured 
reproductions of water-colour drawings of the right side, made from the 
actual specimens, with pictorial representation of systematically important 
details (e.g. neuration, antenna, frons, or palp-formation) should provide 
a maximum of comprehensibility. Vague uncertain statements about the 
palp-form antenna-ciliation, or cornutus-length, such as "end segment of 
palpus long" will be replaced by unambiguous statements, e.g. the length 
of the third segment will be related to that of the second, and the length 
of the entire palp to the diameter of the eye, thus: "3 palp-segment, Vs" 
means that the last segment is one third the length of the second; and 
"palp 3" means that the palp is three times as long as the diameter of the 
eye. Likewise for the antenna-ciliation, "antenna ciliation 2" means that 
the cilia are twice as long as the breadth of the antenna shaft, relating 
the longest cilia to the broadest part of the shaft. Similarly, "cornutus 1" 
means that the cornutus is as long as the aedeagus. Thus even a beginner 
will be enabled to work in a new field of study: and institutes of applied 
entomology will be provided with a rapid means of orientation. 



1 As far as ascertainable, the data of the labels of the types will be quoted verbatim with a 
special indication at the relevant place of the work. 



120 Amsel: Microlepidoptera Palaearctica Vol. 19, no. 2 

4. The clearing up of synonymies and systematic errors will result in 
the final termination of nomenclatorial chaos. We urgently need durable 
names, names that will remain valid for all time. By applying paragraph 
23b of the International Rules of 1961 for Nomenclature, the preservation 
of established names can be achieved, and the principles of Priority and 
Continuity can be intelligently combined. Such a result is of great im- 
portance, especially for applied entomology. 

5. The specific description will be as brief as possible, and preferably 
should give what the illustrations leave out, e.g. variability, comparison 
with neighbouring forms, and stressing of the diagnostically important 
characters. Data regarding larvae and imagines' phenology and ecology, 
foodplants, and biological peculiarities, are part of the description of the 
species. On the other hand, the larva will not be described, as such 
descriptions are only of use if scientifically exact, that is if they not only 
give the chaetotaxy but illustrate it too. As the larvae of 90% of all 
Palaearctic Microlepidoptera are still unknown, only a reference to the 
literary sources for the chaetotaxy of such larvae as are known, need be 
given. An exception, however, may occasionally be made to this rule (e.g., 
economically important species). 

6. Neuration indications should follow the Comstock system, with a 
subdivision into Costa, Subcosta, Radius, Media, Cubitus, Analis and 
Axillaris. The technical terms for genitalia-parts are so different from 
group to group, and the question of homologies, etc., so disputed, that a 
special explanation should be given for each systematic group. 

7. Distribution data will be given after the specific description, all 
countries and districts being named from which the author has seen 
material, and special value being accorded to the limits of the distribution, 
and also, in disjunct ranges, to the accurate definition of the localities 
inhabited. These data will thus definitely be reliable. The author may 
then add the names of the countries in which he knows of the occurrence 
of the species from literature only, and only in these cases need the 
references be cited. Doubtful literary records can be marked with a "?", 
or a critical remark. Localities will be rendered as given in the literature 
and specimen-labels, for instance the name Sarepta will be given rather 
than Krassnoarmejsk. Political conceptions, of which the boundaries 
vary more or less according to the political developments, should as far 
as possible be avoided and replaced by geographical conceptions. The 
general zoogeographical heading will, in principle, contain only verified 
facts about the distribution of the species, genera, or groups; as a con- 
sequence, there should be no reference to faunistic elements, and similarly 
the probable origin of the species should not be discussed as most publi- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 121 

cations about such are more or less speculative. The aim of "Microlepi- 
doptera Palaearctica" is to provide only indisputable scientific facts. 

8. The principles mentioned under 1 & 7 above will greatly simplify 
the problems of literary citations. It is evident that the method hitherto 
often used, of mentioning the entire literature on any one species, is super- 
fluous, as it occupies much too much of the author's time and takes up too 
much space. It is now sufficient to give the original citation, followed by 
the synonyms, and thereafter only such references as provide more infor- 
mation than will be found in the text or the illustrations of "Microlepidop- 
tera Palaearctica". For instance, such additions might be the illustration 
of the species in its resting position, biological data, chaetotaxy, illustra- 
tions of mines, pattern of eating, etc. On the other hand, if an imago is 
somewhere illustrated or described in the usual way, it is superfluous to 
cite the reference, as the "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica" illustrations are 
at least as good as any previous figure. Superfluous too are all references 
to the distribution of a species, if the author, on the basis of his own 
studies, is able to give the same information. For individual species, only 
a minimum of prior literature need be cited to supplement any gap in the 
data provided. The alphabetical general literary index at the end of every 
volume, on the other hand, should in addition give the reader a view of 
previous literature and at the same time indicate what the author has 
found especially valuable as a source. 

9. In order to avoid the possibility that any author might overlook some- 
thing which already appears in literature, the editor is pleased to 
put his own card-index at the disposal of all collaborators. This covers 
all literature since 1901, i.e. since the appearance of Rebel's Catalogue 
of the Lepidoptera of the Palaearctic Region. The possibility will thus be 
virtually ruled out that any important literary source will be overlooked. 

10. Determination keys for the genera and species will guide the 
reader downward to the species, but in certain cases, when it has been 
proved that a systematic unit cannot intelligently be forced into any key, 
these may be omitted. 

11. In accordance with the recommendations of the International Com- 
mission for Nomenclature, all abbreviations of authors' names will be 
avoided. Abbreviations will only be used as a distinctive mark in the 
Indices and Tables. In the course of the systematic text authors' names 
will be entirely omitted, except where this would cause obscurity. 

12. Every specimen painted by Dr. Gregor will be distinguished with 
a label "Painted by Dr. Gregor for Microlepidoptera Palaearctica", as in 
future it will be useful to know which specimen served as a model for the 
published picture. The data of all such examples will be given in the 
explanation of the plates, and particularly the place of custody. In prin- 



122 Amsel: Microlepidoptera Palaearctica Vol. 19, no. 2 

ciple, the typical series will provide the specimens used as models for the 
painter. In cases, however, where, owing to poor preparation or preserva- 
tion, the type by itself does not suffice for the satisfactory reproduction 
of the appearance of the species, the painting may be adjusted for esthetic 
reasons, as long as this does not involve scientific inaccuracy. Here 
particularly, in cases where an abdomen is missing, the artist may add the 
missing part, observing the correct proportions by reference to the holo- 
type and other typical material. In all cases where such a procedure was 
necessary, the fact will be mentioned in the explanation of the figures. 

13. In order to show as, exactly as possible all the individual characters, 
the coloured illustrations of the moths are reproduced on a scale larger 
than life-size. However, in order to show the relative size of congeners, 
species belonging to the same genus will be, as far as possible, shown on 
the same scale. The actual scale will be indicated in the explanations of 
the plates. Deviation from this rule, however, could not be avoided in a 
few cases for various reasons, and where this occurs the figure in question 
is always marked with an indication of the variant scale of magnification. 
The scale mainly used for the genitalia illustrations, being that suitable 
for most of the drawings, is stated on the intermediate titles before the 
genitalia plates. If a few figures deviate particularly from the general 
scale of enlargement, this is indicated beside the figure in question. 

It is well-known that the scale of enlargement is fairly unimportant in 
genitalia illustrations because the preparations are usually examined at 
different powers of magnification. 

14. Limits of the Region. The following districts will be the Regional 
frontiers: Canary Is., Madeira, Iceland, Sahara and Arabia as far as about 
latitude 20 N, West Pakistan as far as and including Karachi, the High 
Himalayas down to about 3,000 m, the Yangtse-Kiang and Japan. Dis- 
puted frontiers such as Sikkim, Bhutan, or the further Chinese frontier, 
may be entirely included or excluded. For instance, if a tropical genus is 
only represented by one species in Sikkim, it may be omitted, but all 
species in Sikkim belonging to Palaearctic genera will be included. In 
many cases the inclusion or exclusion will be at the author's discretion. 
In districts with distinctly more than 50% Palearctic species, all species 
occurring should be included, even including the tropical species. Where, 
on the other hand, a transitional area has distinctly less than 50% Palearc- 
tic species, all tropical species will be omitted. The south border of the 
Sahara appears to be partly inhabited by Palearctic species, and parts of 
Arabia far south of the tropic seem likewise to be Palearctic. The bound- 
ary is for that reason fixed at 20 N latitude, while in the East Asiatic 
region the boundary will be distinctly further north, being far less distinct 
and more complicated than in the African-Arabian region. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 123 

15. The work will consider all Monotrysian lepidoptera as Micro- 
lepidoptera, with the sole exception of the Hepialidae, which have been 
already studied in the works dealing with the Palearctic Macrolepidop- 
tera. In addition all Ditrysian families usually considered the Microlepi- 
doptera, and so treated in the Rebel 1901 Catalogue, will be included, 
with the addition of the Psychidae. This addition is made because in 
this family particularly, the division between Macro- and Microlepidoptera 
has had the most unfortunate results. Furthermore, a new work dealing 
with the Microlepidoptera will doubtless lead to general changes of 
views on systematic definitions. But as the new picture of the systematic 
definitions will only emerge after a decade or two, it is best to continue 
for the present with the usual division into Macro- and Microlepidoptera, 
despite its being scientifically unsatisfactory. 

16. Numbering and other references will be made on a system that 
will reduce the need to refer to indexes considerably, and so greatly 
lighten the task of any reader using the work. 

17. As the work will appear in German, each part will be preceded 
by a table giving the most important recurrent technical expressions with 
their meanings in English, French and Russian. We are convinced that 
this will enhance the international usefulness of the work. 

18. An alphabetical list of the less-known localities and geographical 
terms, and a general map of Central and Eastern Asia, will be given to 
assist geographical orientation. 

With the above aims, we hope to give a new impulse to microlepi- 
doperology; we believe that not only will "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica" 
be a revision of all that exists in this field of science, whether in literature 
or collections, but we are convinced above all that a sure foundation will 
be laid down for all future work in this field. We anticipate further 
through this work and the application of its principles, microlepidopterol- 
ogy will achieve a new power of attraction which will lead to a deepening 
and widening of our fair science. To this the water-colour drawing of 
Dr. Gregor especially will contribute, constituting a unique event in 
entomological history. Not only might one say of them what was said of 
the great models of Ter Meer, that each drawings is at one and the same 
time both type and individual, but the drawings are, in most cases a first 
documentation of an unprecedented kind. Text and illustration merge to 
form an unity, serving to open to a wider public what threatened to be- 
come an obscure and specialised corner of the entomological field. At 
present it is virtually necessary for one specialist to concentrate on one 
taxonomic group, and we find but one worker qualified to determine the 
species of that group, with the result that there is but one person to whom 



124 Amsel: Microlepidoptera Palaearctica Vol. 19, no. 2 

to entrust all material of that group for determination. Hereafter, how- 
ever, this state of affairs will undergo a radical improvement, at least as 
far as concerns the Palearctic Microlepidoptera. Every entomologist 
capable of scientific work will be able relatively quickly to determine 
his own material. The separate volumes of "Microlepidoptera Palaearc- 
tica" will enable him to find his way with speed and accuracy, and will 
also be of particular assistance to all branches of applied entomology. 
The works in this field have hitherto been grievously hampered by the 
want of a simultaneously organised systematic reference work; by the 
constant changes of nomenclature, and the impossibility, without refer- 
ence to specialists, of determining the pests with which they are dealing. 
But this case will cease to be so, owing to the remarkable clarity of "Mi- 
crolepidoptera Palaearctica" with its combination of coloured figure of 
imago, black and white drawings of all important morphological details, 
and text summary of the facts. 

The publication of the first volume of this work marks the completion 
of the first step towards this scientific goal, and I feel a particular need to 
thank all those who have served in this enterprise. First and foremost I 
thank all my colleagues who joined me in launching the project and pro- 
vided the prerequisite conditions for the co-ordination which the work 
will evince. The decision to proceed with this enterprise fell lightly on 
none of us, as in most cases it amounted to an obligation extending over 
many years, indeed in many cases for a whole decade, or in the case of 
Dr. Gregor, for a whole life-time. To him therefore are due the greatest 
and deepest thanks; without him "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica" would 
have been unthinkable. Further I thank Herr Hans Reisser of Vienna, 
whose great and many-sided initiative and practical counsel on many 
matters helped the work forward, and who, for his part, obtained the 
consent of publishers George Fromme & Co. to publish it. I thank the 
publishers for their great understanding and also for the care devoted to 
the printing and setting up of the work; in such an enterprise this is of 
the utmost importance. In particular I wish to express my gratitude to 
Professor Carl Wurster of Ludwigshafen, who devoted his constant efforts 
towards the success of the project. Without him, it must be duly said, it 
would not have been possible to overcome all the difficulties involved 
in the planning of so great and unusual a work. "Microlepidoptera Palae- 
arctica" can consequently be said to be his work too. Mr. Kurt Schafer 
of Ludwigshafen, Professor Martin E. Hering of Berlin, Dr. Walter 
Forster of Munich, Dr. Obraztsov of New York, Messrs. Charles Boursin 
of Paris and E. P. Wiltshire of Geneva, and my friend Dr. E. Oberdorfer, 
Director of the Museum of Natural History at Karlsruhe, have all stood 
by my side and assisted me. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 125 

Dr. B. Rossicky of Prague was also of great assistance to our enterprise; 
and lastly, the German Institute of Exploration and the Baden- Wurttem- 
berg Ministry of Culture gave from the outset such support to all our 
efforts that finally the foundations of the work were successfully laid with 
the issue of the present Volume I. My greatest thanks to all! 

H. G. Amsel, Landessammlungen fur Naturkunde, Erbprinzenstrasse, 13, (75) 

Karlsruhe, Wien 



ANOTHER U.S. RECORD FOR OENEIS MACOUNII 

On 20 June 1964 Dave Pearson, Ray Glassel, and I were collecting in 
Lake and St. Louis counties, Minnesota. We stopped at McNair, Lake 
County (about 20 miles north of Two Harbors), to look for red-disked 
alpines, Erebia discoidalis ( Kirby ) , a species we had caught there about 
a month earlier. The morning was cool and sunny but no alpines were 
seen. 

The first butterfly we saw was sitting on a rock, inclined toward the 
sun, and thus casting very little shadow. We quickly captured it and 
another one nearby which was behaving similarly. Both were typical 
Macoun's arctics, Oeneis macounii (Edwards). Macy and Shepard 
(1941) 1 list the only Minnesota specimen as having been taken 2 July 
1935 near Duluth, St. Louis County. We thus have the second Minnesota 
record. Ehrlich and Ehrlich (1961) 2 list only Minnesota and Michigan 
as the U.S. localities for this species. The Michigan record is most 
likely the Isle Royale record cited by Macy and Shepard. Therefore 
we suspect that we may have the third U.S. record for Oeneis macounii. 
Since Isle Royale is much closer to Minnesota than to Michigan, this 
species seems to occur in a very limited area in the U.S., just above 
the north shore of Lake Superior. We currently think of northern 
Minnesota as relatively uncollected for insects and one of our projects 
will be to try to establish the exact status of this and other "rare" 
species in the near future. 

Ronald L. Huber, 480 State Office Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota 



1 Ralph W. Macy & Harold H. Shepard, Butterflies (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1941), p. 87. 

2 P. R. Ehrlich & A. H. Ehrlich, How to Know Butterflies (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co., 
1961), p. 102. 



126 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, no. 2 



RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to 
lepidopterists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended 
that every work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here. Papers 
of only local interest and papers from this Journal are listed without abstract. Read- 
ers, not in North America, interested in assisting with the abstracting, are invited to 
write Dr. P. F. Bellinger ( Department of Biological Sciences, San Fernando Valley 
State College, Northridge, California, U.S.A.). Abstractor's initials are as follows: 

[P.B.] — P. F. Bellinger [W.H.] — W. Hackman [N.O.] — N. S. Obraztsov 
[I.C.] — I. F. B. Common [T.I.] — Taro Iwase [C.R.] — C. L. Remington 

[W.C.] — W. C. Cook [T.L.] — T. W. Langer [J.T.] — J. W. Tilden 

[A.D.] — A. DlAKONOFF [J.M.] — J. Moucha [P.V.] — P. E. L. VlETTE 

[J.D.] — Julian Donahue [E.M.] — E. G. Munroe 



B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Munroe, Eugene, "Pyralidae from the collection of the California Academy of Sci- 
ences (Lepidoptera)." Canad. Ent., 91: 161-167, 14 figs. 1959. Describes as 
new Desmia filicornis ( Potrerillos, Panama ) ; Mecyna cocosica ( Cocos Is. ) ; Poly- 
grammodes naranja ( 17 mi NW of Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico ) ; CALLILITHA, & 
type C. boharti (Tenaru R., Guadalcanal, Solomon Is.), C. tenaruensis (same). 
[P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Revision of the genus Linosta Moschler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) 
with characterization of the subfamily Linostinae and a new subfamily." Canad. 
Ent., 91: 485-488, 7 figs. 1959. Proposes CYBALOMIINAE (near Crambinae) 
& LINOSTINAE. Describes as new L. annulifera (Oconeque, SE Peru, 7,000 
ft), L. sinceralis centralis (Finca "La Violeta," Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, 850 
m), L. s. andina ( Balzapamba, Prov. Bolivar, Ecuador), L. s. plaumanni (Nova 
Teutonia, Sta. Catharina, Brazil). Redescribed L. s. sinceralis, the only other 
form known. [P. B.] 

Munroe, E. G., "The phlogosaria complex of the genus Plagodis (Lepidoptera: 
Geometridae)." Canad. Ent., 91: 193-208, 3 pis. 1959. Describes as new P. 
p. bowmanaria (Edmonton, Alberta), P. p. illinoiaria (Edgebrook, Illinois). P. 
purpuraria & P. keutzingaria are regarded as sspp. of P. phlogosaria; the other 
valid sspp. are approximaria & iris. Spring & summer broods are described & 
numerous collection records are given. 63 specimens are figured on the plates. 
[P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "A new genus of Pyralidae and its species ( Lepidoptera ) ." Canad. 
Ent, 92: 188-192, 8 figs. 1960. Describes as new COENOSTOLOPSIS (type 
Coenostola? apicalis Lederer), C. terminalis (Rio Yapacani, E. Bolivia, 600 m). 
Redescribes type, & C. selenephora (transferred from Phryganodes). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "An assessment of the contribution of experimental taxonomy to 
the classification of insects" [in English; French summary]. Rev. canad. Biol, 
19: 293-319. 1960. Review shows that only the most elementary experimental 
techniques (e.g. association of sexes, forms, and stages by rearing) have been 
widely used, and that the use of cytological, physiological, and other nonmorpho- 
logical criteria is in its infancy, even in such groups as Drosophila which have 
been studied intensively. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "New species of Poly grammodes and a related new genus (Lep- 
idoptera: Pyralidae)." Canad. Ent., 92: 279-284. 1960. Describes as new P. 
zischkai ( Yungas del Palmar, 200 m, Bolivia ) , P. delicata ( Esmeraldas, San Mateo, 
Ecuador), P. lauei (Tecualpan, Mexico), P. mimetica ( Barro Colorado Is., Pan- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 127 



ama Canal Zone); POLYGRAMMOPSIS (monobasic), P. forsteri (Esmeraldas, 
Ecuador). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "New tropical Pyraustinae ( Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)." Canad. 
Ent., 92: 164-173, 16 figs. 1960. Describes as new Glyphodes aurantivittalis 
(Fort de Kock, Sumatra); Diaphania antillia (Kenscoff, Haiti); Botyodes borne- 
ensis (Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo); HEDYLEPTOPSIS (monobasic), H. flava (Tonsea 
Lama, Tontano Menado, N. Celebes); Typsanodes celebensis ( Minahassa, N. 
Celebes); Agathodes transiens (Puente Villa, Yungas, Bolivia, 1,200 m); Syngam- 
ilyta nympha (Rio Yacuna, Espiritu, 250 m, Bolivia). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "The Meyrick types of Scopariinae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in 
the British Museum (Natural History), exclusive of Hawaiian species." Canad. 
Ent., 92: 891-897. 1960. Lists all holotypes & selects lectotypes for other spp., 
giving citation & label description. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Synopsis of the North American Odontiinae, with descriptions of 
new genera and species (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)." Canad. Ent., suppl. no. 24, 
93 pp., 246 figs. 1961. Describes as new: Microtheoris ophionalis lacustris 
(Harrow, Ontario), M. o. eremica (Limpia Canyon, Jeff Davis Co., Texas), M. 
o. baboquivariensis (Baboquivari Mts., Arizona), M. o. occidentalis (Oliver, Brit- 
ish Columbia); RHODACANTHA, & type R. diagonals (Alamogordo, Otero Co., 
New Mexico); FRECHINIA (type Titanio helianthiales) , F. texanalis (Ft. Davis, 
Jeff Davis Co., Texas); PROCYMBOPTERYX (type Pionea belealis); CYMBOP- 
TERYX, & type C. fuscimarginalis (Tucson, Arizona); DICHOZOMA (type Loxo- 
stege parvipicta) ; CUNEIFRONS, & type C. coloradensis (Moffat Co., Colorado); 
ANATRALATA (type Aporodes versicolor); POGONOGENYS (type Titanio 
proximalis), P. frechini (Vantage, Washington), P. masoni (Whitewater, Calif.); 
PLUMIPALPIA, & type P. martini (Dove Sprs., Kern Co., Calif.); NANNOBO- 
TYS (type Botis commortalis) ; PORPHYRORHEGMA, & type P. fortunata (Fish 
Creek Mts., Imperial Co., Calif.); PSAMMOBOTYS, & type P. fordi (Sand Dunes, 
El Segundo, Los Angeles Co., Calif.); JATIVA (type Orobena castanealis); 
PSEUDOSCHINIA (type Eurycreon elautalis); NOCTUELIOPSIS (type Noc- 
tuelia puertalis); MO] AVI A (type Noctuelia achemonalis); HELIOTHELOPSIS 
(type Aporodes arbutalis). The subfamily includes tribes Dichogamini & Odon- 
tiini, with, respectively, 3 and 19 nearctic genera; at least 56 extralimital genera 
are not treated here. Keys to genera & spp. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "The classification of the Papilionidae (Lepidoptera)." Canad. 
Ent., suppl. no.17, 51 pp. [1961]. Describes as new PROTOGRAPHIUM (type 
Papilio leosthenes). Recognizes the subfamilies Baroniinae (monobasic), Parnassi- 
inae, including Parnassiini (3 genera) & Zerynthiini (5 genera), and Papilioninae. 
The typical subfamily includes Leptocircini (7 genera; the "kite swallowtails" 
plus Lamproptera & Teinopalpus), Papilionini (a single genus, with sections but 
no subgenera), and Troidini (6 genera). All groups are defined, and important 
characters are discussed, including some which will be useful when known for 
more spp. All known spp. are assigned to genera, at least tentatively, in an 
appendix. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "A new species of Linosta (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)." Canad. 
Ent., 94: 922-923, 2 figs. 1962. Describes as new L. integrilinea ( Heda-Taulis, 
Peru). [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "A new species of Nepytia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae ) , of eco- 
nomic importance to Douglas Fir in British Columbia." Canad. Ent., 95: 407-413, 
25 figs. 1963. Describes as new N. freemani (Chase Creek, B.C., Canada); key 
to spp. of N. canosaria group. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "The gilvarius group of Aspilates Treitschke (Lepidoptera: Geo- 
metridae)." Canad. Ent., 95: 260-287, 56 figs. 1963. Describes as new A. 
kozhantchikovi (Minusinsk, Siberia), A. aberratus assiniboiarius (Attons Lake, 
Cut Knife, Saskatchewan, Canada), A. forbesi (Churchill, Manitoba), A. elwesi 
(SE Altai, Tchuja Mt., 7,000 ft), A. orciferarius baffinensis (Frobisher Bay, Baf- 



128 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, no. 2 



fin Is.), A. o. church Mentis (Fort Churchill, Manitoba), A. o. occidentals (Daw- 
son, Yukon, 11,000 ft). Revision of the 13 spp. of this holarctic group, with key 
to spp. [P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "Some neotropical genera resembling Epicorsia Hiibner (Lepidop- 
tera: Pyralidae)." Mem. ent. Soc. Canada, no.33, 75 pp., 109 figs. 1964. De- 
scribes as new Munroeodes australis (Rio Vermelho, Sta. Catharina, Brazil), M. 
guianae (Pied Saut, Oyapok R., French Guiana); SARABOTYS (monobasic), 
S. ferriterminalis (Prov. del Sara, Bolivia); CH1LOCORSIA (type Phlyctaenodes 
punctinotalis) ; CHILOPIONEA (monobasic), & type C. postcuneifera (Peru); 
Chilochroma tucumana (Siambon, Tucuman, Argentina), C. yucatana (Chichen 
Itza, Yucatan, Mexico); PROTEPICORSIA (type Hapalia thyriphora), P. latimar- 
ginalis (El Palmer, Prov. Chapare, Dep. Cochabamba, Bolivia), P. bicolor (Cor- 
upa, Sta. Catharina, Brazil), P. maculifera (El Palmer, Bolivia), P. pozuzoa (Pozu- 
zo, Dep. Huanuco, Peru); PSEUDEPICORSIA (type Pyrausta flavidensalis) , P. 
septentrionis (Callanga, Cuzco, Peru), P. boliviensis (Buenavista Prov, del Sara, 
Bolivia); DELTOBOTYS (type Pyrausta brachypteralis) , D. galba (La Vuelta, 
Caura R., Venezuela); NEOEPICORSIA (type Botys claudiusalis), N. confusa 
(Corupa, Sta. Catharina, Brazil), N. daucalis (Fonte Boa, Amazonas, Brazil); 
APONIA (type Pionea aponkinalis), A. insularis (Loma del Gato, 2,500 ft, Sierra 
Maestra, Cuba), A. major (Matagalpa, Nicaragua), A. itzalis (Chichen Itza, Yu- 
catan, Mexico); TANAOPHYSOPSIS (type Pyrausta xanthyalinalis); CHILO- 
CHROMOPSIS (type Sylepta sceleto gramma } Descriptions of 13 genera & 40 
spp. in all, members of Pyraustini except for the last 2 mentioned above & 
Tanaophysa ( Spilomelini ) ; includes all spp. superficially similar to Epicorsia 
(revised by Munroe, 1958) except for mancalis group of Loxostege, which is 
being revised by Capps. Keys to genera & spp.; figures of adults & genitalia. 
[P. B.] 

Munroe, Eugene, & Paul R. Ehrlich, "Harmonization of concepts of higher classifica- 
tion of the Papilionidae." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 14: 169-175, 1 fig. 1961. 

Murayama, Shu-iti, "Drei neue Erebien-Rassen aus Japan" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 48: 102-103, 2 pis. 1963. Describes as new Erebia niphonica 
nyukasana ( Mt. Nyukasayama, 1,955 m, Nagano Prefecture), E. n. tateyamana 
(Mt. Tateyama, 3,015 m, Toyama Pref. ), E. n. yoshisakana (Mt. Hakusan, 2,702 
m, Ishikawa Pref.). [P. B.] 

Murayama, Shu-iti, "Some new forms of Erebia and Theclinae from Japan" [in 
Japanese; English summary]. Trans. Lepid. Soc. Japan, 15: 16-19, 14 figs. 1964. 
Describes as new E. niphonica amarisana (Mt. Amarisan), E. n. togakusiana (Mt. 
Togakusiyama ) ; also 4 "forms" of Theclinae. [P. B.] 

Narayanan, E. S., & T. V. Venkatraman, "The identity of Scirpophaga species as- 
sociated with sugarcane in India (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae [sic!])." Curr. Sci., 
20: 299-300. 1951. Concludes that only S. nivella occurs in India, & that it 
is conspecific with S. monostigma, S. rhodoproctalis, and other members of this 
genus previously recorded as distinct species occurring in India. [J. D.] 

Nekrutenko, Yuri P., "The hidden wing-pattern of some Palaearctic species of 
Gonepteryx and its taxonomic value." Jour. Res. Lepid., 3: 65-68, 8 figs. 1964. 
Figures wings of G. rhatnni, G. cleopatra, & G. mahaguru niphonica photographed 
in ultraviolet light & gives key to spp. based on this pattern. [P. B.] 

Newcomer, E. J., "The synonymy, variability and biology of Lycaena nivalis." Jour. 
Res: Lepid., 2: 271-280, 1 pi. "1963" [1964]. Repeats original descriptions of 
nivalis: its synonym ianthe, & zeroe (a synonym of mariposa) . Describes & fig- 
ures 4 populations, including L. n. browni. Describes early stages (food plant 
Polygonum douglasii) & surveys distribution. [P. B.] 



EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE JOURNAL 

Editor: Jerry A. Powell 

Associate Editor 

(Literature Abstracting): Peter F. Bellinger 

Associate Editor 

("Especially for Collectors"): Fred T. Thorne 

Editor, News of the Lepidopterists' Society: E. J. Newcomer 

Manager of the Memoirs: Sidney A. Hessel 

Editorial Committee of the Society: P. F. Bellinger, S. A. 
Hessel, E. G. Munroe, J. A. Powell, C. L. Remington 
(chairman), F. T. Thorne, E. J. Newcomer. 

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE JOURNAL 

Contributions to the Journal may be on any aspect of the collection and study 
of Lepidoptera. Articles of more than 20 printed pages are not normally accepted; 
authors may be required to pay for material in excess of this length. Manuscripts 
must be typewritten, ENTIRELY DOUBLE SPACED, employing wide margins and 
one side only of white, 8V2 X 11" paper. The author should keep a carbon copy of 
the manuscript. Titles should be explicit and descriptive of the article's content, in- 
cluding an indication of the family of the subject, but must be kept as short as possi- 
ble. Authors of Latin names should be given once in the text. Format of REFER- 
ENCES MUST CONFORM TO EXACT STYLE used in recent issues of the Journal 
Legends of figures and tables should be submitted on separate sheets. 

Reprints may be ordered, and at least 25 gratis separates (including any other 
material published on these pages) will be provided, if requested at the time galley 
proof is received. 



Address correspondence relating to the Journal to: Dr. J. A. Powell, 112 Agricul- 
ture Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., U. S. A. 

Material not intended for permanent record, such as notices, current events, anecdotal 
field experiences, poems, philatelic Lepidoptera, etc. should be sent to the News 
Editor: E. J. Newcomer, 1509 Summitview, Yakima, Wash., U. S. A. 

Address remittances and address changes to: George Ehle, 314 Atkins Ave., 
Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A. 



Memoirs of the Lepidopterists' Society, No. 1 (Feb. 1964) 

A SYNONYMIC LIST OF THE NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA 

by Cyrtl F. dos Passos 

Price: Society members — $4.50, others — $6.00; postpaid 

Order from the Society Treasurer. 



Printed in U. S. A. 

Allen Press 
Lawrence, Kansas 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



Vol. 19, no. 2 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Some taxonomic notes on the Nearctic Holomelina ( Arctiidae ) 
with a partial key to the species 
by Ring T. Carde 

The life history of Problema byssus (Hesperiidae) 

by Richard Heitzman 

Two new subspecies of Megathymus yuccae ( Bdv. & Lee. ) 
from Texas 
by H. A. Freeman ^ 

A note on Pyrgus communis and Pyrgus albescens (Hesperiidae) 
by J. W. Tilden 

Erebia disa mancinus in Washington State: a correction 

by Jon H. Shepard 

Distribution and hosts of five Philotes in California 
( Lycaenidae ) 
by Robert L. Langston 

Larval foodplant and distribution notes for Schinia olivacea 
( Noctuidae ) 
by Roy O. Kendall 

A new technique for spreading minute moths 

by G. G. Lewis 

FIELD NOTES 

Probable second U.S. record for Erebia discoidalis 

by Ronald L. Huber 

Field notes on Automeris zephyria (Saturniidae) 
and larvae of Hemihyalea edwardsi (Arctiidae) in 
New Mexico 
by Noel McFarland 

Flight habits of Boloria toddi 

by Leonard S. Phillips 

Another U.S. record for Oeneis macounii 

by Ronald L. Huber 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

Some comments on Arizona butterflies (Papilionoidea) 

by Keith S. Brown, Jr. 

LITERATURE NOTICE 

"Microlepidoptera Palaearctica" 
by H. G. Amsel 

BOOK REVIEWS, NOTICES 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 



69-76 
77-81 

8.^-90 

91-94 

94 

95-102 

105-106 
115-116 

76 

82 
104 
125 



. 107-115 

. 117-125 
81, 90, 102 
. 126-128 



Volume 19 1965 Number 3 



Journal 



of the 






Lepidopterists' Society 

Published quarterly by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCIfiTfi DES LfiPIDOPTERISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 



\ 

\ 

V 




In This Issue 

COLLECTIONS BY AIRPLANE 

EUPTYCHIA AREOLATA: DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION 

MIMICRY OF CAENURGINA CAERULEA 

METHOD FOR OVERWINTERING LARVAE 

ERNEST LAYTON BELL (1876-1964) 

( Complete contents on back cover ) 

24 September 1965 



President: 

1st Vice President: 

Vice President: 

Vice President: 

Treasurer: 

Asst. Treasurer: 
Secretary: 

Asst. Secretary: 



THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 
1965 OFFICERS 

F. H. Rindge (New York, N. Y, U. S. A.) 
I. F. B. Common (Canberra, Australia) 
Ramon Agenjo ( Madrid, Spain ) 
H. E. Hinton (Bristol, England) 
George Ehle (Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A.) 
Sidney A. Hessel (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.) 
John C. Downey (Carbondale, 111., U. S. A.) 
Floyd W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.) 



Terms expire Dec. 1965: 
Terms expire Dec. 1966: 
Terms expire Dec. 1967: 



EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Shigeru A. Ae (Showaku, Nagoya, Japan) 
Lincoln P. Brower (Amherst, Mass., U. S. A.] 
Charles P. Kimball (Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A.) 
W. Harry Lange, Jr. ( Davis, Calif., U. S. A. ) 
Hiroshi Kuroko (Fukuoka, Japan) 
D. F. Hardwick (Ottawa, Canada) 



and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor 



The object of The Lepidopterists' Society, which was formed in May, 1947, and 
formally constituted in December, 1950, is "to promote the science of lepidopterology 
in all its branches, ... to issue a periodical and other publications on Lepidoptera, 
to facilitate the exchange of specimens and ideas by both the professional worker and 
the amateur in the field; to secure cooperation in all measures" directed toward these 
aims (Constitution, Art. II). A special goal is to encourage free interchange among 
the lepidopterists of all countries. 

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class postage paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 



Journal of 
The Lepidopterists' Society 

Volume 19 1965 Number 3 

REVIEW OF COLLECTIONS OF LEPIDOPTERA BY AIRPLANE 

Perry A. Glick 

Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S.D.A., Brownsville, Texas 1 

It has long been established that many species of Lepidoptera are 
migrants and are carried by air currents far out to sea or across continents. 
With the continuing aid of air currents they can be carried over mountain 
barriers and descend in the leeward currents into the valleys below, where 
if conditions are favorable they can perpetuate themselves. The writer 
has observed butterflies drifting or flying at altitudes over 14,000 feet in 
the Rockies, especially the less common satyrid, Erebia magdalena 
Strecker; the pierid, Colias meadii elis Strecker; and a papilionid, Par- 
nassius sp. 

The height to which a butterfly, moth, or other insect may be carried 
by air currents is related to its size, weight, and buoyancy. This relation- 
ship may be expressed in terms of the aerostatic or lighter-than-air 
coefficient (Glick, 1939). The aerostatic coefficient varies directly with 
the area of the insect which is exposed perpendicular to the pull of 
gravitation and inversely with the weight of the insect per unit of ex- 
posed area; and therefore, the lighter the insect the greater the aerostatic 
coefficient, and the heavier the insect the less the aerostatic coefficient 
or actual buoyancy. 

The vertical lift of an insect may be represented by the equation: 

Ac = K — . Ac is the aerostatic coefficient, R equals the area in metric 
W 

units exposed perpendicular to gravity, W represents the weight in milli- 
grams of the insect exposed to gravity, and K equals the constant or insect 
involved. Thus, any insects, particularly the more fragile butterflies and 
moths, occur at very high altitudes because of their relative size and 
weight, or buoyancy. Under the same given conditions of wind velocity 
and convection, a heavily built insect with small wing expanse will not 



1 In cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Mention of trade names 
herein does not necessarily imply their endorsement by the U.S.D.A. 



130 



Glick: Collections by airplane 



Vol. 19, no. 3 






Fig. 1. Piper Cub plane equipped with insect traps placed beneath wings with 
control wires running from traps to cabin. A screen is partly pulled out of closed 
compartment for exposure as when in operation (Glick, 1955). 



be carried as high as a very light insect with relatively greater wing 
expanse. 

Most butterflies find it difficult to fly in a strong wind because their 
wings offer a broad surface to the air. However, certain species may even 
find it easier to fly directly into a strong wind, with the wings vertically 
closed and opened alternately so as to offer the sharpest edge to the 
resistance of the wind. Such a butterfly does not appear to propel itself, 
but to be driven forward by the action of the wind eddying against the 
undersurface of the wing presented to it, but how this is done is not 
easy to demonstrate ( Tutt, 1902 ) . 

Micros are more or less at the mercy of air currents when in flight, 
particularly if the wind is above 6-10 miles per hour. Glick et at. ( 1956 ) 
determined that pink bollworm moths, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saun- 
ders), were collected in greater numbers in light traps when the wind 
velocity was three miles per hour or less and their flight was directly 
into the wind. During strong winds butterflies tend to remain close to 
vegetation and even the strong fliers seldom venture forth. 

The writer in past years, and more recently from 1954 to 1957, made a 
comprehensive study of insect dissemination and distribution, with em- 
phasis on the more important economic species (Glick, 1939, 1955, 1957, 
1960, & Glick and Noble, 1961). This study, conducted with airplanes, 
involved some 1,552 flights. More than 1,286 hours were spent in actual 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



131 







Fig. 2. Insect-collecting trap, as shown under wing of plane, with screen pulled 
out of closed compartment to enable removal of insects and transferring them to 
alcohol in vials. The pilot, Arthur Gieser (left), is recording data. 



collecting with screens or nets exposed. The flights were made from 
altitudes near ground surface to 16,000 feet and resulted in the collection 
of 35,826 insects. 

Procedures and Area Covered 
The first airplane insect traps used in these extensive upper air insect 
collections were operated from 1926 to 1931 in northeast Louisiana and 
in Mississippi across the Mississippi River from Tallulah, Louisiana. The 
writer designed the original three-compartment trap, which was placed 
between the wings of an old JN6H Army training ship and on DeHaviland 
HI Army biplanes (Glick, 1939, 1941, & 1942). These traps were also 
adapted for a Stinson Detroiter SMI monoplane. In 1930 the trap was 
redesigned by the late G. C. McGinley to consist of two compartments. 
This latter type trap was used on a Piper Cub PA Super Cruiser (Figs. 
1 & 2) in flights at Brownsville, Texas, in 1954, and at College Station, 
Texas; Shreveport, Louisiana; and Texarkana, Arkansas in 1956. In 1957 
another type of trap, designed by C. N. Husman, was used in flights 
over northeast Louisiana, Mississippi, Illinois, and Indiana. This trap 
was equipped with a series of nets and operated from the plane cabin 
(Fig. 3). 



132 



Glick: Collections by airplane 



Vol. 19, 




: : 



v.N : .'' '*:;.■ ■•».::..%■ \: 




Fig. 3. Insect trap using nets in position on plane; steel tracks extend from rear 
of cabin to struts of plane, with net in collecting position at end of tracks (Glick, 
1960). 



Flights were made when weather conditions permitted both night and 
day collecting. The insects taken were correlated with weather and 
meteorological data embracing surface and upper-air recordings. The 
flights in northeast Louisiana from 1926 to 1931 were made throughout 
every month of the years involved. The other series of flights were made 
either in the spring, summer, or late fall. 

Discussion 
Lepidoptera, the only order considered in this paper, comprised prob- 
ably the more important species taken, although it represented only one 
percent of the total insects collected in the upper air. The Lepidoptera 
included five families of Rhopalocera and 25 families of Heterocera, the 
greater portion of which were Microlepidoptera. The two families of 
moths in which we were most interested and for which our flights were 
primarily made were the Noctuidae and Gelechiidae. The family Noctui- 
dae included several important economic species including adults of the 
bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie); cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni 
(Hiibner); cotton leaf worm, Alabama argillacea (Hiibner); fall army- 
worm, Laphygma frugiperda (J. E. Smith); and the armyworm, Pseuda- 
letia unipuncta (Haworth). Specimens of the garden webworm, 



1985 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



133 



Table I. Lepidoptera Collected by Airplane in a Series of Flights 
Made in Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas at Intervals 
From 1926 to 1957 



Family, genera, 
and species 



State 



Alti- 
tude 

(feet) 



Num- 
ber 



Family, genera, 
and species 



State 



Alti- 
tude 

(feet) 



Num- 
ber 



riERIDAE : 

Colias eurytheme 






Boisduval 


La. 


50 


Nymphalidae : 






Phyciodes tharos 






(Drury) 


La. 


50 


Junonia coenia 






( Hiibner ) 


La. 


200 


Hesperiidae : 






Celotes nessus 


La. 


20 


Epargyreus 






clarus ( Cramer ) 


La. 


600 


Hesperia leo- 






nardus Harris 


La. 


20 


Lerema accius 






(Smith) 


La. 


200 


Lerodea eufala 






( Edwards ) 


La. 


200 


Amatidae ( Synto- 






midae ) : 






Scepsis fulvicollis 






( Hiibner ) 


La. 


200 
1,000 
2,000 


M 


Texas 


100 



Noctuidae : 
Trichoplusia ni 
(Hiibner) La. 

( = Autographa 
brassicae (Riley)) 



500 



Texas 200 



Alabama argilla- 
cea (Hiibner) La. 



Bomolocha sp. La. 
Eublemma obli- 

qualis ( F. ) La. 

Heliothis zea 

( Boddie ) La. 

Laphygma frugi- 

perda ( Smith ) La. 



200 

500 

1,000 

3,000 

500 

500 

500 

500 
1,000 



14 



Noctuidae (cont'd) 







2,000 1 


Laphygma frugi- 






perda (Smith) 






( alive ) 


La. 


500 1 


Ommatochila 






mundula Zeller 


La. 


500 1 


Pseudaletia 






unipuncta 






(Haworth) 


111. 


200 1 


Plathypena scabra 






(F.) 


La. 


500 1 


Tetanolita myne- 






salis (Walker) 


La. 


500 1 


Undet. spp. 


La. 


500 3 
1,000 1 


Geometridae : 






Undet. spp. 


La. 


1,000 2 



Pterophoridae : 
Oidaematophorus 

sp. Texas 3,000 

Pterophorus ten- 

uidactylus Fitch La. 200 

Pterophorus sp. La. 200 

Undet. sp. La. 1,000 



Pyralidae : 

Pyralinae; 
Pyralis farinalis L. 
Undet. sp. 

Pyraustinae; 
Nomophila noctu- 
ria (Schiff.) 
Geshna primordi- 
alis Dyar 



Loxostege simila- 
lis (Guenee) 



La. 
La. 



La. 



La. 



5,000 
600 



3,000 



Texas 



La. 



Microtheoris sp. Texas 



500 


2 


600 


1 


1,000 


4 


200 


2 


500 


1 


500 


1 


3,000 


1 


1,000 


1 



134 



Click : Collections by airplane 



Vol. 19, no. 3 



Table I ( continued ) 



Family, genera, 


State 


Alti- 
tude 


Num- 


Family, genera, 


State 


Alti- 
tude 


Num- 
ber 


and species 




(feet) 


ber 


and species 




(feet) 


Pyralidae (cont'd) 








Gelechiidae (cont' 


d) 






Undet. spp. 


La. 


5,000 


1 


Aristotelia quin- 










Texas 


200 


2 


quepunctella 












600 


1 


Busck 


La. 


2,000 


1 






1,000 


1 


Battaristis con- 












2;000 


1 


cinusella 








Crambinae; 








( Chambers ) 


Texas 


200 


5 


Euchromius ocel- 












500 


1 


leus (Haworth) 


Texas 


200 


1 






2,000 


1 


Phycitinae; 








Chionodes? sp. 


Texas 


200 


1 


Elasmopalpus lig- 








Dichomeris ligu- 








nosellus (Zeller) 


La. 


500 


3 


lella (Hiibner) 


La. 


2,000 


1 




Texas 


1,000 


1 


Eucordylea sp. 


La. 


200 


1 


Undet. spp. 


La. 


500 


1 


Gelechia spp. 


La. 


200 


1 




Texas 


3,000 


1 






1,000 


1 


TORTRICIDAE : 








Gelechia spp. 








Olethrentinae; 








( larvae ) 


La. 


500 


1 


Epiblema strenu- 












1,000 


2 


ana (Walker) 


La. 


500 


1 


Glyphidocera sp. 


Texas 


200 


1 


Celyphoides ces- 








Gnorimo schema 








pitana (Hiibner) La. 


1,000 


1 


spp. 


Texas 


100 


1 


Undet. spp. 


111. 


200 


1 






500 


1 




Texas 


200 


1 






2,000 


1 






2,000 


2 


Keiferia sp. 


Texas 


100 


1 


Tortricinae; 








Stegasta bosque- 








Undet. sp. 


Texas 


200 


1 


ella (Chambers) 


Texas 
La. 


200 
1,000 


1 
1 


Phaloniidae: 








Pectinophora gos- 








Phalonia sp. 


Texas 


1,000 


1 


sypiella ( Saun- 








COSMOPTERYGIDAE : 








ders ) 


La. 


100 
200 
500 


4 

6 

11 


Cosmopteryx spp. 


Texas 


200 


1 








La. 


1,000 


1 






1,000 


5 






5,000 


1 






2,000 


3 


Undet. spp. 


La. 


500 


1 




Texas 


1,000 


1 




Texas 


500 


3 


Blastobasidae: 












2,000 


2 


Holcocera spp. 


La. 


200 


2 


Walshiidae: 












1,000 


2 


Periploca conco- 








GLYPHIPTER YGIDAE : 








lorella (Cham.) 


Texas 


200 


1 


Glyphipteryx 








Epermeniidae: 








impigritella 
Clemens 


La. 


3,000 


1 


Epermenia sp. 


La. 


5,000 


1 


Scythrididae: 








Gelechiidae: 








Scythris spp. 


Texas 


200 


1 


Anacampsis sp. 


Texas 


200 


1 






1,000 


1 


Aristotelia sp. 








Undet. spp. 


Texas 


200 


3 


roscosuffusclla 








COLEOPHORIDAE : 








( Clemens ) ? 


La. 


500 


1 


Coleophora spp. 


Texas 


200 


2 






1,000 


1 






500 


3 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



135 



Table I ( continued ) 



Family, genera, 
and species 



State 



**f Num- 

tucle r _. 

(feet) ber 



Family, genera, 
and species 



State 



Alti- XT 
tude N K um - 
(feet) ber 



COLEOPHORIDAE ( Cont'd ) 



Graciilariidae : 
Neurobatha 
strigifinitella 
( Clemens ) 
Lyonetiidae: 
Bedellia sommu- 

lentella Zeller 
Bucculatrix spp. 



Undet. sp. 

TlSCHERIIDAE : 

Prob. Tischeria 
sp. 
Tineidae: 
Tinea spp. 



La. 



La. 
La. 

Texas 



111. 



La. 



Nepticulidae: 

Nepticula spp. La. 



2,000 4 
3,000 1 



500 



2,000 1 

200 1 

500 2 

5,000 1 



1,000 

1,000 
2,000 

200 



Microlepidoptera 
undet. spp. 



La. 



Lepidoptera undet. 

spp. La. 



Lepidopterous 
larvae 



La. 



200 


4 


500 


32 


1,000 


12 


2,000 


6 


3,000 


2 


5,000 


2 


20 


2 


200 


18 


500 


28 


1,000 


8 


2,000 


3 


3,000 


1 


5,000 


2 



200 



Total Lepidoptera taken 



Total flying time (hours) in Louisiana — 852.9 

Texas — 40.2 
Illinois — 45.0 



319 



Loxostege similalis (Guenee) (Pyralidae; Pyraustinae ) , and the meal 
moth, Pyralis farinalis (L.) (Pyralidae), were also represented in the 
collections. 

Several hundred flights were made to determine the height at which 
pink bollworm moths (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)) could be 
recovered. Thirty-seven specimens were collected in Texas and Mexico 
at altitudes from 20 to 3,000 feet. Accordingly, since these airplane col- 
lections of pink bollworm moths have established the occurrence of the 
insect in the upper air, it is concluded that this destructive pest has a 
high power of dispersal, moving about freely in areas with suitable host 
material. Three larvae of the genus Gelechia were taken in the upper 
air — one at 500 feet at night, and two at 1,000 feet in the daytime. The 
two specimens at 1,000 feet were collected when the air was slightly 
rough. 

It has been possible to trace the annual advance of the cotton leafworm 
moth from the time of its first appearance on cotton in the United States 
at Brownsville, Texas, to its first recorded appearance hundreds of miles 



136 Click: Collections by airplane Vol. 19, no. 3 

Table II. Lepidoptera Collected by Airplane in a Series of Flights 
Made at Tlahualilo, Durango, Mexico, September, 1928 1 

_, ., , Altitude __ , 

r amily, genera, and species ,r .\ Number 

S ATYRIDAE : 

Undet. sp. 20 

Lycaenidae: 

Hemiargus isola (Reakirt) (H. isola isola (Reakirt)) 1,000 

Pterophoridae : 

Undet. sp. * 20 

TORTRICIDAE. 

Oleuthreutidae; 

Epiblema sosana (Kearfott) 100 

Gelechiidae: 

Gnorimo schema sp. 2,000 

Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) 20 

100 
1,000 
3,000 
Heliodinidae : 

Undet. spp. 500 

1,000 

SCYTHRIDIDAE: 

Scythris sp. . 100 

Gracillariidae : 

Undet. sp. 2,000 

Lepidoptera undet. sp. 20 

Macrolepidopte:a undet. sp. 20 

Total Lepidoptera collected 18 

Total flying time ( hours ) — 35.3 

1 Tlahualilo is situated in the Laguna District of Durango and Coahuila, some 43 miles north 
of Torreon. 

northward. Comparisons of the records for seven years showed that it 
took 40 to 58 days, or an average of 56 days, for the moth to appear on 
cotton in northern Louisiana after its initial appearance in southern Texas 
near Brownsville. From the first record of the moth in fields near 
Brownsville to the first report of the moth from Wisconsin there was an 
average of 107 days, with 121 days for Minnesota and 113 days for 
Michigan. The airplane collections furnished additional information on 
the flight and migration activity of this moth. There were 23 specimens 
taken at altitudes from 500 to 3,000 feet. In 1929 the first moth found at 
Tallulah was taken in the airplane trap on August 5 at the altitude of 
3,000 feet. This moth probably was a migrant, since neither eggs nor 
larvae had been reported in Louisiana previously (Glick, 1939). 

The five families of butterflies represented in the airplane collections 
were Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Satyridae, and Hesperiidae. 



1985 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 137 

The known species represented included the pierid, Colias urytheme 
Boisduval, and the nymphalids, Phyciodes thaws (Drury), and Junonia 
coenia (Hiibner). The specimens were taken from near ground surface 
to altitudes up to 500 feet in northeast Louisiana. Five determined species 
of Hesperiidae, taken in the airplane collections up to 600 feet, included 
Epargyreans clams (Cramer), Celotes nessus (W. H. Edwards), Hes- 
peria leonardus Harris, Lerema accius (J. E. Smith), and Lerodea eufala 
(W. H. Edwards). A small lycaenid, Hemiargus isola (Reakirt), was 
taken in Mexico near Torreon at 1,000 feet. An interesting incident oc- 
curred during a flight in northern Texas when numbers of monarch 
butterflies (Danaus plexippus (L.) ) were encountered at 2,000 feet, but 
were able to evade the plane and continue on their course. 

The list of species, genera, and families represented in the airplane 
collections of insects is shown in Table l. 2 

Summary 
Collections of Lepidoptera and other orders of insects were taken in 
the upper air with the use of airplanes equipped with specially designed 
insect-collecting traps. Over 1,500 flights were made over Texas, 
Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Illinois, Indiana, and in Mexico to study 
the flight and seasonal activity of certain species of economic insect pests. 
Other insects encountered were also recorded. Lepidoptera composed 
only one percent of the total insects collected, but 25 families of Heterocera 
and five families of Rhopalocera were represented in the overall collec- 
tions. 

Literature Cited 

Glick, P. A., 1939. The distribution of insects, spiders, and mites in the air. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull, 673, 150 pp. 

1941. Insect population and migration in the air. Committee on Apparatus 
( National Research Council ) . Techniques for appraising air-borne populations 
of microorganisms, pollen, and insects. Phytopathology, 31(3): 216-220. 

1942. Insect population and migration in the air. Aerobiology (Edited by 
Forest Ray Moulton). Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 17: 88-98. 

1955. Pink bollworm moth collections in airplane traps. Jour. Econ. Ent., 48(6): 

767. 
1957. Collecting insects by airplane in southern Texas. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. 

Bull, 1158, 28 pp. 
1960. Collecting insects by airplane with special reference to dispersal of the 
potato leafhopper. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull., 1222, 16 pp. 
Glick, P. A., J. P. Hollingsworth, & W. J. Eitel, 1956. Further studies of the 
attraction of pink bollworm moths to ultraviolet and visible radiation. Jour. 
Econ. Ent., 40(2): 158-161. 
Glick, P. A., & L. W. Noble, 1961. Airborne movement of the pink bollworm and 

other arthropods. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull., 1225, 20 pp. 
Tutt, J. W., 1902. The migration and dispersal of insects. London, 132 pp. 



2 Information in Table 1 compiled from several publications by the author, but taxonomic 
names appear as presently used. 



138 Langston: Book review Vol. 19, no. 3 



BOOK REVIEW 

BUTTERFLIES OF THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION. California Natural 
History Guide No. 12. By J. W. Tilden. University of California Press, Berkeley 
and Los Angeles, California. Paperback, 88 pp., 38 text figs., 8 color plates + color 
illustration on cover. Price $1.75. 

"Have you ever encountered a West Coast Lady, a Flying Pansy, or an Ox-eyed 
Satyr?" — so goes the opening statement in the advance publicity flier for this 4 1 / 4- 
by 7 1 ?i-mch field guide. 

This guide, being directed for the amateur as well as the naturalist, contains an 
initial introduction and sections on What are butterflies?; How to study butterflies; 
and, Identifying butterflies. This part comprises some 25 pages and, like many 
"field guides" published during the past century, starts at the "basic beginning" and 
can appeal to heterogeneous disciplines from grammar school, boy scouts, hobbyists, 
etc. to the moderately advanced entomologist, naturalist, and forest ranger. The 
many-times published "typical" venation of the monarch butterfly is illustrated, 
along with different types of scales in various families, antennae, parts of the leg, 
etc. Eggs, caterpillars, and pupae are also figured — all examples being of species 
that occur in the Bay Area. 

Various techniques from the year one to advanced present-day methods are given. 
This includes constructing a net, making cyanide jars, collecting, pinning, relaxing 
specimens, spreading, storing specimens in envelopes, and rearing methods (e.g., 
caging females to rear from eggs, collection, and preservation of larvae, pupae, etc.). 

The main value of this book to the hobbyist and resident Bay Area collector, how- 
ever, is the remaining section on "Bay Region Butterflies: Species Accounts." Re- 
corded from this region are 122 different species representing eight of the 10 families 
of the Nearctic butterflies. 

The work is illustrated by Gene M. Christman. Black-and-white figures are 
sprinkled liberally throughout the text, and bound into the center are eight colored 
plates bearing from four to 29 right-half drawings, at or close to natural size. They 
show the upper surfaces of about 75 species and subspecies, and in many instances 
also show both sexes and/or undersurfaces, particularly where they are diagnostic. 
As with many drawings ( as opposed to photographic reproduction ) there are some 
inaccuracies, especially in overall wing shape and proportions. In some, the color 
did not come through true (e.g., both satyrs, leanira checkerspot, both metalmarks, 
acmon, and sonora blues ) . However, all species are recognizable and, through no 
fault of the author or illustrator, it is about the best to be expected short of the more 
expensive process of plates from actual color photographs. 

With the intent of making it appealing to the amateur, common names are given 
for the species. Since common names are not in common use for many of them, 
especially at the subspecies level, some were unknown to this reviewer (e.g., ox-eyed 
satyr, American painted lady, black and gold sulfur, gold-hunter's hairstreak, sad 
dusky wing and dog-star skipper). However, for the scientist, the Latin names are 
given for each entity, and these are repeated ( with authors' names ) at the end of the 
book in a "Checklist of Bay Region Butterflies" which also doubles as the index. 

The individual species accounts not only deal with those more commonly en- 
countered, but with man}' that are only known from a single or very few records. 
For example, some that are thought of as "Sierran species" or of northerly distribu- 
tion are listed in the ill-defined Bay Region: Polygonia silvius, Neophasia menapia, 
Papilio indra, and Amblyscirtes vialis. Others of southerly origin are listed as oc- 
curring sparingly within the area: Phoebis sennae marcellina, Leptotes marina, and 
Philoies battoides bernardino. However, these facts are so stated under each entity, 
along with the others being "common," "in vacant lots," "along roadsides," etc. 

This guide appears to accomplish the purpose for which it was intended. It 
should prevent the beginning amateur from losing interest, and stimulate the "resi- 
dent experienced collector" to go out after the rarities close to home. — Robert L. 
Langston, University of California, Berkeley. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 139 

EUPTYCHIA AREOLATA: DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION, 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MISSISSIPPI (SATYRIDAE) 

Bryant Mather 

Jackson, Mississippi 

Euptychia areolata (J. E. Smith) apparently was first collected in 
Mississippi at Biloxi, Harrison County, on April 10, 1921 by the late Dr. 
F. M. Jones (in litt., 1953). The first records were published by Brown 
(1949, 1950a), who referred to its occurrence at Gulf port, Harrison 
County, based on reports by Harold I. O'Byrne (Sept. 1-4) and F. M. 
Jones (Apr. 28-May 18). Brown's map (1950a) indicated occurrence 
only in the extreme southeastern portion of the state. Mather and Mather 
(1958) knew of 18 specimens and regarded theirs from Burnsville, 
Tishomingo County, within 12 miles of the Tennessee line, a significant 
extension of the known range. Sixty -five specimens are now known. The 
12 localities in Mississippi from which E. areolata is known to have been 
taken are shown in Fig. 1; they are situated in eight of the 82 Mississippi 
counties. The 65 Mississippi specimens, classified by locality, date, and 
sex (were known), are indicated in Table 1. Forty-eight of these speci- 
mens were examined at the U. S. National Museum through the courtesy 
of Mr. William D. Field on January 5, 1959 and checked particularly as 
to their assignment to sex; three had previously been determined by Mr. 
C. F. dos Passos. 

Specimens are at hand representing 56 of the 65 recorded; these in- 
clude 29 $ S and 27 2 2 . The other nine specimens known are: the 
one collected by F. M. Jones which is presumably at the USNM; four 
collected by H. I. O'Byrne, which were examined in the collection at 
the University of Missouri in 1953 by K. Mather; three collected by 
Mather and Mather, two of which are in the collection of C. F. dos 
Passos and one of which is in the collection at Mississippi State Univer- 
sity; and one, or more, collected in May, 1961 by W. J. Reinthal (1962) 
and presumably in his collection. 

Variation in Mississippi 

The 56 available specimens have been examined particularly with re- 
gard to the development and shape of spots on the undersurfaces of the 
wings. The variation in development of spots on the underside of the 
forewings, based on the examination of the undersurface of the left fore- 
wing, ranged from no spots to four. Ten conditions were distinguished 
and the specimens examined were distributed among them as follows: 



140 



Mather: Euptijchia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 





$ $ 


9 9 


Total 


Spots absent 


4 


5 


9 


Trace of one spot 


5 


3 


8 


One spot 


7 


4 


11 


Traces of two spots 


3 


6 


9 


One spot and trace of second 


4 


1 


5 


Two spots 


4 


3 


7 


Traces of three spots 





1 


1 


Three spots 





4 


4 


Traces of four spots 


1 





1 


Four spots (specimen #14) (see Plate I) 


1 





1 




29 


27 


56 



The development of spots on the undersurface of the left hindwing 
was studied both with regard to number present and degree of elongation. 
Figure 2 is a diagram showing the designations used in this study and the 
dimensions that were measured at length (L) and width (W). The 
number of spots found ranged from four to six. One specimen (a 9 , 



Table 1. Mississippi Records of Euptijchia areolata 



Locality and 




Month 






Tota 




County 


Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


1 Collector 


Burnsville, Tish- 
omingo 


_ 


- 1 9 






1 


B & K Mather 


Barnett, Clarke 






2 S 6 


- 


o 


M & E Roshore 


Waynseboro, 
Wayne 






16 




1 


B & K Mather 


Goss, Marion 


- 


- 1 9 


- 


- 


1 


B & K Mather 


Rawl's Springs, 
Forrest 






1 9 




1 


M & E Roshore 


Hattiesburg, 
Forrest 


_ 


19- 






1 


B. J. Miller 1 


Shelby State 
Park, Forrest 


- 


- (5 $ $ 
(3 9 9 


16 $ 6 ) 

15 9 9 f 


- 


39 


M & E Roshore ( 38 ) 
B & K Mather ( 1 ) 


Whites Crossing 
Stone 


_ 


lo - - 






1 


W. J. Reinthal 


Biloxi, Harrison 


lo 


_-._•_._ 


- 


- 


I 


F. M. Jones 


Gulfport, 

Harrison 
Ocean Springs, 

Jackson 

Fontainbleau, 
Jackson 


- 


" \'2 6 S) ~ 

[3 o o j ( 1 9 J 

- U - 


|4 8 3 I 
I I? 1 


1 9 


5 
11 

1 


B & K Mather ( 1 ) 
H. I. O'Byrne (4) 
B & K Mather ( 9 ) 
M & E Roshore ( 2 ) 

B & K Mather 




1 


2 8 1 12 


40 


1 


65 





Ex coll. B. D. Valentine, 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



141 




Wa.t|r>eCo. 



RfiWk'S SPRINGS, 

$H£l, 3/ ST^TE; PARK; 
Forre&+ Co. 

iT£SC*oSS)K<5 9 

OcEAM SpK|N<SS, 

JqoK&OO Co. 
Qrr»SonCo, 



Fig. 1. Known distribution of Euptychia areolata areolata (Smith) in Mississippi. 

#38) (see Plate I) had only a trace of spot #1. One other specimen (a 
2, #42) (Plate I) had all six spots quite well developed. A third speci- 
men, also a 2 , #36 had a trace of spot #6. The other 54 specimens had 
no trace of spot #6; but all except #38 had spots #1, 2, 3, and 4 well 



142 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE I 

Undersides of eight Mississippi and two Florida specimens of Euptychia a. areolata; 
average length/width ratios of spots 1-4 as follows: (For complete data of Mississippi 
specimens see Table 2.) Top row. left, $ #14, Shelby St. Park, L/W = 2.5; middle, 
9 #42, Shelby St. Park, L/W = 2.7; right, 9 #38, Shelby St. Park, L/W = 2.2. 
Second row. left, S #49, Fountainbleau, L/W = 1.7; middle, 9 #44, Shelby St. 
Park, L/W =1.7; right, 6 #11, Shelby St. Park, L/W = 3.0. Third row: left, 9 
#25, Goss, L/W = 2.4; right, 9 #24, Burnsville, L/W = 2.2. Bottom row. left, 
9 #57, Orange Park, Fla., May 25, 1959, L/W = 3.1; right, 9 #63, Jacksonville, 
Fla., May 30, 1959, L/W = 3.7. 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



143 




Fig. 2. Diagram showing the numbers assigned to the spots on the underside of 
the hindwing of Euptychia areolata and the dimensions measured as length (L) and 
width (W). 

developed. The greatest variation in the series was with respect to spot 
#5; data on which are given below. 



S S 



2 2 



Total 



Spot absent 

Absent on right, trace on left 

Absent on left, measured on right 

Trace on both wings 

Present and measured on both wings 



7 


6 


13 


2 


1 


3 


1 





1 


3 


1 


4 


16 


19 


35 



29 



27 



56 



The length (L) and width (W) of each spot on the left hindwing 
venter (in two cases, the right hindwing was used because of damage 
to the left wing) were measured at a magnification of 10 X using an 
eyepiece micrometer having graduations such that at this magnification 
one division was equal to 0.1 mm. Using these measurements, the L/W 
ratio was computed for each spot. From the L/W ratios for spots #1, 2, 
3, 4, an average L/W ratio was computed for each specimen. These data 
are given in Table 2. Figures 3 and 4 plot length and width of each 
measured hindwing spot identified as to spot number and sex of the 
specimen. The maximum, minimum, and average value of L/W for each 
spot and for the extreme specimens for average L/W were as follows: 



144 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, 





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146 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 









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1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 147 





#1 


#2 


#3 


#4 


L/WAvg: 1-4 


29 $ $ max 
min 
average 


3.7 
1.6 
2.4 


3.1 

1.8 
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3.2 
1.7 

2.2 


3.6 
1.7 
2.5 


3.0 (#ll)i 
1.7 (#49)i 
(2.3) 


27 $ $ max 
min 
average 


3.5 
1.3 
2.2 


3.1 
1.8 

2.4 


3.0 
1.7 

2.2 


3.2 
1.7 
2.4 


2.7 (#30, #42)! 
1.7 (#44)! 
(2.3) 


1 See Plate I. 













Figure 5 indicates the frequency distribution of average L/W for spots 
1-4 for the 56 Mississippi specimens and the approximately normal shape 
of the distribution curve suggested by this histogram. Measurements of 
length and width of spot #2 are plotted in Figure 6 together with lines 
representing L/W = 1.8 and 3.1, the minimum and maximum values for 
elongation found for this spot. 

Geographical Distribution 

Brown (1950a) indicated that E. areolata is distributed throughout 
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, and in south- 
eastern Virginia, southern New Jersey, eastern Tennessee, southern Ala- 
bama, southeastern Mississippi, and southeastern Louisiana. Harris 
(1931) reported that it was found in the coastal region of Georgia; the 
same writer (1950) reported it throughout the state. Knudsen (1954) 
did not find it on the Oglethorpe University campus but regarded it as a 
species that might be tentatively added to his list based on its having 
been reported as distributed throughout the state of Georgia, but very 
local in occurrence. A. H. Clark (in lift, to Brown, 1950) mentioned the 
occurrence of areolata in West Virginia. Haydon ( 1934) listed the species 
as probable for Maryland, but based on recent reports, Simmons ( 1956, 
1963), Simmons and Andersen (1961), it does not seem to have been 
recorded from that state. Davis (1924) mentioned a specimen from 
Harris County, Texas, and Texas specimens are figured by Clark (1932), 
Clark and Clark (1951), and Ehrlich and Ehrlich (1961). It was, how- 
ever, not included in the tentative list of Texas butterflies compiled by 
Kendall (1963b) nor was it mentioned by Gooch and Strecker (1924). 
Forbes (1960) gave the range as "southern states north to New Jersey," 
Ehrlich and Ehrlich ( 1961 ) gave it as "southeastern United States north 
to Ocean County, New Jersey." Lambremont (1954) recorded it for the 
first time from Louisiana, based on 31 specimens ( 15 $ $ , 16 2 2 ) from 
nine localities in Livingston, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, and Washington 
parishes, all in the "longleaf pine flats north of Lake Ponchartrain." He 
observed: "Supposedly the species ranges as far west as Texas, but the 



148 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 




■ t.3 



/yne o/ 

Septentr/onal/s ' ' 



mm 



Fig. 3. Plot of length (vertical axis) and width (horizontal axis) of spots on 29 
male specimens of Euptychia a. areolata from Mississippi, showing the relative posi- 
tions of the measurements of spots on the figure of the type specimen of E. areolata 
septentrionalis ( Davis ) . 



results of this survey indicate it must be rare west of the Mississippi 
River, although it localizes and can be overlooked." Kendall (1963a) 
reported taking one male on June 30, 1957 at Leesville, Vernon Parish, 
which is less than 20 miles east of the Texas border and about 10 miles 
north of Latitude 31, the boundary between Louisiana and Mississippi 
east of the Mississippi River. If the closely related E. mitchellii (French), 
described from Cass County, Michigan, were to be considered a northern 
race of E. areolata, the distribution would form a pattern rather similar 
to that known for Euphyes dukesi (Lindsey) as was shown by Mather 
(1964). The known distribution of E. areolata (and of E. mitchellii) is 
shown by the stippled areas in Fig. 7. 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



149 




Fig. 4. Plot of length (vertical axis) and width (horizontal axis) of spots on 27 
female specimens of Euptychia a. areolata from Mississippi, showing the relative 
positions of measurements of spots on the figure of the type specimen of E. areolata 
septentrionalis ( Davis ) . 



150 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 



/o 



7} 




9 



1.6 AS Z.O Z.Z ZA Z.(> Z.& 3.0 



Fig. 5. Average of length/width ratios of spots 1-4 on 56 Mississippi specimens of 
Euptychia a. areolata and the apparently normal distribution curve suggested by these 
data. 

Seasonal Distribution 

The Mississippi records are all from localities that have been visited 
by collectors only relatively infrequently; thus while it is regarded as 
probable that the occurrence of E. areolata in Mississippi is generally 
limited to the period April through October, it is not believed that the 
relative abundance within this period can be judged from the number of 
specimens recorded per month. These figures probably tell more about 
the mobility of the collectors than about the abundance of the butterflies. 
Lambremont (1954) took his 31 Louisiana specimens in May, June, and 
September. Clark and Clark ( 1951 ) report two broods in Virginia, April- 
May and August-September. Harris (1950) reported it in Georgia 
"April-October." Grossbeck (1917) gave dates of occurrence in Florida 
in March through June and September and October. The available data 
are given below. 



Mar. Apr. May Jim. Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct. 



Ref 



Mississippi X X X X X X X 

Louisiana XX X 

Florida X X X X XX 



This report 

Lambremont (1954), Kendall 

(1963) 
Grossbeck (1917) 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



151 



Mar 


Apr. May Jun. 


Jul. 


Aug. Sept. 


Oct. 


Ref 


Georgia 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Harris (1950) 


Tennessee 










X 






Martin and Truxal ( 1955 ) 


Virginia 


X 


X 






X 


X 




Clark and Clark (1951) 


New Jersey 








X 








Davis (1924) 


North Carolina 






X 










Davis (1924) 


Michigan 1 






X 


X 








Martin and Truxal ( 1955) 


Indiana 1 








X 








Martin and Truxal ( 1955) 


1 E. mitchellii. 



















Seasonal Variation 

The sample available for study included only seven specimens taken 
on dates in May, June, and July, but 49 taken on dates in August, Septem- 
ber, and October. The single available specimens representing May and 
October are both females (#26 and #29, see Table 2). The data on 
these specimens do not indicate significant differences; nor are such 
differences clearly shown by other comparisons within the series. Badger 
(1958) figured specimens of E. mitchellii showing maximum and mini- 
mum development of spots on the wings beneath, that were taken within 
a single four-day period. 

Sexual Variation 

The ground color of the upper surfaces of the wings is darker in males 
and lighter in females. Previous writers do not present a consistent dis- 
cussion of what these colors are. French (1889), describing E. mitchellii, 
referred to the color of the upper surfaces of the male as "gray wood- 
brown, rather dark" and stated that the female "differs from the male in 
being paler both above and below." He did not indicate that mitchellii 
differed from areolata in this respect. Clark and Clark ( 1951 ) refer to 
E. a. areolata as "dark mouse gray" and to E. a. septentrionalis (Davis) 
as "dark warm brown" and did not indicate that the different sexes of 
either race varied in color. Forbes ( 1960 ) said "plain fuscous above" for 
areolata. From an examination of specimens at hand, it is concluded 
that Mississippi populations meet the description given by French ( 1889 ) 
for E. mitchellii; that the males meet the description given by Clark & 
Clark (1951) for E. a. areolata; and the females meet the description 
given by them for E. a. septentrionalis. There appears to be no significant 
variation between the sexes with regard to elongation of the spots on 
the hindwings below. It is not regarded as significant that both speci- 
mens showing four spots on the underside of the forewing were males 
and all five of those that showed three were females. The ratio in which 
the sexes are represented among the material collected is remarkable 
close to 1 : 1 in those cases where all specimens were taken that were 
available. 



152 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 



4.2 

4.1 


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4.o 


/ 






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34 


A 








X 


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7 .6 .1 i-o 1. 1 \.-Z |.3 1.4 t-S- I. fa 1-7 »-e»^ 2-o 



Fig. 6. Length and width for spot #2 on 56 Mississippi specimens of Euptychia a. 
areolata, indicating a L/W range from 1.8 to 3.1. 



Geographical Variation 

E. areolata was described by J. E. Smith from Georgia. Davis (1924) 
noted that in the figure accompanying the original description, in which 
the underside is shown, there are four round blackish spots encircled by 
yellow on each forewing and six elongate spots encircled by yellowish 
on each hindwing. He also noted that Boisduval and Le Conte figured a 
specimen with elongate spots on the hindwing venter, that Scudder 
figured one from Georgia with five elongate spots on the hindwing 
underside, and that Edwards figured three specimens, one with long 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



153 




Fig. 7. Known geographical distributions of Euptychia areolata (Smith) and E. 
mitchellii (French) showing change in average of length/width ratios of spots 1-4 
from north (1.3) to south (3.0). 



spots, one with more rounded spots, and one with a reddish line sur- 
rounding the spots. 

French (1889) described E. mitchellii as having four small spots on 
the forewing underside (circular in four examples, a little oval in two) 



154 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 



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1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 155 

and six on the hindwing underside ( circular to slightly bulging ) , differing 
from areolata which may have from three to many elongate spots on the 
forewing and has five on the hindwing. 

Davis (1924) described E. areolata septentrionalis from New Jersey as 
having the eyespots on the underside of the hindwing rounder (less 
elongate) than in those from Florida and the south in general, based on 
a comparison of 22 specimens from New Jersey with 28 from the south 
(7 North Carolina, 3 South Carolina, 17 Florida, 1 Texas). Davis added 
"The writer does not mean to imply that specimens from New Jersey 
may not occasionally show spots resembling those from Florida and 
Georgia." 

Clark and Clark (1951) reported that both E. a. areolata and E. a. 
septentrionalis occurred in Virginia and that, at a locality about eight 
miles south of Suffolk, specimens of both races were taken. They wrote: 
"Most of the individuals were intergrades between the two, but some 
were typical areolatus, agreeing with specimens from South Carolina and 
Georgia, while others were equally typical septentrionalis, agreeing with 
specimens from New Jersey." They also stated that, in E. a. areolata the 
spots on the hindwing underside are "usually at least twice as long as 
broad, often much longer" while, in E. a. septentrionalis, these spots are 
"short and broad, from scarcely longer than broad to about twice as long 
as broad." Forbes (1960) referred to the spots on the underside of the 
hindwing in a. areolata as "elongate" and in a. septentrionalis as "shorter 
and more regular, perhaps half longer than wide." Davis (1924) in de- 
scribing septentrionalis, said, simply "rounder," but illustrated specimens. 
There are at hand 12 published figures showing the underside of E. 
areolata and four of E. mitchellii. These were examined by the procedures 
used for the specimens; the results are given in Table 3; the length and 
width values are plotted in Fig. 8. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Charles F. Zeiger, I have a series of nine 
specimens ( 6 $ $ , 3 $ $ ) taken by him at Orange Park and Jacksonville, 
Florida in May, 1959. The distribution of these with regard to spots on 
the forewing underside is: males, four with both spots absent, two with 
traces of the two spots; females, three with both spots absent. 

The distribution of these nine individuals with regard to spot #5 on the 
hindwing underside is: absent in two males, a trace in one male and one 
female, large enough to measure in the remainder. 

The dimensions and L/W ratios of measured hindwing spots 1-4 were 
found to be as follows: 



156 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 



5.0 



is- 




o Holland m/ 

d Dmr/s /frf (F/a) 

a Davis /92f (HO 

a Clark / Clark 1951 (F la.) 

3 Clark + Clark 1951 (Tex) 

• Hlots /9Si (Zra.) 

■ Ehrllch + Ehrlich / 96 1 (Tex) 

▲ Clarke /96? 

a. septnonalis 

Davis /9if (H.J.) 
& Clark + Clark 195/ (Va) 

E m itch ell ii 
© Badger /?J8 



f.5 



2.0 



2.5 



Fig. 8. Plot of length (vertical axis) and width (horizontal axis) of hindwing 
spots of 16 figured specimens of Euptychia areolata and E. mttchellii (French), show- 
ing range of L/W from 1.0 to 3.6. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 157 







1 






2 






3 






4 




1-4 




L 


W 


L/W 


L 


W L/W 


L 


W 


L/W 


L 


W L/W 


L/W 


s $ 


15 


6 


2.5 


32 


10 


3.2 


25 


7 


3.6 


22 


8 


2.7 


3.0 




14 


7 


2.0 


32 


12 


2.7 


30 


12 


2.5 


35 


11 


3.2 


2.6 




21 


5 


4.2 


39 


13 


3.0 


32 


12 


2.7 


33 


11 


3.3 


3.3 




23 


8 


2.9 


39 


12 


3.3 


30 


10 


3.0 


34 


10 


3.4 


3.1 




13 


5 


2.6 


30 


9 


3.3 


21 


8 


2.6 


20 


9 


2.2 


2.7 




20 


5 


4.0 


29 


10 


2.9 


22 


10 


2.2 


24 


10 


2.4 


2.9 
2.9 
3.1 


2 2 


12 


6 


2.0 


40 


11 


3.6 


35 


10 


3.5 


33 


10 


3.3 




17 


7 


2.4 


40 


15 


2.7 


41 


15 


2.7 


39 


12 


3.3 


2.8 




25 


6 


4.2 


40 


11 


3.6 


33 


9 


3.7 


32 


10 


3.2 


3.7 
3.2 



It will be noted that the spots range in elongation from L/W = 2.0 to 
4.2, and the overall average is 3.0; these relations are shown in Fig. 9. 

On the basis of the foregoing information, it would appear that the 
degree of elongation of the hindwing spots below undergoes clinal geo- 
graphical variation somewhat as follows: 





No. 




L/W 






State 


Min 


Max 


Avg 


Specimens from 


Florida 


9 


2.6 


3.7 


3.0 


ex coll. Zeiger 


Florida 


3 


2.0 


2.7 


2.5 


figured by Clark, Davis 


Georgia 


1 


2.8 


2.8 


2.8 


figured by Klots 


Texas 


2 


2.3 


2.5 


2.4 


figured by Clark, Ehrlich and Ehrlich 


Mississippi 


56 


1.7 


3.0 


2.3 


in collection Mather 


North Carolina 


1 


1.9 


1.9 


1.9 


figured by Davis 


Virginia 


2 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


figured by Clark and Clark 


New Jersey 


1 


1.5 


1.5 


1.5 


figured by Davis 


Michigan-Indiana 1 


4 


1.2 


1.5 


1.3 


figured by Badger 


1 E. mitchellii. 













This geographical variation is represented as L/W contours in the map 
(Fig. 7). 

It appears that those previous writers who assumed that any of the 
populations under discussion were composed of individuals having a 
constant number of spots on the underside of either the forewing or 
hindwing were in error. French (1889) believed that E. mitchellii always 
had six spots on the hindwing below and areolata always had five. Two of 
the four mitchellii figured by Badger (1958) have five spots on the hind- 
wing underside and two have six. The Mississippi sample of areolata 
includes specimens having four, five, and six spots on the hindwing be- 
low. The figure of areolata accompanying the original description is 



158 



Mather: Euptychia areolata 



Vol. 19, no. 3 




mm 



Fig. 9. Plot showing length (vertical axis) and width (horizontal axis) of hind- 
wing spots of nine Florida specimens of Euptychia a. areolata, showing range of L/W 
from 1.7 to 4.2. 



reported to be of a specimen having six spots. It is therefore suggested 
that, while there may be statistically significant differences in the fre- 
quency with which specimens occur having different numbers of hind- 
wing spots in several populations, it is likely that any large sample will 
include specimens with four, five, and six spots on the hindwing under- 
surface. 

The number of spots on the underside of the forewing in the Mississippi 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 159 

sample ranges from none to four. The data suggest that the likelihood of 
fewer spots on the forewing increases southward. It would appear un- 
likely that specimens of the mitchellii population will be found with no 
traces of spots on the forewing underside although, as shown by Badger's 
( 1958 ) male from Indiana, these spots may be greatly reduced. 

The elongation of the spots on the hindwing venter clearly increases 
southward. It would appear that such spots in the mitchellii population 
in Michigan and Indiana would rarely have a L/W as great as 2.0 while 
those in the Florida-Georgia population would rarely have a L/W as 
small as 1.5. It would also appear, however, that specimens with hind- 
wing spots having L/W in the range 1.5 to 2.0 could be taken anywhere 
within the entire range of all the populations under discussion. Davis 
(1924) seems to have had a more realistic view of these factors of 
geographical variation than was indicated by the comments of French 
(1889), Clark and Clark (1951), or most others who have written on the 
matter, since Davis did not contend that all individuals in the population 
he described were distinguishable from all of those making up the popu- 
lation with which it was being compared, nor did he endeavor to suggest, 
as did the Clarks, that those individuals occurring at a given locality 
resembling the average aspect of a population to which a name has been 
applied should be designated by that name, while others occurring at 
the same time at the same locality resembling another named population 
should bear its name. 

Neither references to genetic studies nor speculations which may have 
been made to elucidate the factors involved in observed variation within 
and between the populations discussed above have been found. Ford 
(1945) discussed genetic and geographical variation with respect to 
size, number, and elongation of ventral hindwing spots in two satyrid 
species occurring in Great Britain. He noted (pp. 206-207) that in 
Aphantopus hyperanthus, the variety "lanceolata," characterized by an 
enlargement and distortion into ovals of the rings surrounding such spots, 
had been shown to be a simple recessive character, while variation mani- 
fested as reduction of size and number of ventral hindwing spots, found 
to be commoner in some districts than in others, was controlled on a 
multifactorial basis (pp. 222-223). He noted that in Coenomjmpha 
tullia, there is geographic, clinal variation from an almost unspotted race 
in the north (Scotland) to a race with well-developed spots southward 
(pp. 292-293). It would appear that the areolata-mitchellii complex 
could provide an excellent basis for studies of factors influencing variation. 

Literature Cited 
Badger, F. S., 1958. Euptijchia mitchellii ( Satyridae ) in Michigan and Indiana 
tamarack bogs. Lepid. News, 12: 41-46. 



160 Mather: Euptychia areolata Vol. 19, no. 3 



Brown, F. M., 1949. Progress report on The Nearctic Butterflies. Lepid. News, 

3: 105. 
1950 a. Perliminary Distribution Report No. 2 — Neonympha. Colorado Springs, 

Colorado, 11 pp. 
1950 b. Preliminary Distribution Report No. 3 — Megisto. Colorado Springs, 

Colorado, 17 pp. 
Clark, A. H., 1932. The butterflies of the District of Columbia and vicinity. Smith- 
sonian Inst. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 157: 337 pp. 
Clark, A. H., & L. F. Clark, 1951. The butterflies of Virginia. Smithsonian Misc. 

Coll., 116(7): 1-239. 
Clarke, J. F. C, 1963. Butterflies. Golden Press, New York, 68 pp. 
Dams, W. T., 1924. A northern form of the butterfly Neonympha areolatus. Jour. 

New York Ent. Soc, 32: 105-107. 
Ehrlich, P. R., & A. H. Ehrlich, 1961. How to Know the Butterflies. Wm. C. 

Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 262 pp. 
Forbes, W. T. M., 1960. Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States — IV — 

Agaristidae through Nymphalidae. New York State Coll. Agric, Cornell Univ., 

Ithaca, N. Y. Memoir 371, 188 pp. 
Ford, E. B., 1945. Butterflies. Collins, London, 368 pp. 

French, G. H., 1889. A new species of Neonympha. Canad. Ent., 31: 25-27. 
Gooch, W. T., & J. K. Strecker, 1924. A list of diurnal Lepidoptera from the 

vicinity of Waco, Texas. The Baylor Bull., 27: 21-28. 
Grossbeck, J. A., 1917. Insects of Florida, IV, Lepidoptera. Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., 37: 1-147. 
Harris, L., Jr., 1931. A list of the butterflies of Georgia. Trans. Georgia Naturalists 

Club, 1: 1-27. 
1950. The butterflies of Georgia. Bull. Georgia Soc. Naturalists, 5: 1-29. 
Haydon, S., 1934. The Satyridae of Maryland. Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maryland, 3: 

1-10. 
Holland, W. J., 1931. The Butterfly Book (revised edition). Doubleday & Co., 

Garden City, New York, 424 pp. 
Kendall, R. O., 1963 a. New skipper and butterfly records for southwest Louisiana. 

Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 21-24. 
1963 b. The Butterflies and Skippers of Texas — A Tentative List. San Antonio, 

Texas, 7 pp. 
Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 

349 pp. 
Knudsen, J. P., 1954. Butterflies and Conspicuous Moths of the Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity Campus. Oglethorpe University, Georgia, 14 pp. 
Lambremont, E. N., 1954. The butterflies and skippers of Louisiana. Tulane Stud. 

Zool., 1: 125-164. 
Martin, L. M., & F. S. Truxal, 1955. A list of North American Lepidoptera in 

the Los Angeles County Museum, Part I — Butterflies. Los Angeles County Mus., 

Science Series, No. 18: 1-35. 
Mather, B., 1964. Euphyes clukesi — A review of its distribution in time and space 

and its habitat. Jour. Res. Lepid., 2: 161-169. [1963]. 
Mather, B., & K. Mather, 1958. The butterflies of Mississippi. Tulane Stud. 

Zool., 6: 63-109. 
Reinthal, W. J., 1962. Season's Summary, 1961. News of the Lepid. Soc, 5(3): 

11. 
Simmons, R. S., 1956. Notes on ten new butterfly records for the state of Maryland. 

Lepid. News, 10: 157-159. 
1963. Nine new butterfly records for the state of Maryland. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 

17: 107-109. 
Simmons, R. S., & W. A. Andersen, 1961. Notes on five new butterfly records for 

the state of Maryland. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 15: 99-101. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 161 



TYPE LOCALITY OF CERCYONIS STEPHENSI REVISITED 

E.J. Newcomer 

1509 Summitview, Yakima, Washington 

W. G. Wright described Satyrus stephensi on page 184 of The Butter- 
flies of the West Coast in 1905. He gave the type locality as "Northeastern 
California." The type specimens had been collected in 1894 by Frank 
Stephens. Dr. John A. Comstock investigated this form in the early 1920's 
and published a paper on it (Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 23: 13, 1924). He 
had collected specimens in Modoc County in the vicinity of Goose Lake. 
He noted that Wright did not describe stephensi until 11 years after the 
specimens were taken, and that they had been exposed to daylight during 
that time, so that the figures in Wright's book are too light. He also 
pointed out that figure 249 is a female and not a male, as Wright had 
labeled it. Comstock considered stephensi to be a female form of 
Cercyonis ariane (Boisduval) (now C. pegala ariane), and it has been 
so classified by most subsequent writers. 

Comstock quoted Stephens as writing that he caught the types "a few 
miles from the Nevada line and some thirty miles south of the Oregon 
line." This would put the locality somewhere between Davis Creek and 
Alturas. It is very doubtful whether Stephens got over east of the 
Warner Mountains in what is now called Surprise Valley; Comstock does 
not indicate that Stephens got over there. Probably that area was rela- 
tively inaccessible then, although the settlement at Fort Bidwell dates 
back to the 1860's. 

Now, not only does the paved U. S. Highway 395 traverse the area 
from north to south, but there is also a paved road going east over Cedar 
Pass to Cedarville, in Surprise Valley. In addition, there is another road, 
partly paved, going over Fandango Pass into the Valley, and a paved 
road in the Valley running from Fort Bidwell to the southern boundary 
of Modoc County. That part of the country is dominated by the Warner 
Mountains, an isolated range extending north and south about 70 miles 
in California and 30 miles in Oregon. Eagle Peak, in Modoc County, 
reaches up to almost 10,000 feet and there are a dozen other peaks higher 
than 8,000 feet. The valleys below, on each side of the range, vary from 
4,500 to 5,000 feet, and on both sides there are lakes. In California, there 
are three on the east side, Upper Lake, Middle Alkali Lake, and Lower 
Lake. In Oregon there are the Warner Lakes, extending from Pelican 
Lake, near Adel on the south, to Bluejoint Lake on the north. These lakes 
are fed by streams coming out of the Warner Mountains. On the west 
side there is a single large lake, Goose Lake, which stretches for 25 miles, 



162 



Newcomer: Cercyonis form hunted 



Vol. 19, no. 3 



OREQON 



CALIFORNIA 



^/Warn\r 
Lakes 




M£I/ADA 



Explanation of Map 

Sketch map of the Warner Mountain area. Scale: One inch equals 20 miles. 



two-thirds of it in California and the rest in Oregon (see map). The 
water level of these lakes varies, depending on the snowfall in the 
mountains; and the shores are often marshy and bordered by wet mead- 
ows and irrigated hay fields. The meadows especially are the home of 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 163 

Cercyonis. Annual precipitation is 12 to 15 inches west of the mountains 
and about seven to eight inches east of them. 

This country is mostly devoted to raising hay and livestock; and most 
of the land is privately owned and fenced with wire mesh. This makes 
collecting difficult and limited mostly to the roadsides and the occasional 
meadow with only barbed-wire fencing. 

In July, 1964, I crossed the Warners over Fandango Pass, entering 
Surprise Valley six miles south of Fort Bidwell. Just before reaching the 
valley floor I stopped to examine a rather dry pasture with clumps of 
wild rose and other bushes scattered over it. Here I found Cercyonis 
pegala ariane (Boisduval), following Comstock's characterization of this 
subspecies, but there were only males. They agree well with Wright's 
figure 250, and with Comstock's figures of ariane, one of which came 
from near Fort Bidwell. I then looked for possible collecting places be- 
tween Lake City and Cedarville. About five miles north of the latter 
place a road goes east to Leonard's Hot Springs. Sweet clover bordered 
this road and there was a pasture with clumps of wild rose in it. Here I 
took more males of ariane and also a mating pair, the female, a beautiful, 
recently emerged individual of the form stephensi, the male, ariane. It 
was evidently a bit early for the females, being July 17, but it augured 
well for the return trip some days later. 

Coming northward after five rather warm days, I found males plentiful 
in the pasture north of Cedarville and also took several females there. 
At the Fandango Pass location, I found them even more numerous. They 
flitted about, often coming to rest in the bushes, but they could be cap- 
tured on the wing, the females especially having a rather slow flight. 

That afternoon I examined the area around Davis Creek but found 
nothing. At Willow Ranch, about 12 miles north of Davis Creek, I took 
several males, but no females. 

Next morning I went out to the Warner Lakes, in Oregon, and located 
a collecting site 10 miles north of Adel near the north end of Crump 
Lake. Here there was a large, marshy meadow near the road; ariane 
was flitting about, often lighting on the high stems of grass or reeds, and 
females were numerous. 

After spending an hour and a half there on each of two mornings, I 
had about 25 males and 40 females of C. p. ariane, most of them in 
beautiful condition. So, on the second day I proceeded to Ana Springs, 
north of Summer Lake, arriving there about 3:00 P.M. I had stopped 
there on the trip southward, but, as in California, had found only males. 
The locale there is a rather small marsh about two miles east of Ana 
Springs (ariane also occurs at the Springs, but only sparingly). Males 



164 Newcomer: Cercyonis form hunted Vol. 19, no. 3 

and females were fairly numerous, and I managed to take about 35 of 
the butterflies. 

In addition to these localities, ariane occurs in the Carson Valley, 
south of Carson City, and I took a few males there. I also took a few 
males at Chandler State Park, north of Lakeview, in Oregon. The species 
no doubt occurs in many other places in that area, such as south of 
Cedarville, around Davis Creek, around the north end of Goose Lake, 
probably throughout the Warner Lakes area, around Summer Lake, and 
possibly also Abert Lake. 

Looking at the entire catch of 155 specimens (82 males and 73 fe- 
males), it is evident that there is a great deal of variation. Males are 
quite uniformly dark; some individuals have yellowish areolas around 
the dark ocelli on the upperside and others do not; and the number of 
ocelli on the hindwings varies from one to four. Females vary from rather 
dark with only a little yellowing around the primary ocelli, to quite light 
with a wide yellow band on both wings. The latter can be called typical 
stephensi. From the somewhat limited material at hand, I find that the 
percentages of females which represent the stephensi form are 88% in 
Surprise Valley, 25% at Crump Lake, and 62% at Ana Springs. 

I also paid some attention to the other species of Cercyonis in this area. 
I have taken C. silvestris (Edwards) along the road some miles south of 
Eagleville in Surprise Valley, near Crump Lake, and near Picture Rock 
Pass, just north of Ana Springs, in each case in rather dry areas on the 
blossoms of rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus) . C. oetus (Bdv. ) has been 
taken, also on rabbit brush, at Lake City and in Fandango Valley, in 
California; in various places in the Warners in Oregon; in the Hart 
Mountain Antelope Refuge; and at numerous other places farther north 
in Oregon. 



BOOK NOTICE 

MICROLEPIDOPTERA OF JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS. By J. F. Gates Clarke. 
Proc. U. S. National Museum, vol. 117, pp. 1-106, 111 text figs., 1 plate. 1965. 

A total of 71 species are treated from this island group, which is located some 400 
miles off the coast of southern Chile. Included are 41 previously undescribed species, 
primarily pyraloids, and eight new genera. Of the total, ten are widespread moths 
which are associated with activities of man and presumably are introduced, while 
only five others have been recorded in adjacent portions of South America. Clarke 
points out that the high endemism ( about 75% ) is probably disproportionate, in 
part a product of the preliminary state of knowledge concerning Microlepidoptera 
both in the islands and in mainland Chile and Argentina. Some 28 species known only 
from the archipelago are pyraloids of the family Crambidae, the only group which 
seems to have undergone extensive speciation in the Juan Fernandez Islands. — editor. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 165 

MIMICRY AND DISTRIBUTION OF CAENURGINA 
CAERULEA GRT. (NOCTUIDAE) 

John C. Downey 

Zoology Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 

The color blue occurs in several families and subfamilies of moths but 
only in a very few species. These few usually exhibit one or more addi- 
tional prominent colors. For example the Nearctic species Alypiodes 
bimaculata (H.-S.), has bright yellow spots on the forewing in addition 
to a patch of metallic blue scales. The Australian species Agarista agricola 
Donov. is also very conspicuously mottled with red and yellow colors 
besides the blue. Sometimes the blue color fades after death, so that 
patches of blue in the forewings of Paramiana laetabilis (Sm.) only 
appear in fairly fresh specimens. 

With the rarity of the color among these insects, it is somewhat puzzling 
to note the predominently blue Caenurgina caeimlea Grote. 1 Its near 
relatives are brownish or dark-colored, and only C. distincta Neum., 
which has a slight bluish cast, tends to bridge the hiatus between caerulea 
and the other members of the genus. The key to understanding the 
evolution of the blue color in caerulea will probably not be found through 
study of pigmentation tendencies within the Caenurgina, but through 
study of other factors. My first field observations of caerulea may have 
provided that key. Many additional observations of the living animal 
in its habitat support my original opinion, which is that caerulea may be 
a mimic of the common blue butterfly, Plebejus (Icaricia) icarioides 
(Bdv.). 

While collecting numerous specimens of Plebejus over an extended 
patch of lupine plants, I ended up once with caerulea in my net. At first 
I thought the chased "butterfly" had escaped and the moth was an acci- 
dental capture. It was only after several such incidents that I realized 
that I was being deceived by the moth's coloration and by its particular 
manner of flight. 

Much debate has centered on mimicry and what, precisely, the term 
implies. But regardless of the term used, structural and behavioral re- 
semblance between Plebejus icarioides and Caenurgina caerulea occurs 
and should be considered further. The original observations were made 
at Fawn Lodge near Weaverville, Trinity County, California. I have 



iThis species is figured in color by Holland (1922, The Moth Book, Plate 30, Fig. 13), 
where it can be contrasted to the more somber-colored members of the family shown on the 
same plate. 



166 



Downey: Blue moth mimics blue 



Vol. 19, no. 3 




V 



\ 



Plate 1. Map of western North America showing the distribution of Caenurgina 
caerulea Grt. (black circles) and Plebejas icarioides (Bdv.) (stippled area) and 
the general area where they are sympatric ( oblique slashes ) . 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 167 

since observed both moth and butterfly in Humbolt, Plumas, and Trinity 
counties, California. 

The moth apparently feeds on the same lupine host plant as the butter- 
fly: Lupinus latifolius Agardh. at Weaverville, and L. formosus Greene 
at Butterfly Valley, Plumas County, California. As one walks through 
scattered clumps of lupine, both the moth and butterfly take flight. These 
flights are usually short, particularly those of the moth. I know of only 
a few occasions when a moth took flight without my having first disturbed 
it, and they may have been otherwise alarmed. In other words, I am not 
certain of the diurnal activity of the moth, beyond the knowledge that 
it is found around the lupine plants during the day, and will take to wing 
readily. W. R. Bauer (in lift.) reports that he has taken caerulea at lights 
at night, but this is not surprising if it is ordinarily diurnal, for diurnal 
butterflies sometimes occur at lights also. 

The resemblance between the moth and butterfly is not exact, particu- 
larly when two specimens are placed side by side. The blue color in the 
dead moth gradually fades so that the contrast between the two species 
may increase in pinned material. This indicates that the blue in the 
moth is a pigmentary rather than a structural color. The dorsal forewings 
in caerulea are somewhat darker than the hindwings, and the linear 
scaling on this part of the wings breaks up the pattern by countershading. 
Perhaps since the forewings cover the hindwings when at rest, they af- 
ford some protective (concealing) advantage to nonflying specimens. 
When flying however, the blue color is very obvious, and together with 
the flight behavior mentioned above, the resemblance of the moth to 
icarioides is pronounced. 

Other species of blue butterflies besides icarioides occasionally fly over 
and around the lupine fields including Plebejus (Lycaeides) melissa 
(Edw. ), its sibling P. ar gyro gnomon (Bergst. ) and Ghucopsyche lygda- 
mus ( Dbldy. ) . The latter species is known to utilize lupine in other areas 
and is not uncommon where icarioides flies so that presumably it could 
also act as a model for caerulea. 

The published accounts of the distribution of C. caerulea usually list 
only the "western United States" or "Pacific Coast." Since the distribution 
of mimic and model is important to the concept of mimicry, a comparison 
of the ranges of the butterfly and moth are presented in the map (Plate 
1 ) . Reference to the map shows that the known distribution of the moth 
falls well within the range of the butterfly. 

The following data summarize the known distribution of caerulea and 
indicate the location of these records in the various collections and mu- 
seums. The following abbreviations are used for these collections. I 



168 Downey: Blue moth mimics blue Vol. 19, no. 3 

am grateful to these museums, and to the researchers indicated below for 
help in this problem: AMNH — American Museum Natural History (F. 
H. Rindge); CAS — California Academy of Sciences (C. D. MacNeill); 
CIS — California Insect Survey, Berkeley (J. A. Powell); JF — John 
Franclemont collection; LACM — Los Angeles County Museum (Lloyd 
Martin); SIU— Southern Illinois University; USNM— U. S. National 
Museum (E. L. Todd); WB — William Bauer collection. The work was 
supported by the National Science Foundation, grant GB-2423. My thanks 
also to R. E. Blackwelder and W. G. George for help with the manuscript. 

Arizona. Yavapai Co. — (AMNH). (This specimen is from the Buchholz col- 
lection, presumably collected by him. The disjunct nature of his record suggests a 
need for verification. ) British Columbia. Corfield (AMNH), Fitzgerald (LACM), 
Goldstream (USNM), Mt. Benson (USNM), Quamichan Dist, Vane. Is. (USNM), 
Shawnigan Lake (USNM), Vancouver (AMNH), Victoria (AMNH), (USNM), 
Wellington (AMNH). California. Alameda Co.— (CAS), (USNM), Berkeley 
(AMNH). Contra Costa Co.— (CAS), Bollinger Canyon Rd. (CIS). Eldorado Co.— 
Grizzly Flat (AMNH). Humbolt Co.— Willow Creek (SIU). Kern Co.— Havilah 
(AMNH). Lake Co.— Anderson Springs (LACM), (JF). Lassen Co.— (AMNH). 
Los Angeles Co. — near Los Angeles (LACM). Madera Co. — Bass Lake (AMNH). 
Mann Co.— (CAS), Alpine Lake (AMNH), (CIS), Fairfax (AMNH), (LACM), 
Lake (LACM), Tomales (WB). Mariposa Co. — (CAS), Inspiration Point, Yosemite 
(USNM), Road to Nevada Falls, Yosemite (USNM), Yosemite Valley (USNM). 
Mendocino Co.— (CAS), Anchor Bay (LACM), (WB), (JF), 16 mi E of Man- 
chester (CIS), near McDonald Mtn. House (CIS), Yorkville (LACM). Monterey 
Co.— (AMNH), (CAS), Big Sur (LACM), Pacific Grove (USNM). Napa Co.— 
(CAS). Placer Co.— (AMNH), Dutch Flat (SIU), Mt. Tahoe (USNM). Plumas 
Co.— (AMNH), (CAS), (USNM), Butterfly Valley (SIU), Johnsville (WB), (JF), 
Mohawk (WB). San Francisco Co. — San Francisco (AMNH). Santa Clara Co. — 
Stanford Univ. (LACM). Santa Cruz Co.— (CAS), Scotts Valley (AMNH). Shasta 
Co.— (CAS), Hat Cr. (CAS). Siskipou Co.— Bartle (AMNH), Dunsmuir (AMNH), 
3 mi S Dunsmuir (CIS), Shasta Retreat (USNM), Shasta Valley (AMNH). Sonoma 
Co.— Kenwood (JF), Plantation (CIS), 4 mi W Plantation (CIS), Sonoma (AMNH). 
Trinity Co.— (CAS), Carrville (LACM), Fawn Lodge nr. Weaverville (SIU). 
Tulare Co.— (CAS), Crescent Mdw. to Hamilton Lake, Sequoia Nat. Park (LACM), 
Mineral King (AMNH). Tuolumne Co.— Sonora (CAS), N Fk. Tuolumne River 
(CAS), Twain Harte (CAS). Oregon. Benton Co.— Corvallis (CAS), (AMNH). 
Clackamas Co.— Estacada (CAS), Gov't Camp, Mt. Hood (CAS). Curry Co.— 
Port Orford (AMNH). Klamath Co.— (CAS). Lane Co.— Reed (CAS), (USNM). 
Washington. Clallam Co. — Port Angeles (USNM). Jefferson Co. — Hurricane 
Ridge, Olympic Mtns. (AMNH), Kittitat Co.— Easton (USNM). Pierce Co. — 
Longmire Spgs., 2,500 ft, Mt. Ranier (CAS). Thurston Co.— Olympia (USNM). 

The times of initial adult emergence of caerulea and icarioides and 
their seasonal flight times as determined by dates on museum specimens 
also overlap except in one or two instances. An Arizona record of the 
moth, which may be erroneous, and a record from Wellington, British 
Columbia, give August dates of capture. Though icarioides occur in 
August in Arizona, the northern record seems quite late. However, in all 
cases where late collecting records occur for the moth, the multivoltine G. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 169 

lygdamus has also been noted. In other words, the geographic range and 
the temporal distribution of the moth fall within the known range of the 
butterflies. 

One objection to the theory of mimicry has been the casual and 
anecdotal nature of the evidence. While not wishing to argue about the 
value of certain evidence, I find it extremely difficult to determine by 
field observations what "protective" is, let alone the extent of the sup- 
posed protection. Not only may a subjective evaluation of an observation 
be fallacious, but man's observation of predator and victims in the field 
may be a rare thing. As a matter of fact, I have not observed a bird chas- 
ing or feeding on Plebejus icarioides or Glaucopsyche lygdamus, the 
lycaenid models chiefly involved in the suspected mimicry by the moth. 
This is not to say that bird predation does not occur. I have observed 
birds chasing other species of blues, and Price ( 1961 ) has observed not 
only birds but flying insects preying on adult butterflies. Powell and 
Stage (1962) report icarioides among the prey records for robberflies 
in the White Mountains, California. Many other animals, such as spiders 
and ambush bugs, feed on adults of blues. 

It has often been noted that predators utilize prey in direct proportion 
to the abundance of the latter. Both of the above species of blues can 
be considered common, and though their concentration is localized by 
the spotty, semi-clumped distribution of the lupine host plants, adults are 
usually quite numerous. The moth is comparatively less abundant. 

Other observations may serve as an index of predation in the butterfly 
populations. When disturbed specimens of P. icarioides flee away on 
their highly erratic "escape" flight, they may suddenly fold their wings 
together, drop to the ground, and feign death. This action is thought to 
have survival value to escape capture in flight. Not all disturbed speci- 
mens feign death, but the occurrence of this behavior indicates that the 
species has been subject to predation for a considerable time. The moth 
likewise terminates disturbed flight by quickly dropping to the plant 
substrate. Erratic flight and quick landings are common characteristics 
of diurnal moths; but since the regular flight of caerulea is so similar to 
that of the butterfly, we may assume that the abruptly terminated flight 
noted here, presumably for the same protective function, reinforces the 
resemblance between the two species. 

We may further assume that even though they are preyed upon, the 
rarity of sightings might be due either to the rarity or particular food 
preferences of the predator, or to a protective adaptation in the prey. 
It is possible that the alkaloids known to be concentrated from the soil 
by the lupine host plants occur in the tissues of the butterflies. These 



170 Downey: Blue moth mimics blue Vol. 19, no. 3 

chemicals could render the adults distasteful to some predators with 
catholic tastes, so that they avoid blue-colored insects. In other words, 
the blue could offer a selective advantage in being an aposematic color. 
To this extent it is possible that the noctuid moth is likewise distasteful 
to certain predators, and the resemblance of the moth and butterflies 
classified as a type of Mullerian mimicry. That the resemblance is not 
very exact, as is expected in other forms of mimicry, also suggests a 
Mullerian type. 

It might be argued that blue colors in the Lepidoptera accentuate the 
conspicuousness of the possessor. Oftentimes the selective advantage of 
the prominent color can be guessed: sexual attraction, warning, and flash- 
ing colors for protection, etc. The fact that most of the blue is on the 
dorsal surface in butterflies, while the undersurface which is exposed in 
resting specimens is cryptically colored, reinforces the advertising nature 
of the blue. In moths, where cryptic colors often occur on the exposed 
dorsal surface, blues are less frequently encountered, and when present, 
they add to the conspicuousness of the specimen. 

The suggestion might also be entertained that something about the 
size, shape, or flight behavior other than the color affords an advantage 
to the butterfly. Since these features are also approximated by the moth, 
in addition to the color, any or all could promote the resemblance be- 
tween the species by selection. Of course, both species could be evolving 
toward a particular ecological niche, or be exhibiting a common response 
to environmental selection, so that the similarity may be convergent 
rather than mimetic. I hope that lepidopterists in western North America 
will make additional field observations as opportunity arises, and clarify 
the resemblance between caerulea and icarioides. 

Literature Cited 

Powell, J. A., & G. I. Stage, 1962. Prey selection by robberflies of the genus 
Stenopogon, with particular observations on S. engelhardti Bromley (Diptera: 
Asilidae). Wasman Jour. Biol., 20(1): 139-157. 

Price, H. F., 1961. Lepidoptera as prey of other insects. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 15(2): 
93-94. 



CORRECTION 

In the article "The maintenance for experimental purposes of form 'sulphurea' of 
Pieris napi (Pieridae)" published in Volume 18, No. 2 of this journal, the following 
erratum should be noted. In figure 4 on page 99, the genotype of the "pale yellow" 
at the top right-hand corner should be S p S h , not S P S'~' as printed. — S. R. Bowden, 
Redbourn, St. Albans, Herts., England 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 171 

SOME UNUSUAL BUTTERFLY RECORDS FROM 
CENTRAL CALIFORNIA 

Keith S. Brown, Jr. 

Faculdade National de Farmacia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 

The year 1963 in central California, marked by heavy rains from March 
through May in the lowlands and snows lasting into July in the Sierra 
Nevada, produced a very rich season for butterflies, although it was as 
much as six weeks late in some areas. Some of the unusual records re- 
sulting from the author's collecting are described in this paper. 1 

Plerejus saepiolus ( Boisduval ) 

A trip to the dry portion of the San Bruno Hills overlooking Brisbane, 
San Mateo County, on 11 June, to collect typical Speyeria callippe callippe 
(Boisduval) also yielded a single female of Plebejus saepiolus. The 
specimen possesses considerable blue basal scaling, although not as much 
as is present on specimens from the Plantation area in Sonoma County to 
the north, at an elevation of about 1,000 feet. No other records of P. 
saepiolus from the San Francisco peninsula region are known to the 
writer; none could be located in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Lycaena xanthoides ( Boisduval ) 

A male of L. xanthoides which is unusual in coloration was collected on 
the same trip to the San Bruno Hills. The forewing is bright orange on 
the underside, while the hindwing is gray on the underside, far darker 
than any other xanthoides seen by the author in the San Francisco Bay 
area or in the American Museum collection. Many of the spots of the 
underside of the hindwing tend towards obsolescence. Deepening of the 
ground color with greater abundance of melanins are tendencies corre- 
lated by Hovanitz (1941) with butterflies' occurrence in cold, moist areas. 
Possibly the cool, foggy summer conditions characteristic of the San 
Bruno Hills play a role in alteration of the phenotypic expression of cer- 
tain butterflies there. 

Incisalia fotis doudoroffi dos Passos 

A single specimen of Incisalia fotis was collected on Chew's Ridge, 
south of Jamesburg in the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey County, 

1 For clarity, all nomenclature follows the recent list of dos Passos (1964). 



172 Brown: Unusual California butterflies Vol. 19, no. 3 

at an elevation of about 5,000 feet, on 29 June. The specimen corre- 
sponds closely to the race cloud oroffi found at Carmel and Big Sur, 
coastal localities in Monterey County. The Santa Lucia Mountains site 
is about 30 miles inland from Big Sur, and the collection evidently repre- 
sents an elevational and geographical range extension for cloudoroffi. 

Vanessa cardui ( Linnaeus ) 

A single, very fresh male of this species was taken at Chew's Ridge 
along with the preceding species. As no great migration of this species 
was reported in the season summary for 1963 in central California, and 
the cardui seemed freshly emerged, it seems likely that it appeared in 
the Santa Lucia Range from a breeding stock rather from migratory 
movement from the south. This contrasts with the opinion of Abbott 
(1962) that V. cardui overwinters irregularly, if ever, as far north as 
central California. 

Polygonia faunus rusticus ( Edwards ) 

Garth and Tilden ( 1963 ) report only a single rather ill-defined record 
for this species in the Yosemite Park area, an old specimen labeled merely 
"Yosemite," 26 June. However, P. /. rusticus seemed quite common on 
17 May 1963, at the northwest entrance to the park on the Big Oak Flat 
road, at an elevation of about 4,000 feet, where it was flying with P. 
zephyrus ( Edwards ) . Thus, rusticus seems to be a bona fide member of 
the Yosemite Park Lepidoptera fauna. 

Speyeria callippe jura ( Boisduval ) 

A minor aberration of S. callippe fuba was taken along the North Fork 
of the Tuolumne River, Tuolumne County, on 26 July. A large assem- 
blage of Speyeria, including zerene (Boisduval), hydaspe (Boisduval), 
and callippe, was sampled at the locality, which is about four miles north- 
east of the town of Tuolumne (near Camp 8). The aberrant individual 
has the basal and median spots between veins Cu 2 and 2 d A on the under- 
side of the hindwing fused together. Examination of the specimens of 
all species of Speyeria in the American Museum collection did not reveal 
another example comparable to this striking aberration. 

EUPHYDRYAS EDITHA NURIGENA ( Behr ) 

Unusually lightly marked specimens of E. e. nubigena and other spe- 
cies appeared to be present in exceptional numbers during late July at 
moderate elevations in Tuolumne County. A colony of E. ediiha was 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 173 

discovered about one mile southwest of the Clark's Fork turnoff on High- 
way 108 (just west of Dardanelles). Although visits were made to the 
site on three consecutive days (26-28 July), the terrain was too formi- 
dable to permit extensive collecting, and only butterflies on or near the 
road could be captured. This is regrettable because the specimens taken 
show a high incidence of aberrant coloration. Single individuals of the 
typical form ( Fig. 1 ) were captured 26 and 27 July. These two compare 
closely in size and maculation with a typical male taken two weeks later 
and 4,000 feet higher, at Sonora Pass. A partially orange-suffused male 
(Fig. 2) was also captured 27 July; it approximately matches the most 
extreme specimens in the large collection of nabigena at the American 
Museum of Natural History. Two additional specimens taken on 26 July 
(Fig. 3, $ ) and 28 July (Fig. 4, 2 ) correspond closely to the named 
aberration rubrosuffusa Comstock, described from the Mammoth Lakes 
area in Mono County, California. 

Although this sampling of the Clark's Fork colony is too small to be of 
real significance, it is tempting to suggest that it might be representative 
of phenotypic variation extant at the time. The five specimens were 
captured on three different days, in morning, noon, and late afternoon. 
Further information is provided by J. C. Montgomery (in lift.) of Red- 
wood City, California, who in a previous year during mid-July collected 
a number of editha from a colony at Dardanelles, at an elevation of about 
6,000 feet. This locality is also on Highway 108, but at a large meadow 
along the Stanislaus River, about three miles from the Clark's Fork site. 
Montgomery's specimens also tend to be relatively light and orange- 
washed, although not averaging as much so as the examples illustrated 
(Figs. 3, 4). It is possible, as Mr. Montgomery suggests, that colonies of 
E. editha mibigena from moderate elevations characteristically tend 
toward the orange-suffused form. There may well be other forces acting, 
since a number of unusually light or orange-washed specimens represent- 
ing Melitaea palla Boisduval (see Fig. 5, typical, and 6, light example 
from Clark's Fork, taken together), Vanessa virginiensis (Drury), Poly- 
gonia zephyrus (Edwards), Oeneis chryxus Stanislaus Hovanitz, and 
Papilio zelicaon Lucas, were captured in the general area of the editha 
colony on 26-28 July. This suggests that the "aberration" tendency may 
have been caused by climatic conditions during the earlier part of the 
same generation. The weather at moderate elevations in the central 
Sierra Nevada was moderately warm during May, 1963, and it is possible 
that most of the above-mentioned species could have undergone normal 
larval stages at that time. However, cold weather with heavy snows 
followed during June. Whether this climate sequence had any connection 
with the number of light and orange-washed specimens captured in the 



174 Brown: Unusual California butterflies Vol. 19, no. 3 

area in rather casual collecting during the three-day period in late July 
could be tested under properly controlled systems in the laboratory, or by 
assiduous collecting in the Sierra Nevada at moderate elevations in years 
similar to 1963. 

EUPHYDRYAS CHALCEDONA SIERRA ( Wright ) 

A substantial colony of E. c. sierra was discovered unusually late in 
the season on the very summit of Mt. Tallac, above Lake Tahoe, at an 
elevation of 9,900 feet, with only fresh males in evidence despite the date, 
22 August. A colony of E. sierra, which normally has its peak flight in 
July, exists in Glen Alpine Creek below Mt. Tallac at an elevation of 
6,500 feet, and the species was unexpected at the summit in late August. 
Other species flying at Mt. Tallac included Oeneis chryxus ivallda (Mead) 
(fresh to worn) and various Vanessa, but no E. editha nubigena, the ex- 
pected Euphydryas, were observed. 

A very small Euphydryas taken in the Sonora Pass area ( elevation 9,800 
feet) on 28 July, at first was presumed to be E. nubigena, but was later 
determined to be a dwarfed individual of E. chalcedona sierra. Collected 
at an unusually high altitude, this specimen measured 8 mm less in wing- 
span than the average of 37 mm exhibited in the series taken from Mt. 
Tallac one month later (see Figs. 7, 8). The relationships between the 
various named and unnamed forms of E. chalcedona in the central Sierra 
Nevada are indeed complex, and like many specimens, the Sonora Pass 
individual does not seem to fit any well-known pattern. Another very 
worn specimen, probably assignable to E. chalcedona sierra, of natural 
size and somewhat orange-washed, was also taken in the Sonora Pass 
area on 21 August. 

Acknowledgments 
The author is indebted to the American Museum of Natural History, 
and particularly to Drs. F. H. Rindge and J. C. Pallister, for assistance in 
working with the fine collection housed therein; and to Dr. O. E. Sette, 
Los Altos, California, J. C. Montgomery, Redwood City, California, and 
Dr. P. R. Ehrlich, Stanford University, for helpful data and general as- 
sistance with this report. 

Literature Cited 

Abbott, C. H., 1962. A migration problem — Vanessa cardui ( Nymphalidae ) , the 

painted lady butterfly. Jour. Lepid. Soc., 16: 229-233. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Lepid Soc., 

Mem. 1, New Haven, Conn., 145 pp. 
Garth, J. S., & J. W. Tilden, 1963. Yosemite butterflies. Jour. Res. Lepid., 2: 

1-96. 
Hovanitz, W., 1941. Parallel ecogenotypical color variation in butterflies. Ecology, 

22: 359-284. 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



175 




Explanation of plate 

Figs. 1-4. Euphydryas editha nubigena (Behr), near Dardanelles, Tuolumne Co., 
Calif., 1, $,27 July 1963; 2,$, 27 July 1963; 3, ^,26 July 1963; 4, 9 , 28 July 
1963. Figs. 5, 6. Melitaea palla Boisduval, Iceburg Meadow near Dardanelles, 
Tuolumne Co., Calif., $ $ , 27 July 1963. Figs. 7, 8. Euphydryas chalcedona sierra 
(Wright), 7, Mt. Tallac, summit, El Dorado Co., Calif., 22 August 1963; 8, dwarf, 
Sonora Pass, Tuolumne Co., Calif., 28 July 1963. 



176 Zoological Nomenclature Vol. 19, no. 3 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 
NOMENCLATURE 

Notice of proposed use of plenary powers in certain cases (A. (n.s.) 68 

In accordance with a decision of the 13th International Congress of 
Zoology, 1948, public notice is hereby given of the possible use by the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature of its plenary 
powers in connection with the following cases, full details of which will 
be found in Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature Vol. 22, Part 1 to be 
published 5 April 1965. 

(6) Designation of a type species for Ornipholidotos Bethune Baker, 
1914 (Insecta, Lepidoptera ) . Z.N. (S.) 1663; 

(10) Designation of type species for the following genera of Insecta, 
Lepidoptera: 

Ypthima Hiibner, 1818 (Z.N. (S.) 1672); Napaea Hubner [1819] 
(Z.N. (S.) 1673); laspis Kaye, 1904 (Z.N. (S.) 1674); Pithcops 
Horsfield [1828] (Z.N. (S.) 1675 ); Arisoe Hubner [1819] (Z.N. (S.) 
1676); Phrismra Butler, 1870 (Z.N. (S.) 1677); Adopaeoides God- 
man [1900] (Z.N. (S.) 1678); Artines Godman [1901] (Z.N. (S.) 
1679); Gegenes Hubner [1819] (Z.N. (S.) 1680); Halpe Moore, 
1878 (Z.N. (S.) 1681); Papias Godman [1900] (Z.N. (S.) 1682); 
Phanis Godman [1900] (Z.N. (S.) 1683); Telicota Moore [1881] 
(Z.N. (S.) 1684); Zeros Godman [1900] (Z.N. (S.) 1685). 

Any zoologist who wishes to comment on any of the above cases should 
do so in writing, and in duplicate, as soon as possible, and in any case 
before 5 October 1965. Each comment should bear the reference number 
of the case in question. Comments received early enough will be pub- 
lished in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. Those received too 
late for publication will, if received before 5 October be brought to the 
attention of the Commission at the time of commencement of voting. 

All communications on the above subject should be addressed as fol- 
lows: The Secretary, International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature, c/o British Museum ( Natural History ) , Cromwell Road, London, 
S.W.7, England. — W. E. China, Assistant Secretary to the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 111 

OBSERVATIONS ON CALLOPHRYS MACFARLANDI (LYCAENI- 
DAE), IN THE SANDIA MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO 

Noel McFarland 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia 



There are some peculiarities, in the habits of Callophrys (Sandia) 
macfarlandi Ehrlich & Clench, which are worth noting. 

Daily Activity of Adults. The butterflies crawl up from within the 
depths of the Nolina clumps (where they spend the night) between 8:00 
and 9:00 A.M., if it is sunny. They then sun themselves, on the leaves 
of the Nolina clumps, before they begin to fly about. Even if there is a 
high wind, they will be up early, if the sun is shining. At the time these 
insects are on the wing in May and June windy mornings are frequent 
in the Sandia Mountains. If the wind continues all morning, they may 
never be observed on the wing, but can be discovered as they sit in the 
clumps. If alarmed under these conditions (early in the morning), the 
butterflies will sometimes simply drop and flutter deep down into the 
clump, where they can often escape capture. They stay close to the 
Nolina clumps most of the time, but occasionally alight in other nearby 
plants, such as scrub oaks. During the heat of a windless day, they are 
more active, and will be seen darting around the clumps, chasing each 
other, etc. After a warm day, they will remain active until dusk, defi- 
nitely after sunset, while it is still light. Such behavior is rarely observed 
in butterflies. I have observed similar early evening activity in Habro- 
dias grunus Bdv., as it flies around its food plant ( Quercus chrysolepis ) 
in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. It is exceptionally 
active just before dusk, after a hot summer day. 

When I visited the type locality of C. macfarlandi and other nearby 
colonies, in late May and early June, 1960 and 1961, the population was 
at the peak of its flight period. (My original capture on 4 May 1958 
represented an early specimen of the first brood. ) It would be of inter- 
est to learn where the second brood, or later-emerging females oviposit, 
because by late June, the Nolina blossoms are gone, and the green seed 
capsules (which are also readily eaten by the larvae) are beginning to 
dry up. This leaves nothing suitable as food for larvae until the follow- 
ing spring, when new blossoms will shoot up within the clumps. There- 
fore, the question is, what becomes of the eggs of late females, and how 
do the resulting first instar larvae manage to locate suitable food? From 
rearing experiments which I carried out in 1959 and 1960, it is evident 



178 McFarland: More on macfarlandi Vol. 19, no. 3 

that most of the pupae overwinter, and a few hatch the same season, in 
June. But, do the eggs of late females also overwinter? 

On 15 June 1961, I collected a number of freshly emerged females, 
along with others in fair to poor condition. This was near the end of 
the period of emergence, and all the Nolina clumps had completely fin- 
ished flowering. The green seed capsules were well formed by then, 
and some of them were beginning to dry out. From two seed stalks that 
were still green, I shook over 50 larvae, ranging in size from 3 mm long 
to last instar. 

Larvae are easily brought through to pupation, on one or two stalks 
full of green seed capsules. The stalk can be kept in suitable condition 
for two weeks or more, by storing it in a plastic bag, and airing it often 
enough to retard mold. (Stalks with blossoms deteriorate much more 
rapidly, after being picked. ) Larvae reared in this manner in June, 1959, 
formed pupae which were exposed to cold outdoor temperatures (in 
northeastern Kansas) for part of the winter. These pupae were then 
brought indoors, in February, 1960, and all emerged in good condition 
shortly thereafter. (This was, of course, not the normal time for emer- 
gence, but was caused by warmer temperatures, after a period of cold. ) 

One of the best locations for observing and collecting C. macfarlandi, 
and an easier one to reach than the type locality, is along Highway 66, 
east of Albuquerque, New Mexico, in the boulder-covered foothills of 
the Sandia Mountains, where scrub oaks and Nolina clumps are abun- 
dant. It is hoped that the type locality will be spared by collectors; it 
is possible that the Highway 66 location will eventually be engulfed, as 
Albuquerque expands eastward toward Tijeras Canyon. 

The food plant of Callophrys macfarlandi may not be Nolina micro- 
carpa S. Wats.; typical N. microcarpa has a flowering stalk which ex- 
tends well above the clump itself. It is a common and widespread spe- 
cies from central to southeastern Arizona, and from central to southern 
New Mexico. N. microcarpa is described by Benson and Darrow (1954), 
pp. 72-74, and is illustrated by photographs on Plate XII (E, G). The 
Nolina growing in the type locality of C. macfarlandi has a flowering 
stalk which rarely extends above the clump of leaves. Of course, this 
feature could vary from one locality to another. I have no specimens of 
this plant, so am not able to check it for other morphological differences, 
if such exist. 

Literature Cited 

Benson, L., & R. A. Darrow, 1954. The Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern 
Deserts ( 2nd ed. ) . Univ. of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 

Ehrlich, P. R., 1961. How to Know the Butterflies. W. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, 
Iowa. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 179 



Ehrlich, P. R., & H. K. Clench, 1960. A new subgenus and species of Callophrys 
(s.l. ) from the southwestern United States. Ent. News, 71: 137-141. 

Schulz, E. D., 1928. Texas Wild Flowers. Laidlaw Bros., Chicago. 

Stallings, D. B., J. R. Turner, & P. R. Ehrlich, 1959. A "hit and run" trip to 
Texas and New Mexico. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 13: 99-100. 

Stallings, D. B., J. R. Turner, & P. R. Ehrlich, 1962. Preliminary notes on the 
life history of Callophrys (Sandia) macfarlandi. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 16: 55-57. 



MORE OBSERVATIONS ON THE ATTRACTION OF DIURNAL 
LEPIDOPTERA TO LIGHT 

Richard Heitzman 

3112 Harris Ave., Independence, Missouri 

The phenomenon of butterflies being attracted to lights seems to be 
of keen interest to lepidopterists. Observations are often recorded and 
the specimens given an honored place in the captor's collection. With 
the recent advent of ultraviolet light as a popular medium for moth 
collecting, records of butterflies attracted to lights have greatly increased. 
It is quite apparent that ultraviolet light attracts and holds butterflies to 
a much higher degree than incandescent light. During five years of 
collecting with a standard 20-watt ultraviolet light and moth sheet I 
have taken 50 butterflies. In the last 16 years I have found only four 
butterflies attracted to other light sources. 

Undoubtedly a large precentage of the specimens collected at light 
are startled from their resting places in nearby trees or bushes by the 
collector or some of the larger insects attracted to the light. There is 
some evidence that occasional specimens are drawn from a considerable 
distance. For example, on the evening of August 16, 1964 I was collecting 
moths in a state wildlife area near Moberly, Missouri. The moth sheet 
was hung on a tree facing a large open field. I was standing about 50 
feet in front and to the side of the sheet watching for sphingids and 
Catocala which frequently fly in and settle on the ground as much as 30 
or 40 feet from the sheet. I observed what appeared to be a Catocala 
coming in a skipping zigzag flight toward the sheet. Instead of dropping 
to the ground it flew directly to the sheet and settled near the light. To 
my surprise I found it was a worn Cercyonis pegala ( Fabricius ) . When 
first observed it was about 80 to 90 feet from the sheet. The field was 
recently plowed with only a trace of fresh growth. About 200 feet further 
were brushy areas which would seem to be the logical source of the 
butterfly. Perhaps it was startled from its resting place by some wan- 



180 Heitzman: More butterflies at light Vol. 19, no. 3 

dering creature of the night and then drawn by the compelling glow of 
the light or perhaps the light itself was the stimulus which drew it from 
its retreat. Butterflies attracted to ultraviolet light are usually compara- 
tively unwary and easily collected with the killing jar. 

The following records include every major family of the area with the 
exception of the Papilionidae. There is no apparent reason for this 
absence as we have six species of Papilio present and in many cases 
they are abundant diurnal insects. In the following list condition of the 
specimens is indicated by (F) fresh, (W) worn, or (B) battered. 

Species taken at incandescent light sources: 

Erynnis horatius ( Scud. & Burg. ) 1 $ ( F ) 3 Sept. 64, Fort Scott, Arkansas. 

Pieris protodice Bdv. & LeC. IS (F) 9 June 58, Sugar Creek, Missouri. 

Strymon cecrops (Fabricius) 1$ (B) 3 Sept. 61, Rogers, Arkansas. 

Asterocampa celtis ( Bdv. & LeC. ) 1 $ ( F ) 14 Aug. 48, Independence, Missouri. 
Species taken at ultraviolet light: 

Amblyscirtes nysa Edwards 1 $ ( F ) 28 Aug. 64, Independence, Missouri. 

Atalopedes campestris (Boisduval) 1$ (W) 1 Aug. 60, 1 $ (W) 21 Aug. 60, 1$ 
(B) 23 Aug. 60, 1$ (F) 24 Aug. 61, IS (B) 26 Aug. 61, 1$ (F) 3 Aug. 62, 
1$ (W) 6 Oct. 62, 1$ (F) 31 July 63, 2 9 (F) 2 Aug. 63, 1$ (B) 2 Aug. 
63, 1$ (F) 3 Aug. 63, Independence, Missouri. 

Euphyes vestris (Boisduval) 1$ (B) 27 June 60, Warsaw, Missouri. 

Polites themistocles (Latreille) 1$ (VV) 17 Aug. 62, Independence, Missouri; 1$ 
(W) 1 Aug. 64, Moberly, Missouri. 

Thorybes bathyllus (Smith) 1$ (F) 16 Aug. 64, 2$ (F) 16 Aug. 64, 1 $ (B) 
16 Aug. 64, Moberly, Missouri. 

Thorybes pylades ( Scudder ) 1 $ ( B ) 28 June 64, Warsaw, Missouri. 

Epargyreus clarus (Cramer) 1 S (B) 31 Aug. 61, Independence, Missouri. 

Strymon cecrops ( Fabricius ) 1 $ ( F ) 9 July 62, Warsaw, Missouri. 

Strymon melinus Hiibner 1$ (F) 14 Oct. 61, Independence, Missouri; 1$ (F) 26 
July 64, Warsaw, Missouri; 1 $ ( F ) 16 Aug. 64, Moberly, Missouri. 

Everes comyntas ( Godart ) 1 $ ( W ) 9 May 60, Independence, Missouri. 

Asterocampa celtis (Bdv. & LeC.) 1$ (F) 16 Aug. 60, 1 S (B) 26 Aug. 60, Inde- 
pendence, Missouri; 1 S ( F ) 1 Sept. 60, Rogers, Arkansas; 1$ ( F ) 6 Aug. 62, 
1$ ( F ) 4 Sept. 62, Warsaw, Missouri. 

Asterocampa clyton (Bdv. & LeC.) 1$ (B) 31 Aug. 60, 1 $ (F) 3 Sept. 60, Inde- 
pendence, Missouri. 

Vanessa atalanta (Linn.) 1$ (W) 5 Aug. 61, 1 S (W) 9 June 62, 1 S (W) 2 June 
63, Independence, Missouri; 19 (F) 10 May 64, Warsaw, Missouri. 

Vanessa cardui (Linn.) 19 (F) 27 July 60, Independence, Missouri. 

Polygonia interrogationis ( Fabricius ) 19 ( F ) 25 May 62, 1 S ( W ) 3 Aug. 63, 
Independence, Missouri. 

Polygonia comma (Harris) 19 (W) 20 July 62, 1 $ (F) 30 July 62, Independence, 
Missouri. 

Phyciodes thaws (Drury) 1$ (W) 17 July 60, Independence, Missouri. 

Danaus plexippus (Linn.) 1$ (W) 21 March 62, Cd. Victoria, Mexico; 19 (F) 
18 Aug. 62, Birmingham, Missouri. 

Lethe portlandia (Fabricius) 1$ (W) 18 Aug. 62, 1 $ (W) 23 Aug. 63, Birming- 
ham, Missouri. 

Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius) IS (F) 28 June 64, 1 $ (W) 16 Aug. 64, Moberly, 
Missouri. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 181 

BUTTERFLIES ON KENT ISLAND, NEW BRUNSWICK 
Robert E. Gobeil 1 

Cole Road, Biddeford, Maine 

During the summer of 1964 (June 29 to September 4), while engaged 
in research studies on birds, the author took notes on butterflies observed 
on Kent Island. This 200-acre island, site of the Bowdoin Scientific 
Station, is the largest of three islands, located about six miles southeast 
of Seal Cove, Grand Manan, New Brunswick, Canada. The northern and 
western parts of Kent Island are characteristic Canadian Zone Forest, 
with balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and black spruce (Picea mariana) the 
most common species of trees. American mountain-ash (Sorbus ameri- 
cana) and birch (Belula) are also present as smaller trees (Gleason, 
1937). The central part of the island is mainly open fields of grasses 
such as timothy grass (Phleum pratense), red-top (Agrostis alba), 
brown bent grass (Agrostis borealis), and blue-joint grass (Calamagros- 
tis canadensis) (Potter, 1937). Most butterflies were observed in the 
open fields or along pathways in the woods; very few were actually seen 
in the densely wooded sections of the island. 

The butterfly fauna of Kent Island differs from nearby mainland faunas 
in that relatively few species are present. Over 95 species of butterflies 
have been recorded in nearby Maine ( Brower and Payne, 1956 ) but on 
Kent Island, during the summer of 1964, only 11 species were recorded; 
not a single skipper was either seen or collected. The remoteness of the 
island, situated as it is at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, probably limits 
the number of species found on the island. Even though few species are 
present, at certain times of the summer, especially when Canada thistles 
(Cirsium arvense) bloom, fair concentrations of butterflies may be seen. 
Collecting was carried out on only one day ( August 28, 1964 ) ; it is very 
probable that more species would be recorded if intensive collecting 
were carried out on the island. 

Many more butterflies were seen in August than in July; the contrast 
between weather conditions of July and August may have been a con- 
tributing factor. In July, the only days free of dense fog were 17, 20, 
23, 24, 25, 26, 30, and 31; in August there was little fog except for a 
spell of three or four days at the end of the month. 

The following list consists of all butterflies seen or collected during 
the summer of 1964; dates and other pertinent data are also included. 



1 Contribution No. 30 of the Bowdoin Scientific Station, Kent Island, Grand Manan, New 
Brunswick, Canada. 



182 Gobeil: Kent Island butterflies Vol. 19, no. 3 

Most species found on Kent have also been recorded in southern Maine 
(Gobeil, 1962) and all 11 species have been recorded in Maine (Brower 
and Payne, 1956 ) . The names of the butterflies follow the dos Passos list, 
while those of the plants follow Gray's Manual of Botany (eighth edition). 
I wish to thank Dr. A. E. Brower and Dr. Charles E. Huntington for 
reviewing the manuscript and offering helpful advice and criticism. 

Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll 
One seen near the edge of the woods on July 3. 

Colias eury theme Boisduval 
One observed on July 15. 

Colias philodice Godart 
Seen regularly from July 30 ( 1 ) until September 4; two were collected 
on August 28. 

Pieris rapae ( Linnaeus ) 
Five sightings July 5 to August 20; all were for single individuals. 

Danaus plexippus ( Linnaeus ) 
The monarch was very common, especially in late summer. First ob- 
served on July 22 ( 2 ) ; from this date on, three or four seen regularly on 
most sunny days. Two caught in mist nets used for banding birds on 
July 30. On August 28, at least 15 were counted in a small patch of 
Canada ( Cirsium arvense ) and bull thistle ( Cirsium vulgare ) in an open 
field; three were collected. 

Nymphalis antiopa ( Linnaeus ) 
Only two sightings of the mourning cloak: one on July 15 and one 
seen flying along the western shore of the island on August 1. 

Vanessa atalanta ( Linnaeus ) 
The red admiral is probably the most numerous species on the island 
during the summer, having been seen almost daily in just about all parts 
of the island. Eight were counted in an open field in the northern part 
of the island on August 28, when one was also collected. 

Vanessa virginiensis ( Drury ) 
A very common species, especially in August. First seen July 28 and 
then on most sunny days throughout August; on August 28 over 35 
counted in a thistle patch, where four were collected. 

Limenitis arihemis ( Drury ) 
One seen in an open field on August 3. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 183 

Limenitis archippus ( Cramer ) 
Only two sightings of single individuals: July 15 and July 30. 

Lycaena phlaeus americana Harris 
A species which appears to be more common in the early part of the 
summer. Observed throughout July in small numbers, the last sighting 
on August 3(1). 

Literature Cited 

Brower, A. E., & R. M. Payne, 1956. Check List of Maine Butterflies. Maine Field 

Naturalist, 12: 42-44. 
Fernald, M. L., 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany (eighth edition). American Book 

Company, New York. 
Gleason, H. A., 1937. A Botanical Report on Kent's Island. Bulletin No. 3, The 

Bowdoin Scientific Station: 27-29. 
Goheil, R. E., 1962. Partial list of butterflies found in the Biddeford Region. 

Maine Field Naturalist, 18: 147. 
Potter, D., 1937. Plants Found Growing on Kent's Island 1935-36. Bulletin No. 3, 

The Bowdoin Scientific Station: 19-26. 



LEPIDOPTERA ACTIVE IN LATE DECEMBER IN 
PENNSYLVANIA 

During Christmas week, 1964, a tropical air mass worked northward 
up the Atlantic coast, penetrating the Philadelphia area on Christmas 
Eve after two days of rain, fog, and temperatures in the high forties. As 
had happened farther south, temperature records toppled in the wake of 
the warm front. The mercury climbed steadily the night of the 24th and, 
under mostly sunny skies, a 93-year record high of 68° F. was registered 
on Christmas day. This unseasonable weather brought out a male 
Nijmphalis antiopa (L.) ( Nymphalidae ) which the writer captured along 
Wissahickon Creek, amid equally unprecedented dandelion, moss pink, 
chickweed, and Senecio blossoms. 

The following day was cloudy with temperatures again at record levels, 
including an official high of 68° at the Weather Bureau, and an unofficial 
71° at the writer's home. Although no butterflies were seen, a male 
Eupsilia sidus Gn. ( Noctuidae ) came to light in the garden with a tem- 
perature of 62° F. at 9:30 P.M. Dec. 26. E. sidus is a well-known hiber- 
nator and is usually the first species to fly in the spring; my earliest record 
is March 10. 

Three pupae of Colias eurytheme Bdv. which were outdoors in a 
ventilated container showed traces of orange pigment when examined 
on Dec. 26. Brought indoors, all three eclosed as males on Dec. 28. Nine- 
teen other pupae in the same lot did not show signs of development and 



184 Grey: Short Boloria flight Vol. 19, no. 3 

were allowed to remain outdoors. It would seem that, given a few more 
days of springlike weather, even species which overwinter in the pupa 
might have become active. 

As a postscript, the freak warm spell came to an end with the passage 
of a northeast storm and attendant cold front, December 27. 

Arthur M. Shapiro, 7636 Thouron Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE FLIGHT PERIOD OF BOLORIA EUNOMIA 

L. P. Grey 

Route 1, Box 216, Lincoln, Maine 

Observations recently published in this Journal by Neilsen (1964, 18: 
233-237) remind me of a curiosity which, strangely, seems to have es- 
caped formal notice in any mentions I have seen. The abbreviated flight 
period of Boloria eunomia (Esper) is something collectors should know 
about and reckon with when exploring for this species; probably it is 
the short adult life span full as much as the intense localization which 
slows discoveries. 

Mr. Neilsen noted specimens alighting to dry their freshly hatched 
wings. This had a significance which he may appreciate better in future 
years after he learns just how lucky he was in his described mid-June bog 
forays in Michigan. Two or three days later or earlier he might well have 
collected in the same places with never a sight of this fine bolorian. 

Mr. Henry Hensel, of Edmundston, New Brunswick, really should be 
writing this note, rather than me, since it is his fieldwork which provides 
definitive knowledge of this aspect of eunomia. On reflection, it will 
appear that most of the previous captures of "dawsoni" (the form oc- 
curring along the Eastern U. S.-Canadian border region) have been 
of the one-shot, visit sort. Whereas in adjacent Temiscouata County, 
Quebec, a few miles from Hensel's home, there are magnificent bogs 
which have provided him with a rare opportunity: perhaps he is the 
only person who has observed this subspecies in thriving colonies over 
a period of years. 

The ecology and behavior of species are difficult to learn from tabula- 
tions. Mr. Neilsen's accounts are unusually graphic, a model of descrip- 
tion made vivid by the personal touch. I shall attempt to make my point 
in the same manner, by narration from experience, viz.: 

On my first visit to HenseFs bog he warned me that it was essential 
to be there on "the day," so to speak, but when he reported eunomia 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 185 

just beginning emergence early in the week I arrived on the weekend 
confident that I would take at least a few samples, if perhaps somewhat 
worn. The day was fine; we were on breeding grounds where Hensel, 
four days earlier, had taken 40 or so immaculately fresh specimens. The 
best we could do was to net one feebly fluttering male battered almost 
beyond recognition. 

On the next occasion, forewarned but still in unconscious protest that 
such things should be, I timed my visit to get there on the day he 
thought they might be due to emerge. We encountered a morning 
emergence of males and were able to make a large collection. The salient 
thing is that Hensel had checked the place two days earlier and reported 
none in evidence; also, in our combined huge series only about two per- 
cent were females and those were mostly taken freshly hatching in the 
afternoon. So, then I was forced to give credence to Hensel's remarks to 
the effect that the flight of males would be gone in a day or two and 
that the time for females was "tomorrow." It was easy to see that the 
males might literally "fly themselves to death" on their endless patrolling 
but not so easy to adjust to the idea that this butterfly is indeed one with 
the mayflies, here today, gone tomorrow. Hensel told me all this, but 
the implication didn't sink home until I had the chance to be a party 
and witness. 

When one considers the large fluctuations in earliness and lateness of 
seasons in the northern bogs; allowing generously for cold and rainy 
spells at the critical dates (B. ennomia being a species which flies in 
sunshine and is not in evidence when the day is cloudy) it is easy to see 
that the finding of new colonies of eanomia is a matter of luck and chance 
over and above the hazards for which one normally might allow. For 
example, the flight may occur over the whole range between, say, June 
8 and June 30, dependent on place, exposure, season, and weather. Then, 
say that for a given place and year perhaps June 14-18 are the only days 
when one might be rewarded with sight of even a battered individual 
to encourage further exploration. Then, maybe a collector does get there 
on "the day," but it is cool and somewhat cloudy and these butterflies 
aren't moving. These are the odds against collectors. 

It then seems probable, as Mr. Neilsen suspects, that eunomia is resi- 
dent in many bogs along the Canadian boundary region. It is even a 
distinct possibility that eunomia occurs in areas where collectors have 
searched in vain for it. The unwelcome moral of Hensel's extensive ex- 
perience with this butterfly, over the years, is that collectors who go 
exploring for it had better plan to do their visiting on the proper day of 
the week! 



186 Durden: Speyeria and Artemisia? Vol. 19, no. 3 

SPEYERIA CALLIPPE AND ARTEMISIA, 
A POSSIBLE FOODPLANT 

It is generally supposed that all Speyeria feed, as larvae, on some spe- 
cies of Viola and this assumption is supported by all species for which 
the life history is known. The author was thus startled to find Speyeria 
callippe gallatini McDunnough ovipositing on a woody Artemisia ( sage- 
brush) probably A. trifida, and to find this butterfly consistently as- 
sociated with sagebrush. At 11 localities in Broadwater, Madison, and 
Carbon counties, Montana; Park, Bighorn, and Lincoln counties, Wyo- 
ming; and Uintah County, Utah, where S. callippe was present in num- 
bers, sagebrush was in all cases present within 100 feet of captures. 
These habitats range from a semiarid wash some tens of miles from the 
nearest forest, at 4,300 feet six miles northwest of Three Forks in Broad- 
water County, Montana (June 28, 1964), through montane park sage 
openings (the majority of localities) to tree line at 9,800 feet on Clay 
Butte west of Beartooth Butte in Park County, Wyoming ( July 21, 1964 ) . 
On the cliffs three miles north of Fossil, Lincoln County, Wyoming 
(August 2, 1964) where S. callippe was particularly abundant, several 
individuals were flushed from within Artemisia bushes where they had 
been crawling along the woody trunk and branches. A female was fol- 
lowed, observed to oviposit on the loose bark near the base of the trunk, 
allowed to crawl out of the bush, fly to another plant 10 feet distant, and 
repeat the process at which point she was captured. It might be postu- 
lated that S. callippe oviposits on branches aboveground, avoiding ex- 
posure of the possibly overwintering egg to ground moisture. The newly 
hatched larvae would then have to search for violets in the spring. No 
evidence of violet plants or fruits was found at Fossil in spite of a care- 
ful search. 

Of great interest was the discovery of unidentified Speyeria larvae of 
several instars, resting in the upper branches and green shoots of sage- 
brush at Buffalo Creek, 25 miles east of Sheridan in Sheridan County, 
Wyoming (June 17, 1964). A search of the ground flora produced no 
Viola so it must be assumed in this case that violets are not the foodplant 
of at least one species of Speyeria. The presence of larvae perhaps other- 
wise unassociated with sagebrush in the upper branches of shrubs could 
be attributed to response to peculiar weather conditions preceding a 
storm in dry country where sheetwash is a danger to organisms near the 
soil. The larvae were observed at about 5:00 P.M. in a light rain which 
developed later into an all-night rainstorm depositing two inches of water 
and accompanied by flooding. It is the author's opinion that these nor- 
mally nocturnal feeding larvae had moved into their feeding territory 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 187 

under the abnormally overcast and humid conditions, but had not com- 
menced to feed. 

Taking all points into consideration; the oviposition of S. callippe on 
sagebrush; the occurrence of Speyeria larvae on sagebrush, and the 
presence of sagebrush at all the author's collecting sites for S. callippe 
it is suggested that sagebrush may serve as the larval foodplant. Speci- 
mens of the larvae and adults have been deposited in the Yale Peabody 
Museum. 

Christopher J. Durden, Dept. of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 



A METHOD FOR OVERWINTERING HIBERNATING LARVAE 

OF BUTTERFLIES 

F. Martin Brown 

Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colorado 

In a recent issue of the Journal (18: 201-210, 1964) Noel McFarland 
presented many useful tips for preserving the immature stages of lepidop- 
tera. His statement that overwintering larvae are easily handled by 
storage in jars in shaded areas but subject to normal out-of-doors tem- 
peratures is true in part. There are some areas in the country where this 
can be done without too great loss of specimens. I have found here in 
Colorado, and W. H. Edwards discovered almost a century ago in West 
Virginia, that overwintering losses under such conditions are very high. 

Edwards's solution was to send his larvae for overwintering to an ice- 
house and to have the boxes in which he stored the larvae packed in the 
cold, moist sawdust used to retard the melting of the ice. Alas, there are 
no longer such places. 

The environment of our modern electric or gas refrigerators, household 
or laboratory, is much too dehydrating to be of use. I have had success 
with a simple and inexpensive device that I have passed on in letters to 
some friends. I repeat it here for a larger audience. I use a portable, or 
automobile, ice chest, the sort that has come into vogue for picnics or 
camping trips. These can be purchased in many places for less than $20. 
I recommend one that is sturdily built. It will last for years. Mine has 
a good latch on it that seals the lid effectively against too much loss of 
moisture or ingress of heat. It is metal and plastic construction with a 
drain hole and a place for racks. 

When larvae begin to go into hibernation, often in late July and August 
for some species of butterflies, I put each into a sterile shell vial and 



188 Brown : Storing hibernating larvae Vol. 19, no. 3 

loosely plug it with sterile absorbent cotton. A data slip is placed in the 
vial with the larva. The vials are laid in the plastic racks of the icebox. 
The icebox then is charged with a dozen or so large ice cubes and a 10- 
pound plastic bag of such cubes that is sealed against leakage. I insert 
through the drain hole a thermometer in a cork. By the middle of Sep- 
tember I find that there is little reason to open the chest for insertion 
of new material. From then on I watch the thermometer. When the 
temperature in the chest reaches 36-38° F. I open it and replace the 
melted bag of ice and if there is no free water in the chest I add a few 
loose cubes. 

I have found that when Satyridae are being carried in the chest I can 
remove them after they have been in hibernation for 11 or 12 weeks and 
break hibernation by allowing the larvae to warm up in their shell vials 
to room temperature. Several weeks before this it is wise to bring in a 
piece of sod, potted in a low, large flowerpot. Warmth, moisture, and 
sunlight will produce an abundant supply of food for most Satyridae and 
the grass-feeding Skippers. 

My technique differs from McFarland's in that I keep my larvae iso- 
lated. Incidently, this does not work well with the larvae of some 
Nymphalidae that are gregarious in the early instars. They appear to 
need "company " to thrive. Each larva in its individual vial is examined 
each day. Fresh spears of grass are put into sterile vials and the larva 
transferred when the food is limp or used up. This greatly reduces loss 
from mold and disease. It also allows precise records to be kept, some- 
thing that is difficult with "bulk" feeding. I preserve the shed head 
capsule and skin of each instar when I am making a careful study of a 
species. 

I do not disturb larvae that are about to molt. Before molting and 
before hibernation the larva clears its gut of frass. If after this the larva 
is inactive for four or five days I put it into the hibernator. If on the 
other hand the larva is active after molt I transfer it to fresh food and 
collect the exuvia. Head capsules I mount on a bit of card and put that 
and a label on a pin. 

The shed skin can be moistened and extended and then mounted as a 
slide for study of the hairs, etc. 

The advantage of the ice chest is that the environment is constant in 
humidity and the temperature easily controlled to prevent too early 
breaking of hibernation. This happened for me with three successive 
outdoor winterings. Another, perhaps greater, advantage is that the 
hibernating larvae are where they are handiest, in the laboratory or at 
home. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 189 

COLLECTING SPHINGIDS AND OTHER MOTHS ON THE 
MISSISSIPPI GULF COAST 

Robert Taylor and Barbara Taylor 

Bellevue, Nebraska, U. S. A. 

We were residents of Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi from January 
through September, 1964. During this period we operated a black light 
at Biloxi and did other collecting, primarily in southern Mississippi. Ap- 
proximately 60% of the material we collected was taken at Biloxi. Many 
of the specimens were furnished to Bryant and Katharine Mather of 
Jackson, Mississippi for study and to yield data for the survey of Mis- 
sissippi Lepidoptera being conducted by them. References to previous 
records for Mississippi moths given below are taken from their unpub- 
lished records. Our primary interest is in Sphingidae. In this family we 
took 430 specimens representing the following 24 species (40 species are 
known from the state ) : 

Herse cingulata Fabr. (46), Phlegethontius sexta Joh. (58), Phlegethon- 
tius quinquemaculata Haw. (15), Phlegethontius rustica Fabr. (16), 
Chlaeno gramma jasminearum Guer. (4), Dolba hylaeus print Smith (5), 
Ceratomia undulosa Walk. (7), Ceratomia catalpae Bdv. (48), Atreides 
plebia Fabr. (15), Sphinx kalmiae Smith (2), Lapara halicarniae Stkr. 
(31), Smerinthus geminatus Say (4), Paonias excaecata Smith (1), 
Paonias my ops Smith ( 12 ) , Paonias astylus Dru. ( 4 ) , Cressonia juglandis 
Smith (1), Epistor lugubris Linn. (1), Hemaris diffinis Bdv. (1), Pholus 
satellitia pandorus Hbn. (6), Pholus fasciatus Sulz. (9), Ampeloeca 
myron Cram. (31), Darapsa pholus Cram. (23), Xylophanes tersa Linn. 
(86), and Celerio lineata Fabr. (4). 

The two S. kalmiae were males taken August 9 at Brooklyn, Forrest 
County and August 15 at Carnes, Forrest County. This species is not 
known to have been taken previously in Mississippi. Chlaenogramma 
jasminearum and Paonias astylus are not known to have previously been 
taken in southern Mississippi and were each previously known from 
Mississippi by a single specimen taken respectively in 1921 at State 
College and in 1960 at Jackson. 

In other families a few records that seem to be worthy of note are: 
Citheronia sepulchralis G. & R. previously known from Mississippi by a 
single specimen taken at Canton in 1963; and the following, none of 
which are known to have previously been taken in Mississippi: Panthea 
furcilla centralis McD., Biloxi, April 15; Acronicta brumosa Gn. Biloxi, 
April-May (7); Euherrichia monetifera Gn., Biloxi, April (2 males); 



190 Ruckes & dos Passos: E. L. Bell Vol. 19, no. 3 

Eutelia pulcherrima Grt., Hattiesburg, May; Doryodes spadaria Gn., 
Biloxi, April; Drasteria graphica Hbn., Biloxi, March-April (4); Schizura 
apicalis G. & R., Biloxi, April; Cleora manitoba Grossbeck, Biloxi, April 
(4); Pseiidoboarmia buchholzaria Lemmon, Biloxi, April; Glena cogna- 
taria Hbn., Biloxi, April; and Limacodes rectilinea G. & R., Hattiesburg, 
May. The species listed above as previously unrecorded from Mississippi 
were determined by Dr. F. H. Rindge, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

Collecting on the Mississippi Gulf Coast ranged from excellent to 
disappointing. The specimens of S. kalmiae were taken on poles sup- 
porting mercury -vapor lights. Such poles were frequently very produc- 
tive and on some nights 20-35 specimens of Sphingidae were taken on a 
single pole. 

Our appreciation of the significance of much of what we collected was 
contributed to greatly by having made the acquaintance of active local 
collectors. We suggest that others, like ourselves, who may reside tem- 
porarily in an area due to military service commitments (or for other 
reasons) and who collect during such time contact local collectors, both 
for the visitor's benefit and so that their data may be properly included 
in the appropriate regional compilations. 

Appreciation is expressed to Bryant and Katharine Mather who helped 
make our collecting in Mississippi so worthwhile and for their assistance 
in the preparation of this short article. 



ERNEST LAYTON BELL ( 1876-1964 )* 

Ernest L. Bell was born November 21, 1876 in Flushing, Long Island, 
New York, and lived his entire life of 89 years in that town. As a young 
man he obtained a position with the First National Bank (now the Na- 
tional City Bank), eventually becoming head of the loan department 
prior to his retirement after World War II. 

From early manhood Ernest Bell had a propensity for collecting, first 
local Indian lore, then stamps and coins. Coin collecting was his prevail- 
ing hobby up to the time of his death. Primarily, however, he was an 
outdoor man with a bent for studying living things. Before turning his 
attention to entomology, he collected herpetological specimens exten- 
sively. His main interest turned to Lepidoptera, primarily butterflies, in 
1919. He ultimately decided to specialize on the Hesperioidea. 



1 This obituary is abstracted from a manuscript scheduled for publication in the Journal of the 
New York Entomological Society and kindly made available by the authors. — Editor 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 191 

Although an amateur, Ernest Bell was an exceptionally gifted taxonomist, 
and eventually became one of the foremost authorities on New World 
hesperiids. During his studies he described a number of new genera and 
a total of over 200 species and subspecies of skippers, very few of which 
have fallen into synonymy. For many years he cooperated with eminent 
workers in the field, such as A. W. Lindsey, R. C. Williams, W. P. Corn- 
stock, K. S. Hayward, and W. H. Evans, often co-authoring papers with 
some of them. During Evans' preparation of his four-volume "Catalogue 
of American Hesperiidae," Bell was frequently consulted, and after 
publication of the work made notes of errors in connection with arranging 
the American Museum collection. These notes resulted in an "Addenda 
and corrigenda" published in 1951-1955, in which Evans gives Bell 
credit for most of the corrections which were included. 

Ernest Bell was president of the New York Entomological Society 
in 1933, and in the following year was appointed Research Associate by 
the American Museum of Natural History, a title which he held until 
the time of his death. His extensive collections of hesperiids and other 
insects were donated to the American Museum. He was a charter mem- 
ber of The Lepidopterists' Society, although he did not publish in the 
Journal. His bibliography on Nearctic and Neotropical Hesperiidae runs 
to about 60 titles, spanning the years 1920 to 1959, primarily in the 
Journal of the New York Entomological Society and American Museum 
Novitates. 

Ernest Bell married Mina A. Morrell in 1899, a marriage which lasted 
until her death in 1952. The Bells made many trips, across the United 
States, to the Caribbean islands, particularly Jamaica, and to Central 
America, for the purpose of collecting hesperiids. They also enjoyed 
vacationing in New England, and for many years a summer month was 
spent in rural Vermont or New Hampshire. 

In 1934 Bell accompanied David Rockefeller and the late Frank E. 
Lutz on an extensive collecting trip to the Grand Canyon and adjacent 
territory. As a result, many new hesperiids were added to the known 
fauna of the southwestern United States. 

Ernest Bell was a self-made naturalist, collector, sportsman, lepidopter- 
ist, and a grand person to have known. To entomologists in this country 
and abroad his passing leaves a void; it will be regretted by all his friends, 
acquaintances, and correspondents. — Herbert Ruckes, Flushing, New 
York and Cyril F. dos Passos, Mendam, New Jersey. 



192 Addenda to dos Passos' List Vol. 19, no. 3 

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA 
to the "Synonymic List of Nearctic Rhopalocera." 

Page 3 25% add hacebolus (Scudder), 1872 

Page 10 Polites 98 — Transpose siris Edwards, 1881 and sonora Scudder 
1872. The specific name is sonora and s. siris is a subspecies. 

Page 19 162 — add oilus MacNeill, 1962 (lapsus calami) 

Page 20 Erynnis 170 — pacuvius Lintner should be listed also as a sub- 
species and preceded by an a. The other subspecies become 
b, c, and d. 

Page 21 175% tibuUus ( Scudder & Burgess ) is a synonym of propertius 
(Scudder & Burgess) and not of telemachus Burns. 

Page 35 256b— add luxuriosus Forbes, 1960 (Reiff MS) 

Page 36 262 glaucus Linnaeus, 1758 instead of 1764 

a. g. glaucus Linnaeus 1758 instead of 1764 

Page 39 278 napi (Linnaeus), 1758 instead of 1761 

Page 43 vividior Berger, 1945, should be added to 291 as b and the 
present "b" changed to c. 

Page 44 Zerene eurydice ab. nigrocapitata Riddell, 1941 
Zerene eurydice f. marginata Riddell, 1941 
Zerene eurydice ab. flavolineata Riddell, 1941 
Zerene eurydice f. rubrosuffusa Riddell, 1941. These four names 
should be added to 298 chronologically under forms and aber- 
rations. 

Page 51 line after Emesis Fabricius, 1807 add (Opinion 232, name 660) 

Page 70 486 aidea author's name and date should read (Guerin-Mene- 
ville) "1829-44" [1844]. Also the author's name should be 
corrected in the index p. 107. 

Page 78 Add asterisk before 532. Next line — delete line a. Next, third 
line change b to a. 

Page 98 Correct spelling of Latreille in three places: Lines 5, 7, and 8 
Danaida Latreille 
Danais Latreille 
Danaus Latreille 

Page 101 649 mixturata and kodiak should be transposed and the sub- 
species preceded by k. instead of m. 

Page 105 *678— sofia, Strecker 1881 should read 1880. 



EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE JOURNAL 

Editor: Jerry A. Powell 

Associate Editor 

(Literature Abstracting): Peter F. Bellinger 

Associate Editor 

("Especially for Collectors"): Fred T. Thorne 

Editor, News of the Lepidopterists' Society: E. J. Newcomer 

Manager of the Memoirs: Sidney A. Hessel 

Editorial Committee of the Society: P. F. Bellinger, S. A. 
Hessel, E. G. Munroe, J. A. Powell, C. L. Remington 
(chairman), F. T. Thorne, E. J. Newcomer. 



NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE JOURNAL 

Contributions to the Journal may be on any aspect of the collection and study 
of Lepidoptera. Articles of more than 20 printed pages are not normally accepted; 
authors may be required to pay for material in excess of this length. Manuscripts 
must be typewritten, ENTIRELY DOUBLE SPACED, employing wide margins and 
one side only of white, 8% X 11" paper. The author should keep a carbon copy of 
the manuscript. Titles should be explicit and descriptive of the article's content, in- 
cluding an indication of the family of the subject, but must be kept as short as possi- 
ble. Authors of Latin names should be given once in the text. Format of REFER- 
ENCES MUST CONFORM TO EXACT STYLE used in recent issues of the Journal. 
Legends of figures and tables should be submitted on separate sheets. 

Reprints may be ordered, and at least 25 gratis separates (including any other 
material published on these pages) will be provided, if requested at the time galley 
proof is received. 



Address correspondence relating to the Journal to: Dr. J. A. Powell, 112 Agricul- 
ture Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., U. S. A. 

Material not intended for permanent record, such as notices, current events, anecdotal 
field experiences, poems, philatelic Lepidoptera, etc. should be sent to the News 
Editor: E. J. Newcomer, 1509 Summitview, Yakima, Wash., U. S. A. 

Address remittances and address changes to: George Ehle, 314 Atkins Ave., 
Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A. 



Memoirs of the Lepidopterists' Society, No. 1 (Feb. 1964) 

A SYNONYMIC LIST OF THE NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA 

by Cyrtl F. dos Passos 

Price: Society members — $4.50, others — $6.00; uncut, unbound signatures 
available for interleaving and private binding, same prices; hard cover bound, 

add $1.50. postpaid 
Order from the Society Treasurer. 



Printed in U. S. A. 

Allen Press 
Lawrence, Kansas 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society Vol. 19, no. 3 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Review of collections of Lepidoptera by airplane 

by Perry A. Glick . 129-137 

Euptychia areolata: distribution and variation, with 
special reference to Mississippi (Satyridae) 
by Bryant Mather 139-160 

Type locality of Cercyonis stephensi revisted 

by E. J. Newcomer 161-164 

Mimicry and distribution of Caenurgina caerulea (Noctuidae) 

by John C. Downey 165-170 

Some unusual butterfly records from central California 

by Keith S. Brown, Jr. 171-176 

Observations on Callophrys macfarlandi ( Lycaenidae ) in the 
Sandia Mountains, New Mexico 
by Noel McFarland 177-179 

More observations on the attraction of diurnal 
Lepidoptera to light 
by Richard Heitzman 179-180 

Butterflies on Kent Island, New Brunswick 

by Robert E. Gobeil 181-183 

Lepidoptera active in late December in Pennsylvania 

by Arthur M. Shapiro 183-184 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

The flight period of Boloria eunomia 

by L. P. Grey 184-185 

Speyeria callippe and Artemisia, a possible foodplant 

by Christopher J. Durden 186-187 

A method for overwintering hibernating larvae of 
butterflies 
by F. Martin Brown 187-188 

Collecting sphingids and other moths on the Mississippi 
Gulf Coast 
by Robert Taylor and Barbara Taylor 189-190 

Ernest Layton Bell (1876-1964) 

by Herbert Ruckes and C. F. dos Passos 190-191 

Addenda and Corrigenda to the "Synonymic List of 
Nearctic Rhopalocera" 
by Cyril F. dos Passos 192 

Correction 170 

ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 176 

BOOK REVIEW, NOTICE .. 138, 164 



Volume 19 1965 Number 4 



Journal 



of the 



Lepidopterists' Society 

Published quarterly by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS , SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCIfiTfi DES LEPIDOPTfiRISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

BOISDUVAL LETTERS AND MELITAEA IDENTITIES 

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF TWO HESPERIIDS 

THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY AND MIMICRY 

BUTTERFLY HUNTING IN LABRADOR 

(Complete contents on back cover) 
20 December 1965 



President: 

1st Vice President: 

Vice President: 

Vice President: 

Treasurer: 

Asst. Treasurer: 
Secretary: 

Asst. Secretary: 



THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 
1965 OFFICERS 

F. H. Rindge (New York, N. Y., U. S. A.) 
I. F. B. Common (Canberra, Australia) 
Ramon Agenjo ( Madrid, Spain ) 
H. E. Hinton (Bristol, England) 
George Ehle (Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A.) 
Sidney A. Hessel (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.) 
John C. Downey (Carbondale, 111., U. S. A.) 
Floyd W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.) 



Terms expire Dec. 1965: 
Terms expire Dec. 1966: 
Terms expire Dec. 1967: 



EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Shigeru A. Ae (Showaku, Nagoya, Japan) 
Lincoln P. Brower (Amherst, Mass., U. S. A.) 
Charles P. Kimball ( Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A. ) 
W. Harry Lange, Jr. ( Davis, Calif., U. S. A. ) 
Hmosm Kuroko (Fukuoka, Japan) 
D. F. Hardwick (Ottawa, Canada) 



and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor 



The object of The Lepidopterists' Society, which was formed in May, 1947, and 
formally constituted in December, 1950, is "to promote the science of lepidopterology 
in all its branches, ... to issue a periodical and other publications on Lepidoptera, 
to facilitate the exchange of specimens and ideas by both the professional worker and 
the amateur in the field; to secure cooperation in all measures" directed toward these 
aims (Constitution, Art. II). A special goal is to encourage free interchange among 
the lepidopterists of all countries. 

Membership in the Society is open to all persons interested in any aspect of 
lepidopterology. All members in good standing receive the Journal and the News of 
the Lepidopterists' Society. Institutions may subscribe to the Journal but may not 
become members. Prospective members should send to the Treasurer the full dues for 
the current year, together with their full name, address, and special lepidopterological 
interests. All other correspondence concerning membership and general Society 
business should be addressed to the Secretary. Remittance in dollars should be made 
payable to The Lepidopterists' Society. There are three paying classes of membership: 
Active Members — annnal dues $6.00 ( U. S. A. ) 
Sustaining Members — annual dues $15.00 (U. S. A.) 
Life Members — single sum $125.00 ( U. S. A. ) 

Dues may be paid in Europe to our official agent: E. W. Classey, 353 Hanworth 
Road, Hampton, Middx., England. 

In alternate years a list of members of the Society is issued, with addresses and 
special interests. All members are expected to vote for officers when mail ballots are 
distributed by the Secretary annually. There are four numbers in each volume of the 
Journal, scheduled for February, May, August, November, and eight numbers of the 
News each year. 



The Lepidopterists' Society is a non-profit, scientific organization. The office of 
publication is Yale University, Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut. Second 
class postage paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 



Journal of 
The Lepidopterists' Society 

Volume 19 1965 Number 4 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS TO THE TWELFTH ANNUAL 

MEETING OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE SECTION OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Presented at San Diego, June 20, 1965 

THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTING— NOW 

Frederick H. Rindge 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. 

During the past few years there has been more and more concern 
about the forthcoming "population explosion"; the current estimate is 
that the world's population will double its present figure before the end 
of this century, just a short 35 years from now. This means that there 
will be a daily increase of 160,000 people, or 110 babies every minute — 
the equivalent of 10 football teams. If no steps are taken to slow down 
this avalanche of humans, by the year 2050 there will be only one square 
yard of dry land per person on the earth. You may hope that these figures 
may apply only to Asia, Africa, or Latin America — that they can't apply 
to this country. This is just wishful thinking on your part. 

How will this tremendous expansion effect the land upon which we 
live? Much more food will be needed to feed these hordes; this means 
more land under cultivation. Some of this will have to be carved out of 
forests. Many forests throughout the world are being ruthlessly destroyed 
for their raw materials. The results — loss of the protection of watersheds, 
the prevention of floods and erosion — can be seen in countries such as 
Greece, Yugoslavia, Jordan, Syria, and Chile, where the land is com- 
pletely deforested and eroded down to bare rock. Some marginal land 
is used for grazing by cattle and sheep; unless care is taken to prevent 
overgrazing, these areas will turn into worthless semideserts. 

With increased agricultural uses, there is a much greater use of pesti- 
cides and herbicides — and their effects, unfortunately, are not always 
restricted to the fields for which they are intended. 



194 Rindge: Presidential address Vol. 19, no. 4 

You all know from experience how many more automobiles there are 
today than there were just a few years ago, and are acquainted with 
some of the problems arising therefrom. Smog, plus many more industrial 
plants, are producing a steady increase in the carbon dioxide content of 
the air. This produces a heat blanketing effect, which is gradually raising 
the earth's mean temperature. Consequently this may cause a gradual 
melting of the polar ice caps, raising the levels of the oceans, thus flooding 
the low-lying coastal areas of all the continents. This is another factor 
that will reduce the amount of dry land. 

Increased housing will be needed to shelter all the people, which takes 
still more land. By the end of this century there will be a solid procession 
of cities and suburbs from Boston to Washington; much of southern 
California is rapidly approaching this condition. In fact, in the United 
States alone one million acres per year are gobbled up by urban sprawl, 
roads, industry, and the like. 

All of the above factors are having their effects on the land — undis- 
turbed habitats for collecting are rapidly getting fewer and farther be- 
tween. This is happening throughout the country, as a glance at the last 
seasonal summary in the News of the Lepidopterists' Society will reveal. 
Some of the expressions from that publication are as follows: "urban 
sprawl continues to encroach on collecting areas; the native flora is rapidly 
being deleted; too much crop spraying; the area where the largest 
colonies are located will soon be destroyed due to the construction of a 
new super highway; the recently discovered habitat has been wiped out 
by a recreation center." I'm sure you will have had experiences along 
these lines. 

Obviously this trend is going to continue, and it will be accelerated. 
It is, therefore, of vital importance to do as much intensive collecting 
and life history work in as many places as possible, and to start as soon 
as possible. Only in this way will future generations of entomologists 
have access to actual material and knowledge of the species which oc- 
curred during the last half of the twentieth century. As you know, several 
butterfly populations have already been wiped out here in California as 
well as elsewhere, and others are in grave danger of undergoing a similar 
fate. Because we cannot halt the spread of "civilization" we should collect 
adequate series of as many species of butterflies and moths as possible 
while they are still in existence. 

To make a collection of lasting value, all specimens should be correctly 
mounted and labeled before being added to the collection. It is of great 
importance that really complete locality data be given on each label. By 
next year your favorite collecting area may no longer exist as such — 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 195 

specimens from such localities will become more valuable as time goes 
on, as they will indicate to later generations of lepidopterists where the 
species once occurred, and what the members of the population looked 
like. Those of us who are doing taxonomic studies now are thankful for 
the old collections that have been preserved, as these specimens are of 
great help to us — unfortunately, they are usually much fewer in number 
than we would like to have. To ensure that as many specimens as possible 
are preserved for posterity, it should be the aim of everyone who has a 
collection to make certain that it is deposited in a museum that has an 
active section devoted to the Lepidoptera. There are several modern, 
forward-looking institutions in this country that would be glad to receive 
such collections, whether the latter are small or large. Only in this way 
will our children and grandchildren be able to study what we, here today, 
are fortunate enough to preserve for them. 

Because of the above reasons I would urge you most emphatically to 
collect extensively in all available natural habitats. Also, you should en- 
courage and assist young people to collect so that they, too, will have 
the satisfaction of contributing knowledge and material in an area which 
may become lost. 



FIRST CONNECTICUT RECORDS OF THYMELICUS LINEOLA, 
AN INTRODUCED HESPERIID 

Robert L. Apter and John M. Burns 

619 Main St., Portland, Conn., and Dept. of Biology, Wesleyan Univ., 
Middletown, Conn. 

Thymelicas lineola ( Ochsenheimer ) , a Palearctic hesperiine skipper, 
made its Nearctic debut at London, Ontario, Canada, in 1910. So far as 
known, it now occupies much of southeastern Ontario, plus closely ad- 
jacent parts of the United States (i.e., the Detroit area, the Buffalo area), 
and, in the United States, occurs also at a few scattered points, most of 
which lie in the Piedmont of the Northeast. No New England localities 
have thus far been reported for this species. 

We have found T. lineola in small numbers at two places in central 
Connecticut. The ten Connecticut specimens now at hand are superfi- 
cially and genitalically similar to specimens from other populations in 
eastern North America. We obtained our limited material as described 
below. 

In a hayfield at the junction of Cox Road and Penfield Hill Road, 



196 Apter & Burns: Adventive skipper Vol. 19, no. 4 

Portland, Middlesex County, Apter caught two examples of T. lineola in 
the course of general butterfly collecting on June 25, 1963. When sub- 
sequently spreading them, he damaged one so badly that he discarded it, 
not realizing what it was; but he successfully spread the other, a male, 
and correctly identified it. In early July, Apter contacted Burns regarding 
this specimen; and we made three fruitless attempts to secure additional 
material at Portland in 1963. 

In 1964, we checked the Portland locality for T. lineola on June 11, 18, 
23, 25, and 26, and July 7 and 16. On only three days did we find any 
individuals of this species: on June 23, each of us caught one male; on 
June 25, Apter collected one male and Burns, three; and on June 26, Apter 
got one male. 

In roadside grass and weeds at precisely the junction of a single-track 
line of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad with State 
Route 159, on the east bank of the Coginchaug River, Rockfall, Middlesex 
County, Burns caught one male of T. lineola on June 20, 1964. He saw no 
others at that time; but on June 25 we visited this spot, and Burns got 
another male. He briefly checked the Rockfall locality for T. lineola, 
without success, on June 26 and 27, and July 11, 1964. 

The other species of skippers with which we found T. lineola flying 
in 1964 were, at Portland, Ancyloxypha numitor ( Fabricius ) , Polites coras 
(Cramer), P. mystic (Scudder), P. origines (Fabricius), P. themistocles 
(Latreille), Pompeius verna (Edwards), Poanes hobomok (Harris), 
Euphyes bimacula (Grote & Robinson), Epargyreus clarus (Cramer), 
Achalarus lyciades (Geyer), Thorybes pylades (Scudder), and Pholisora 
catullus (Fabricius); and, at Rockfall, Nastra Iherminier (Latreille), 
Ancyloxypha numitor, Hesperia sassacus Harris, Polites mystic, Wallen- 
grenia egeremet (Scudder), Pompeius verna, Poanes hobomok, Thorybes 
pylades, T. bathyllus ( Smith ) , and Pholisora catullus. 

The localities at which we discovered T. lineola are 7.6 miles (recti- 
linearly measured) apart, on opposite sides of the Connecticut River. 
In both localities, the skipper occurs in highly disturbed habitats — par- 
ticularly "waste' areas flanking roadways and supporting, among other 
grasses, timothy (Phleum pratense). Since T. lineola is known from two 
distinct spots and is known to have been at one of them for two consecu- 
tive years, it is evidently established in Connecticut. However, the many 
man-hours spent specifically in seeking out this skipper in 1964 produced 
a total of but 9 specimens — all males. We think the present low popula- 
tion density is better ascribed to recency of invasion than to any possible 
marginal qualities of the lower Connecticut River valley for the con- 
tinued survival of this species. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 197 

THREE LETTERS FROM J. A. B. D. DE BOISDUVAL TO 

W. H. EDWARDS, AND THE TRUE IDENTITY OF MELITAEA 

POLA BDV. AND MELITAEA CALLINA BDV. 

F. Martin Brown 1 

Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

While reading the letters written to Henry Edwards by William 
Henry Edwards I found several that contained notes about specimens 
that Boisduval had sent to W. H. Edwards. These were types of Bois- 
duval's species named from material sent to him from California by 
Lorquin. This recalled to me three letters that Boisduval had sent to 
Edwards and that are preserved in the Archives of the State of West 
Virginia in Charleston. I had skimmed these letters and had noted that 
in them Boisduval expressed his opinion on many interesting facets of 
taxonomy. I present here translations of the letters, in more or less 
idiomatic English, prepared for me by Mde. Marcelle Robert Perry, a 
friend and associate of mine for over a third of a century. Words in 
brackets I have added to explain some of Boisduval's phrases. 

Boisduval's handwriting is almost microscopic, but, with few exceptions, 
quite legible. He crammed onto a small page as much as can be typed, 
double-spaced, on something over a full sheet of paper. Edwards' hand- 
writing, on the other hand, is large and flowing and very often almost 
unreadable! Boisduval's signature is undecipherable. It is essentially a 
rubric. Because it is so strange I reproduce ( Fig. 1 ) with the hope that 
it may bring to light other letters of this great lepidopterist. The cor- 
respondence took place when Boisduval was 74 years old and Edwards 
51. The volume that Boisduval mentions in both of the letters written in 
1874 is the second of his "Species General des Lepidopteres." The first 
was published in 1836, the second in 1874. 

The box of specimens that Boisduval acknowledged receiving in his 
first letter to W. H. Edwards is mentioned in a letter dated from Coal- 
burgh, W. Va., 15 April 1873 to Henry Edwards in San Francisco. I quote 
the pertinent part of this letter. 

". . . And now I have some items of interest for you. Dr. Boisduval has 
lately sent me (lent) his types of several Lycaenidae that I could not 
make out, through Scudder, and I have been comparing with my speci- 
mens. 

"Nestos is Cilia Behr 



1 This study was pursued while investigating W. H. Edwards' types of Melitaeinae with the 
aid of N.S.F. Grant GB 2741. 



198 Brown: Boisduval letters Vol. 19, no. 4 







Jt*J« a*Jfa+Otj#*~< t^^^^ & fMy^^*f»^ 



n * ./*~-f iuygW 4j#+*s~jF&~**~ +*-i*s ^^yy^; 



£##&*■ 



/ 



A ■/*«*.. A ^V**** *«*•*-*» J**** jm**& &>&&&** J** /*<f+~**6' +&~**p**4 1 



Explanation of Figure 1 
Boisduval's signature, or rubric, reproduced from a letter written to William 
Henry Edwards. 

"Erymus is Pardalis Behr 

"Philemon is Anna Edw. = Argyrotoxus Behr 

"Nivium is Calchas Behr 

"Phileros is Helios Edw. 

"Evius is the Nevada form of Pheres, marked by me Pheres ? and re- 
received from you. 

"Enoptes is same with one I sent you (of Wheeler's Arizona); which 
I have called Libya, but not described. 

"Rufescens is a beautiful species of which Mead took one and called it a 
pretty var. of Saepiolas $ . It is rufous and approaching fulvous about 
the margins, clear light brown below. 

"Lupini I do not find among my specimens. It ( $ only) has fulvous 
[undecipherable word] lunules on the hind wing below, as Battoides has. 
So has Glaucon." 

Paris, June 1st, 1873 

Very honored Sir 

I have received on time and in the best of condition, the Lepidoptera 

which I had sent you through my friend Mr. Scudder. It seems you are 

more exact that Mr. Grote to whom I had lent 5 years ago some Hetero- 

ceras from California, unique in my collection, which he hasn't yet been 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 199 

able to send back to me for lack of opportunity, Vemit tempus aun . . . , 
but for you, Sir, who are a conscientious worker and whom I consider as 
the Hiibner of North America, I have nothing, absolutely nothing I 
wouldn't let you have. All my collection is at your disposal. I received 
from Lorquin quite a while ago 4 specimens of my Chionobas Californica, 
2 $ and 2 2 . Three years ago, I gave my friend, Mr. Scudder, one of 
the males which he wanted very much to own. I have now a female, who 
is of course a widow, and I am only too happy to offer it to you for your 
collection; from this moment, she is yours — as soon as you have an op- 
portunity, have her taken at my house, also whatever could be useful to 
you for your splendid book. About Chionobas, I received a while 
ago a ragged specimen of a species which the late Mr. Say had sent me 
under the name Eritiosa; have you known something under this name? 
It was in too bad shape to be able to recognize for sure. I wouldn't be 
surprised that this specimen belongs to Chryxus, 2 brought back from the 
Rocky Mountains by my late excellent friend, Edw. Doubleday nescio. 
I really believe that Also and Oeno, belong to the same species, but I 
don't think that the species of Greenland and the Far North, which I 
called Bootes, are identical with Bore of Lapland. Do you know well 
this last species in nature? 3 Bore $ has, like Jutta, sl slanting shade 
["ombre" — androconal patch?] on a spike ["epi"], a characteristic which 
I have never seen on any male of Bootes. Finally the species which is 
named Baldur is entirely different from Jutta of Lapland and Siberia. I 
am questioning Philippe Eveille. 4 

I believe you are right to put together Ajax and Marcellus in spite of 
the difference there is in the coloration of the larvae and the length of 
the tail of the insects in the perfect state [imago]. In spite of the opposite 
opinion of Abbot, they are probably only seasonal variations. Where did 
you see that Smintheus DD and Intermedins Menetries were the same 
thing? Stupid people! The Intermedins, which I received from my late 
friend Menetries, have the base of the lower wing widely marked with 
red underneath, while there is nothing like it in Smintheus. Intermedins 
isn't a species in itself, it could be considered as a local modification of 
the Phoebus from which it differs only by the smallness of the eyespots. 
I am saying nothing of your varieties Sayii and Behrii, which I have never 



2 The name, eritiosa Boisduval, 1832, usually is considered a synonym of semidea Say, 1828. 
Boisduval's suggestion is revealing. Say was a member of the Long Expedition to the base of the 
Rocky Mountains in 1819-1820. The expedition penetrated the Front Range of Colorado at 
Pikes Peak. Say may very well have taken chryxus at that time. Although most of Say's insects 
collected on this expedition were lost on the homeward trip, he may have saved a few. 

3 Boisduval's use of "in nature" needs some explanation. He did not mean "in the field," as 
we might say today. He meant knowledge from an actual specimen rather than knowledge from 
only the written description. 

4 I have been unable to identify this person. The spelling of the last name is somewhat question- 
able. 



200 Brown: Boisduval letters Vol. 19, no. 4 

seen; it isn't the same with Nomion. It is a big species of the best known, 
whose anal angle is marked with a big black spot in form of an anchor. 
You do not know for sure the Parnassians. I don't know the Pieris; frigida, 
yreka, marginalis, occidentalis and Beckerii; nor the Colias: Keewaydin, 
Christina, ariadne, occidentalis, Emilia, Edwardsii, chippetca and Behrii. 
I don't know at all the Argynnis: nokomis, Behrensii, halcyone, nevaden- 
sis, atlantis, rupestris, hesperis, Morrisii and Bischoffi. About the Argynnis 
I think we are making too many species. I can't admit consciously as very 
distinct, mormonia, Eurynome and nenoquis. 5 What do you think of this? 
Here niobe and pales offer many more variations according to the locali- 
ties they come from. The former entomologists had made of them sepa- 
rate species that we had to put together again. Edwardsii seems to me a 
good species very near to Calippe [sic] . Your Epithore 6 isn't the same as the 
one I described. Yours is much smaller and is much nearer Frigga than 
Epithore. It is evidently new. I put it, in spite of its poor shape, in my 
collection under the temporary name of friggiodes. 

You mention a whole new series of Vanessa, of the sub-genus Grapta, 
most of them are unknown to me. I fear that all of these species may be 
set on shaky bases. I only own from the United States Comma, progne, 
interrogations, faunus, and zephyrus that you have been kind enough to 
send me. This last, even, resembles a great deal faunus. Erebia epipsodea 
is a very good species, so much more interesting that this genus is not 
abundant in North America. I agree with you about the Polyom. Thoe 
and that it is on wrong information that Cramer has considered his hyllas 
as coming from Smyrna. However, one must realize that there are in the 
Middle East many species of the genus Polyom. But I have never re- 
ceived from the part of the world any female which had any resemblance 
to hyllas. I have never seen Apatura alicia and proserpina. You are mak- 
ing a mistake about Eulalia. A specimen that Doubleday gave me, and 
which is still in my office, doesn't offer an atom of difference with those 
I got from Lorquin [from California]. About Bredowii Hubn., of which 
I received a specimen from Mexico, it is a very close species which differs 
from Eulalia only because the tawny spot of the top of the first wings is 
triangular on either [upper and lower] side. 

I am not telling you anything about the Hesperides. There are, maybe, 
more than 190 species in the vast territory of the United States. 



5 W. H. Edwards had Rcakirt's type of nenoquis and identified it as a specimen of Boloria dia 
Linnaeus, a European species included by Lorquin the younger in a shipment of Calif ornian 
butterflies to Reakirt. 

6 This does not apply to epithore Edwards. At this time W. H. Edwards was trying to de- 
termine the material collected in 1871 in Colorado by T. L. Mead. He had returned to Behr 
the specimen that was the type of epithore Edwards and was confused by specimens that we call 
Boloria frigga sagata Barnes and Benjamin. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 201 

Now, dear sir, I must thank you for the species you sent me, of which 
I saw the appearance for the first time. I don't know Dr. Behr, but I 
heard a lot about him through the late Lorquin. Is it in order not to be 
mistaken for his compatriot the Great Beinley 7 that he writes his name 
thus and not with two Es ( Been ) . About Mr. Reakirt I have nothing to 
say, only that some talk is going around about him which are probably 
only abominable calumny. 8 

I don't need to tell you again, very honored Sir, that all you may want for 
your remarkable work will be yours for the asking. Keep on with your 
work. You will help science a great deal, if it continues to be as careful 
as what I saw of it in the hands of Mr. Scudder. Your synoptic catalogue 
of the Rhopalocera of the United States has given me great pleasure in 
putting under my eyes the amount of what is known up to now of native 
insects of this vast country. Only God knows how many new species 
there are to be discovered! 

I am publishing now a Species General of all the Sphingides known on 
this globe, Sessides and Castnides with a few colored pages. As soon as 
this will see the day, I reserve for myself the pleasure of offering you a 
copy. 

Excuse my long letter and accept, dear Sir, the assurance of my dis- 
tinguished sentiment, 

/s/ Dr. Boisduval 

I almost forgot to thank you for your photograph which pleased me 
very much and which will occupy a special place in my album of foreign 
scholars. 

Several excerpts from letters written to Henry Edwards by W. H. 
Edwards are illuminating at this point and give added meaning to the 
second Boisduval letter. 

Coalburgh, W. Va., January 16, 1874: "... I am just sending Boisduval 
a lot of new species and ask him to send me types of Epithore, Mormonia, 
Egleis and most of his Melitaea. Also the 2 of Ch, Calif ornica which he 
promised me last June. . . ." 

Coalburgh, W. Va., March 13, 1874: "Boisduval writes 20th February 
that on 16th he sent me a box with all the species I applied for: that is 
Ch. Californica 2 and several Argynnis and Melitaea, among them 
Epithore. . . . He remarks on nearly all I sent him. . . ." 



7 1 have been unable to identify this person. 
8 See Brown (1964). 



202 Brown: Boisduval letters Vol. 19, no. 4 

Brooklyn, N. Y., March 29, 1874: ". . . Boisduval's box is in Philadelphia 
as I hear from Cresson. I shall get it Tuesday and hope to find some good 
things in it. At any rate to learn what Epithore is." 

Paris, 20 February 1874 

Dear Sir 
Your parcel arrived in very good shape. Thank you so much for the 
species you gave me. You will receive very soon the package with all 
the species you want to see as types. You can keep everything except for 
the species marked X, of which I own very few. I made you wait a 
little, but that is due to my being very busy with the printing of my 
"Species" of the Sphingides family in which you are not too interested 
but which interest me to the nth degree. Among the species you sent me 
there are some new one for me, Argynnis helena is a charming one which 
takes its place next to selenia and Euphrosyne. Atlantis is really the same 
as the species I owned under the same name. Juba and Coronis are 
identical and the same is true of Alta 9 and Sonorae. I am sending you the 
types described by me. I think we are making too many species of the 
genus Argynnis. Our European species, which I raised from the cater- 
pillar, vary a great deal and, so, Niobe has sometimes some silvery spots 
and sometimes yellowish ones; it is the same also for our Adippe. I could 
believe easily that Mormonia and Egleis are also only varieties; it could 
be true also that irene, hydaspe and maybe your hesperis are only local 
modifications of the same species. One should be there to study the 
problem very closely and raise the caterpillars. Your proserpina is a very 
curious dimorphism. I only wonder why it appears with Arthemis rather 
than with Ursula. In fact these two types (Ursula and Arthemis) are 
varieties one of the other, which I have been tempted more than once to 
unite. Their caterpillars, drawing of which I have, resemble each other 
completely. The Colias Scudderii is a new species to me. It is very near 
our palaeno but very distinct by the yellow nervures which divide the 
border. Your Sat. charon is very near the one I described under the name 
Oetus. Your Ridingsii is a charming small species near Arethusa 
[Arethusana arethusa Esper]. Ch. Uhleri is also new, as is Sat. Meadii. 
Mel. camillus and minuta are new species. I have owned for a long time 
Vesta under the name Texa [Boisduval manuscript name]. I received it 
also from Texas. 

The Vanessa, sub-genus Grapta, are very near each other. If I can 
judge from our European species, they must vary a great deal. I am 



9 This is a manuscript name that Edwards decided not to use since it was synonymous with a 
previously published name. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 203 

sending you three varieties of our C-Album whose letter C is smaller 
than in the usual specimens, plus a variety of our L- Album (triangularis). 
Comma and Dry as are certainly one species. What do you think of 
Zephyrus and faunus? It is necessary to look very closely to tell them 
apart. Satyr us has completely the shape of our C- Album but it is clearly 
different by the letter C, bigger and a little silver colored. Some one sent 
me Hylas sl long time ago under the name progne. What is then your 
progne? I would like to have a specimen of it. According to Cramer and 
Godart, it is from the State of New York and Jamaica; have not the 
author's mixed two species? What we have in French collections under 
the name progne doesn't look very exactly like the drawing on pi. 5 of 
Cramer. Is the true progne indigenous to the United States, or isn't its 
habitat rather in the Antilles? 10 That is the question. 

I forgot to put in the box some Parnassius Phoebis in order to show you 
that the Smintheus is an entirely different species. I would love to see 
Sayii and Behrii, also the female of Smintheus. Doubleday has figured a 
small Anthocharis [creusa] from the Rocky Mountains near Belia. Do 
you know it? 

I end here my letter, [etc., etc.] 

/s/ Dr. Boisduval 

Keep on with your work. In a century we won't know yet all the Lep. 
Rhopaloceres of the United States. Your box left on the 16th. 

Two letters from W. H. Edwards to Henry Edwards are important at 
this point. They bear upon Boisduval's third letter. There is repetition 
of some information which I omit from the first letter of the two since it 
is better set forth in the second. 

Coalburgh, W. Va., April 3, 1874: "... I brought Boisduval's box with 
me from Philadelphia. He has sent types of all his Argynnis and some 
Melitaea and of Satyrus Oetus. The latter I do not think is silvestris. . . . 
But the gem of the lot is the 9 Chionobas Calif ornica. It is bright chrome 
yellow, brighter than Behren's male [of iduna] and all one shade of color. 
Below markings clearer than on any of the several species I have seen. 
It was perfectly fresh when taken, but has lost one antenna and legs. I 
will put this sp. [specimen?] and $ Gigas 11 on Plate II of Chionobas." 

The second letter, dated April 4, 1874, from Coalburgh, I quote in its 
entirety and also Henry Edward's penciled notes made from the Boisduval 
types. 



10 No species of Polygonia is known from the West Indies today. 

11 In a letter dated March 8, 1874, W. H. Edwards told Henry Edwards that he had received 
from A. G. Butler at the British Museum a colored drawing of the unique type of gigas Butler 
1868. The specimen is in the British Museum (N. H.) and is type No. 3846. 



204 Brown: Boisduval letters Vol. 19, no. 4 

"I have taken time this noon to go over Boisduval's insects and you will 
be desirous of hearing the result. 
"Callippe is same as in Butt. N. A. 
"Juba is Coronis Behr. 
"Hydaspe is Zerene Butt. N. A. 
"Adiante is what we call so. 

"Egleis is Behr's No. 4 but that not having been named, Egleis holds. 
"Mormonia is Behr's 5 = Montivaga 
"Irene I do not know. Size of Montivaga, perhaps a little larger. Shape 

of Coronis. 
"M. Sonorae is Gabbi 
"M. Epula is Mylitta Edw. 
"M. Orsa is Montana B. 
"M . P«//a is what we so call. 
"M. Helicta may be var. of Valla. 

"M. Po/a & Calina I don't know. Both probably Mexican. 
"A. Epithore is your 4282 sent me as Epithore. 
"S. Oetus looks like pale Charon Edw. & I think is that species. 

"Great thing to get right." 

/s/ W. H. Edwards. 

Henry Edward's penciled memorandum attached to this letter is headed 
'"Edwards Butts & Bdvl types." I have extracted from this the notes that 
apply to Boisduval's types. 

"Epithore type is a 2 . 

"Epula Bdv = Mylitta Edw. 

"Palla type is a $ 

"Orsa = Montana Behr 

"Helicta = Hoffmanni Behr 

"Collina I think Mexican. It is smaller than any California species I 
know. 

"Pola may be a new species, but I doubt it. It looks like a suffused 
specimen of Gabbii. Markings of under side do not in any way differ 
from these of Gabbii. 

"Arg. Irene Bdv. is exactly the same as my No. 3500, agreeing with type 
in every particular. Have always thought this an extreme var. of Zerene. 

"Mormonia Bdv. My specimen 2386 agrees with the type, but I doubt 
the validity of the species. 

"Egleis Bdv. is different from any species I have, but I think it only a 
variety. 

"Sat. Oetus is new to me, and Very distinct. Like Satyrus above, and 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 205 

about same size, but underside more repeatedly [?] mottled, with some 
pale darkish at base of secondaries, the submarginal ocelli (2) being 
black with white distinct pupil and enclosed in a black disk [?]." 

Paris, 15 June 1874 
22 rue Fosses St. Jacques. 
Very honored Sir 
It was only on my return from the provinces [farm?], where I was sick for 
a few weeks, that I found your letter. I thank you for the data it contains; 
I will know how to profit by them. I am delighted the little box got to 
you in good condition and that in it were things that could please you. 
You tell me that your Mylitta is the same as my epula. Kirby, about which 
anyway, the work is full of errors, unites my Epula with pratensis of 
Behr, on another page he makes two distinct species of Montana and of 
Orsa. What I find amazing in the work we are talking about is that he 
puts together my Pulchella and Tharos which are two very different spe- 
cies. Kirby, always the same Kirby, brings together Mormonia and Neno- 
quis of Reakirt, and Sirene and Montana of Behr. I really believe that 
this man, who went to all kinds of trouble to compile a catalogue for the 
people who work, has never seen in nature [alive or dead] the species he 
is talking about. Anyway, we must be thankful to him for a work which 
must have made him do a lot of research and a great expense of time. 

I am happy to know that you have seen the caterpillars of the Vanessa 
(Grapta) satyrus, faunus, comma, Dryas, and Zephyrus. It is the only 
way to recognize the validity of a special species. 

When the opportunity presents itself I would like to receive the species 
which you call progne to compare it with the one from the West Indies 
[Cramer's figures?]. If you could also dispose in my favor a female of 
Smintheus I would be very grateful to you; she must be very near the one 
of Intermedins from Siberia. The pouch of the oviduct of the females 
offers sometimes an excellent characteristic. For example, that organ is 
entirely white in Clarius, Clordius and several others, as it is in Mnemos- 
yne and Stubendorffii. 

All my winter has been spent in the printing of my "Species" of the 
Sphingides, Sessides, Thyrides and Castnides. It is a big book in octovo, 
with illustrations ( 568 pages ) . The work has been complete since March, 
the editor hasn't yet published it on account of the tardiness of the artists 
in charge of the engraving and coloring. I have worked for more than 
20 years! 

Even though you may not be interesting in the Lepid. heteroceres I 
want to send you a copy as a souvenir, also a copy of my monograph of 
the Agaristides. 



206 Brown: Boisduval letters Vol. 19, no. 4 

In spite of all my work and all the material I have at my disposal, there 
must be, without doubt, still many species which I do not know. There 
are two species native to the U. S. which I have never seen in nature: 
Lucitiosa and Versicola. The same is true about Ellema pinensis 
[pineum] of Lintner which seems to me to be very near Harrisii, if it 
isn't a variety of it. 

I am asking also, if it is possible for you to give me the address of 
Mr. Giote. It has been more than six years that he borrowed from me 
some unique species from California ( Heteroceres ) and he has neglected 
to send them back to me. I can't understand it. When one lends me any 
specimens I keep them about a short time and I hurry to give them back 
to the people who were helpful to me. He published them all and he 
must have had many opportunities to send them back to me. I had al- 
ready begged Mr. Scudder to remind him of it; probably he did nothing 
about it because I am still without news of my unique species. 

I am ending, dear sir, [etc., etc.] X7 , , 

° Your very devoted servant 

/s/ Dr. Boisduval 

I am sending you, enclosed, a fragment of proof of my Species which 
will prove to you that the printing is finished as I have told you before. 

Melitaea pola Boisduval 
Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12: 56, "1869" [1868?] 

The specimen that Boisduval sent to Edwards as pola is in the Edwards 
Collection at the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is not 
at all like specimens currently passing under that name. It fits much 
better Boisduval's original description than does the specimen figured 
by Oberthur and considered by him to be the type of the name. Barnes 
and McDunnough introduced to American rhopalocerists the current con- 
cept of the name pola in 1916 (p. 92). This is based upon McDunnough's 
examination of Boisduval material in Oberthur's collection in Paris. Ac- 
tually it was McDunnough who selected the specimens figured by Ober- 
thiir as Boisduval types. The specimen selected by McDunnough and 
figured by Oberthur is in the Barnes Collection at the United States Na- 
tional Museum in Washington, D. C. 

I present here photographs of the two "types" and Boisduval's original 
description of pola (Figs. 2, 3). 

"44. Melitaea Pola, Boisd. 

"Alae supra sub-obscuriores, nigro fulvo et ochraceo varise; posticae subtus maculis 
basalibus fasciique duabus flavidis, media linea nigra divisa. 

"De la taille de notra Athalia et tres voisine de Palla dont elle differe par les 
caracteres suivants: Dessus des ailes plus obscur avec les parties fauves ochracees 
vers le melieu; la bande mediane jaune du dessous des inferieures coupee longi- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 207 





W. Howards! ; ,< . i »■ i^J i%-^ r l 






Explanation of Figure 2 
The holotype of Melitaea pola Boisduval in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. The lower left label is in Boisduval's manuscript. The pencilled label 
at right was written by Holland or Avinoff. Natural size. Photography by dos Passos 
for A.M.N.H. 

tudinalement par une petite ligne noir et no bordee par cette ligne. Nous n'avons vu 
qu'un seul individu pris en Sonora." 

The specimen sent to Edwards was marked with an X, indicating it was 
to be returned. Boisduval had died ( 1879 ) before Edwards got around 
to returning it. It was Boisduval's single specimen from Sonora. It cannot 
be otherwise than the type of the name pola. Thus this specimen, the 
holotype, must replace the McDunnough-Oberthiir lectotype which 
represents a different species, arachne Edwards 1868. Article 74 of the 
Code makes this action mandatory. 

Higgins (1960: 389) based his interpretation of pola on Oberthur's 
figure. He, however, guarded himself by a caution that suggests clearly 
he was not satisfied and recognized the lack of agreement between Ober- 
thur's figure and Boisduval's description. 

Melitaea callina Boisduval 
Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12: 54 "1869" [1868?] 
In his recent Synonymic List, dos Passos (1964: 82) placed callina 
Boisduval 1869 as a synonym of collina Behr ( = Phyciodes mylitta Ed- 



208 



Brown: Boisduval letters 



Vol. 19, no. 4 




; i; 



r> - 

p 



>S< : '' 



WW 










Explanation of Figure 3 
The McDunnough-Oberthiir pseudotype of Melitaea pola Boisduval in the United 
States National Museum, Washington, D. C. The lower, second from right label 
appears to be in Boisduval's manuscript. The label "Minuta/Col " is in W. H. Ed- 
wards' manuscript. The figure at left is from Oberthiir's publication. Natural size. 
Photography by dos Passos for A.M.N.H. 

wards 1861 ) as a misspelling of Behr's name. This is far from the truth 
of the matter. He also accepted callina Boisduval 1869 as a subspecies 
of Melitaea elada Hewitson 1868. I have been unable to find any other 
reference to callina by Boisduval in 1869 other than his description of the 
elada-\ike insect. Barnes and McDunnough (1916: 92) wrote: "After a 
careful study of the figure of the sole remaining type from Mexico 
(Oberthiir, Ea. de Lep. Comp. IX, (2), Fig. 2185) we have found that 
the species agreeing best with this figure is the Texan one known hereto- 
fore as ulrica Edw. ( imitata Stke. ) ; . . . the Sonoran types being lost we 
think it advisable to restrict the name to the Mexican type . . ." 

What Barnes and McDunnough did not know, although they had 
studied the material in the Edwards Collection, was that one of the 
original "Sonora" syntypes of callina is in the Edwards Collection. This 
is the specimen sent to Edwards by Boisduval in 1874. It is marked with 
an X on the label attached by Boisduval indicating that the specimen was 
to be returned because he needed it to hold the name in his own collection. 
The Oberthiir "Mexican type" is in the Barnes Collection at the United 
States National Museum. I figure both of the "types" here. The original 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



209 



s . ':. .,■' : 

Mi , : I. '■ " ■ . • :■■ 







1< 






oalllaa T F p e 
l»fe p llfd in 

hand •# filing* 



Explanation of Figure 4 
The Higgins' "Holotype" lectotype of Melitaea callina Boisduval in the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This is one of Boisduval's Sonoran specimens. 
Natural size. Photography by dos Passos for A.M.N.H. 



description of callina Boisduval follows and should be compared carefully 
with the figures of the two "types" (Figs. 4, 5). 

"39. Melitaea Callina, Boisd. 

"Alae fulvse supra Uriels numerosis transversis limboque communi fuscis; fimbria 
nigricanti albido intersecta; posticse subtus fulvo albidoque fasciatae. 

"Cette Melitee de la taille de notre Nemeobius Lucina se rapproche beaucoup par 
la porte de nos petites especes europeenes. Ses quatre ailes sont fauvres avec des 
raies trans versales sinueuses assez rapprochees; ou si Ton veut elles sont brunes avec 
des raies fauves interrompues; la bordure est noiratre ainsi que la f range qui est 
entrecoupee de blanc. Le dessous des premieres ailes est fauve, principalment vers 
la base avec quelques lignes noires ondulees, il est brunatre vers l'extremite avec une 
rangee de taches fauves et quelque taches blanches dont une, un peu plus grande, 
est un peu sagittee. Le dessous des secondes est fauve, marque de bandes blanchatre, 
liserees de noir, dont celle de l'extremite est formee de taches un peu sagittees. 

"La femelle ressemble au male, sauf qu'un dessous le sommet des ses ailes 
superieures off re des taches blanchatre plus indiquees et plus nombreuses. 

"Pris dans la Sonora, nous avons recu du Mexique plusiers individus et cette 
meme espece." 

From this it is quite evident that the Sonoran specimens were the basis 
of the original description. The surviving syntype from Sonora fits the 
description far better than does the surviving Mexican specimen. Barnes 
and McDunnough ( 1916 ) thought that Boisduval has a mixed series and 
the Sonoran and Mexican materials were different. The Mexican specimen 
from Oberthur is very close to ulrica Edwards 1877. Thus Barnes and 
McDunnough did the only thing possible for them at the time. This was 
to suggest that callina Boisduval 1869 supplant ulrica Edwards. This they 



210 



Brown: Boisduval letters 



Vol. 19, no. 4 




Wu-tifr^ CUf, 



»4 






;:'•' i": 







We**'** . dfft'tf* SM- 9 



Explanation of Figure 5 
The McDunnough-Oberthiir "Type" lectotype of Melitaea callina Boisduval in 
the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. This is one of Boisduval's 
Mexican specimens. No labels appear to have been written by Boisduval. [The figure 
at left is from Oberthur's publication.] Natural size. Photography by dos Passos 
for A.M.N.H. 



did in their 1917 Checklist. In his checklist of 1938 McDunnough con- 
sidered callina Boisduval a subspecies of elada Hewitson 1868. Higgins 
(1960: 452-453), in the most recent evaluation of this group of names, 
considered callina Boisduval a synonym of elada Hewitson on the basis 
of the Carnegie Museum specimen, which he named "Holotype." It 
actually is the lectotype, since Boisduval had at least a pair of specimens 
from Sonora. The precise order of priority for elada and callina needs to 
be established. There is some question about the date of publication of 
both Hewitson's work and the first part of the Annales in which Boisduval 
published his name. 

It is obvious from Boisduval's original description that he considered 
the Sonoran material to be typical callina and that the Mexican specimens 
were secondary supporting series. I believe that it can be argued that the 
discovery of a Sonoran specimen labeled by Boisduval in 1874 sets aside 
the Oberthur-McDunnough "type" of 1911, based on the sole remaining 
syntype of the secondaiy series. Barnes and McDunnough reluctantly 
accepted the "Mexican" material as type in the absence of a Sonoran 
specimen. Adoption of the Sonoran specimen as lectotype at this time 
is at variance with Articles 73 and 74 of the Code ( 1964 ) . 

Article 73 (c) can be interpreted to include both the Sonoran and 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 211 

Mexican specimens of Boisduval as syntypes from which a lectotype must 
be chosen. Article 74 (a) (i) states "The first published designation of 
a lectotype fixes the status of the specimen, but if it is proven that the 
designated specimen is not a syntype, the designation is invalid." 

The ultimate decision rests upon the interpretation to be put upon 
Boisduval's wording of the last sentence quoted from him above. If 
this is interpreted to restrict the syntypes to the Sonoran specimens, then 
Higgin's designation of the Carnegie Museum specimen is valid. If the 
wording is not considered restrictive, then the Oberthur-McDunnough 
selection of a "Mexican" specimen must be supported. I have advised 
Higgins of the situation and recommended to him that he take appropriate 
action to settle this nomenclatorial problem for the sake of stability. 

Literature Cited 
Barnes, William, & James McDunnough, 1916. Contributions to the Natural 

History of the Lepidoptera of North America. Vol. 3. Decatur, 111. 
Brown, F. Martin, 1964. "Tyron Reakirt (1844-?)" Jour. Lepid. Soc, 18: 211- 

214. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Lep. Soc. 

Mem. 1, 145 pp., New Haven, Conn. 
Higgins, Lionel G., 1960. "A revision of the Melitaeine genus Chlosyne and allied 

species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalinae ) ." Trans. Royal Ent. Soc. Lond., 112: 381- 

475, 134 figs. 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1964. "International 

Code of Zoological Nomenclature adopted by the XV International Congress of 

Zoologists," revised edition. 176 pp. London. 

BOOK NOTICE 

EARLY STAGES OF JAPANESE BUTTERFLIES. Bv Dr. Takashi Shirozu. Photog- 
raphy by Akira Hara. Vol. I, iv + 142 pp., 60 col. pis., I960; Vol. II, 139 pp., 60 
col. pis., 1962. Hoikusha Publishing Co., Ltd., 20, 1-chom, Uchikyuhoji-machi, 
Higashi-ku, Osaka, Japan. $12.50 (surface mail), $18.75 (air mail). 

Of 216 native and migratory species in Japan, 196 are illustrated in color photog- 
raphy, including all but three of the native species. The plates show egg, larva, pupa, 
and adult, often from more than one angle; they are exceptionally clear and true in 
color. Special features include illustration of the oviposition of Aporia hippia japonica, 
emergence of several species, and front view of the heads of 92 species. This is a 
monumental work on the early stages of Japanese butterflies. The author is Professor 
at the Biological Laboratory, General Education Department, Kyushu University, 
Fukuoka, and a member of the Lepidopterists' Society. The photographer is a mem- 
ber of the Entomological Society of Japan, and one of the best photographers of 
insects in Japan. The author and photographer had nationwide cooperation of 
Japanese lepidopterists, who supplied living materials. 

Although the text is in Japanese, there is an index of the Latin names which are 
also given on the plates, and the plates themselves really tell much of the story. They 
are indeed remarkable, especially those of the eggs, which are much enlarged. Much 
other information on the early stages of Japanese butterflies is available in papers 
published in the Lepidopterists' News by Mr. T. Iwase (vol. 7, p. 45; vol. 8, p. 95; 
and vol. 9, p. 13), in the Journal of The Lepidopterists' Society (vol. 18, p. 105); 
and by Dr. T. Kuzuya in the Journal (vol. 13, p. 175). — Takeshi Kuzuya, 3d Dept. 
Intern. Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo, Japan and E. J. Newcomer, 
1509 Summitview, Yakima, Wash., U. S. A. 



212 Kolyer: Inexpensive photos Vol. 19, no. 4 

AN INEXPENSIVE APPARATUS FOR PHOTOGRAPHING 
MOUNTED SPECIMENS 

John M. Kolyer 

55 Chimney Ridge Drive, Convent, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

A considerable investment is required for a new, high-quality camera 
of small film size (e.g., 16 mm) with close-up lens attachment, or, al- 
ternatively, for a large, supported view camera with integral height 
adjustment and focusing devices. Photoflood lamps or, especially, an 
electronic flashgun, normally add to the expense. Therefore, the following 
procedure, which utilizes an inexpensive camera, requires no special 
lighting facilities, and gives excellent photographs, may be of interest to 
those who are not inclined to make a multihundred-dollar investment in 
photographic equipment. 

The basis of the inexpensive arrangement to be described is the fact 
that a sharp image is obtained without a very expensive lens because the 
film size is large and the lens is stopped far down ( aperture minimized ) . 
Brilliant illumination is unnecessary because the subject is motionless and 
the time exposure may be as long as needed. 

The most expensive item in the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 was the 
camera, an old Watson Speed Press using 4- X 5-inch cut film and 
equipped with a f/3.5 (range: f/3.5-f/32), 4 cm lens made by the Jos. 
Schneider Co., Germany. (The f-number represents the relation of the 
aperture to the focal length, i.e., f/32 means that the aperture is %2 of 
the focal length, which for this particular lens is about 14 cm.) This 
camera was purchased for $35 in one of the many photographic shops in 
New York City, the main criteria for selection being that the shutter 
functioned for time exposures (all that is needed) and that the bellows 
was in good condition. The camera was mounted vertically, using a 
wooden frame as shown, so that the distance from the lens to the specimen 
could be adjusted from 9 inches, making the field of view 3 X 2% inches 
and the magnification about 1.7 (a feature of this procedure is that 
contact prints are often suitable without necessity of enlargement), to 14 
inches, making the field 7 X 5% inches and the magnification about 0.7. 
The photo (Papilio glaucus, male, Aug. 23, 1964, Convent, New Jersey) 
shown in Fig. 2 was taken at a lens-subject distance of 11 inches. 

The procedure is as follows. The subject, suitably in a Riker mount on 
cotton or black velvet as desired ( the specimen shown was on cotton ) , is 
placed on the adjustable platform ( a laboratory jack in this case but other 
arrangements may be designed ) . The glass over the specimen presses it 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



213 




An inexpensive apparatus for photographing insect specimens 



flat and keeps it in the same focal plane; reflection of light from the 
glass did not constitute a problem, but the glass may be omitted, of 
course, if desired. Next, the two ordinary lamps (with 100 watt bulbs) 
are turned on (a certain amount of heat is produced, so the lamps are 
kept off between exposures), and the diaphragm is opened fully to make 



214 



Kolyer: Inexpensive photos 



Vol. 19, no. 4 




Photograph of specimen in Riker Mount, taken by a method described in the text. 



a bright image on the ground glass. After focusing by adjusting the 
height of the subject, the diaphragm is closed to f/32, a cut-film holder 
with Kodak Plus-X Pan sheet film (4x5 inches ) is inserted, and a 30- 
second time exposure is made. 

If one desires the film is easily developed at home (providing that a 
place of total darkness is available) by following the Kodak Company's 
instructions, with continuous, vigorous agitation during the development 
step. For printing, a contact print box with a 7.5 watt bulb is satisfactory; 
a contact ( illumination ) time of 25 seconds with Kodak Velox F-3 paper 
(which gives better contrast than the F-2 grade) was used for the picture 
shown, the Kodak instructions being followed. The prints are rolled onto 
a ferrotype plate and when they have been released (1.5-3 hours) are 
pressed flat on a blotter for further drying. Of course, the developing 
and printing may be assigned to a professional photographic service, but 
one may find that best results are achieved by doing the work, especially 
the printing, personally. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 215 

ECOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL NOTES ON HESPERIA 
METEA AND ATRYTONOPSIS HI ANN A ( HESPERIIDAE ) 

Arthur M. Shapiro 

7636 Thouron Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

The ecological associations of a number of the northeastern Hesperiidae 
have received relatively little attention in print. The lack of published 
information has handicapped many workers in their attempts to find the 
insects, and thus hampered the expansion of our knowledge of them. 
Hesperia metea Scudder and Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder) have long 
been cases in point. Although both were described about a century ago, 
their life histories remain largely unknown, and their ecology and dis- 
tribution but little illuminated. The present paper offers observations on 
the ecological associations, flight period, and behavior of these two spe- 
cies as observed in southeastern Pennsylvania and in New Jersey. 

Hesperia metea Scudder 

No records of this species have been published for Pennsylvania. Its 
occurrence there has generally been cited on the basis of a quotation in 
Tietz (1953) from Williams, who merely postulated its occurrence 
"within fifty miles of Philadelphia." Therefore it is noteworthy that 
recent records show metea is a resident in at least the following Pennsyl- 
vania counties: Philadelphia, Montgomery, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, 
and Lancaster (the last on the authority of George Ehle, personal com- 
munication). In New Jersey it occurs at least in Burlington and Ocean 
counties. 

The ecology of metea in Pennsylvania may be taken as more typical 
than that in New Jersey, for most of its range. The writer has obtained a 
long series of metea from several colonies within the city limits of Phila- 
delphia and in the surrounding counties. The physiognomy of these sites 
is uniform enough that it has been found possible to predict the occur- 
rence of metea with considerable accuracy in a given site, even out of 
season. 

In Pennsylvania, metea is very closely associated with the grass Andro- 
pogon scoparius Michx. This grass, commonly known as bunchgrass, 
bluestem beard grass, or fire grass, is a characteristic species of dry hill- 
sides, woodland clearings, burn scars, and denuded or sterile sites. Its 
aerial method of distribution facilitates its occupying such situations 
rapidly. It reaches its greatest abundance on dry, open hillsides sur- 
rounded by woods; hills which open above the trees on at least one side. 



216 Shapiro: Skipper habits Vol. 19, no. 4 

This is the typical situation for metea. The butterfly is never found where 
the Andropogon is less than the dominant element of the herbaceous 
vegetation, nor where it is only a short-term component. 

H. metea seems to occupy burned-over sites after the second year fol- 
lowing the fire, i.e., after Andropogon has thoroughly dominated the site. 
The skipper continues in residence until the grass is shaded out by tree 
growth or until other species of grasses become dominant, as sometimes 
occurs. In Pennsylvania, Andropogon is only locally a conspicuous ele- 
ment of oldfield vegetation, but on the rocky, poor soils of New England 
it is more important, and nietea may occur in more open areas. 

Aside from dry hillside clearings, metea in Pennsylvania also occurs 
in artificial clearings and on railroad tracks through woods, with the 
foodplant, but never in the abundance it reaches in hillside situations. It 
also occurs on the dry banks along the Pennsylvania Turnpike in wooded 
sections, but not commonly. Possible sites for metea may be recognized 
in autumn by the red-brown cast of the Andropogon stems forming a 
cover of dense clumps. 

Andropogon, as earlier noted, is rarely in this area a permanent com- 
ponent of field vegetation, being only an occasional species on level, open 
terrain. One major exception is on the so-called "serpentine barrens" of 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, where the substrate is inhibitory to many 
herbaceous species and a peculiar grassland community results, of which 
Andropogon is a dominant species; metea is common here. I suspect it 
may also occur at Jennings Blazing Star Prairie in Butler County, another 
odd grassland where Andropogon is common. 

Adults of Hesperia metea are very closely associated with the Andro- 
pogon plants and do not wander far from them. On hillsides, surrounded 
by woods, the Andropogon regularly occurs at the top and the upper half 
of the slope, with usually another grass, a species of Panicum of the 
clandestinum group, at the bottom and some Triodia flava in between. 
The Panicum is usually in partial shade, and the T. flava represents one 
of the most common grasses in the area, an important component of 
virtually every grassland type in eastern Pennsylvania but not a rapid 
spreader. In autumn of 1964 I examined two colonies of metea at the 
exact spots which had been noted on topo maps the previous spring. The 
density of Andropogon was measured by counting seed stems per square 
meter. It was found that in both colonies, over 80% of the specimens had 
been taken where the seed stem density exceeded 45/m 2 , which is a good 
indication of the intimacy of the association. It may, of course, also reflect 
a reluctance on the part of metea to fly downslope. 

On railroad tracks, the Andropogon is typically mixed with Panicum, 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 217 

the relative abundance of the two on a given stretch being related to the 
amount of shade; in these places metea is always commonest where the 
Andropogon is thickest, but the butterflies fly all along the track. 

Male metea are aggressive, but there seem to be surprisingly few con- 
tacts among them considering the density which the species may reach in 
a small area. Close observation has led me to believe that a definite, 
though transient, territoriality exists. The males feed in the early morn- 
ing and extend their range in the late morning, each occupying a specific 
site and, normally, returning to it when disturbed. These resting sites 
are usually open spots of bare ground among the tufts of Andropogon, 
occasionally projecting clumps of low vegetation. Male chases are very 
brief, rarely over two or three minutes, and seldom more than eight feet 
above the ground, unlike, for example, Poanes zabulon (Bdv. & LeC). 
If a male is removed, its place will not be taken for ten or 15 minutes, 
suggesting that the number of drifting males, without territories, is quite 
low. As for the apportionment of these territories, it would appear to be 
on a first come, first served basis; and when a male already occupying a 
territory is challenged, it is always the original occupant that returns after 
the chase. The area defended by a single male varies with the vegetation 
and the population size, ranging from two feet square or more to ten 
inches square under overcrowded conditions, but becomes considerably 
greater in the air. The territories are rarely adjacent, the intervening 
spaces being used by transient males and by females which tend to stay 
just above the ground, and thus avoid pursuit. 

If a male is disturbed by the collector, it typically will take flight but 
normally remain about a foot above the ground, twisting through the 
grass and other vegetation in a fast but skipping way, and returning 
within ten minutes or so to its original resting place via a circuitous 
route. When greatly alarmed, males fly higher and faster. 

Females generally fly low, and rest during the heat of the day. When 
a male pursues a female that has wandered into the territory, the female 
generally alights quickly on a grass blade. The male follows, flying about 
the female for a few seconds; it then alights and walks up behind the 
female, fluttering slightly. At this point the female occasionally takes 
flight again, the male pursuing, but more often she flutters slightly, then 
steps sideways, allowing the male to advance up the leaf to a position 
parallel and adjacent to her. The male now curves its abdomen in 
toward the female, so that its extruded genitalia make contact with the 
caudal tip of the female. One or two repetitions of this behavior result 
in acquiescence by the female, and exposure of her genitalia is instantly 
followed by copulation. The male then sidles around the leaf until he 



218 Shapiro: Skipper habits Vol. 19, no. 4 

faces in the opposite direction to the female. The process on the leaf, 
just described, requires about three minutes. I covered two mated pairs 
with glass bottles in the field and found both still in copula two hours 
later. I do not know the normal full duration of copulation. Mating 
generally occurs around the noon hour, and seems more frequent in 
cloudy and cool weather than in full sunshine. 

Males at rest in their territories generally perch with the forewings 
opened to an angle of about 70° and the hindwings to about 45°, but 
close the wings in cloudy weather or when slightly disturbed. Both sexes 
when feeding, and females when at rest, keep the wings closed over the 
back. During copulation the wings are closed as a rule, but twice I have 
seen the male open them to the "territorial" angle. Mated pairs frequently 
settle downslope from the territorial area. They are occasionally dis- 
turbed by other males. If the pair is at rest and the intruder airborne, 
the former will not normally take flight; when both are in flight, the 
pair usually land. 

Ovipositing females appear on casual inspection to be flying in the 
normal, skipping manner six inches or so above the ground. They alight 
repeatedly, however, and crawl down into tufts of Andropogon. Here, 
the female turns around so that her abdomen points into the center of 
the tuft, and deposits an egg singly down low on a leaf, on the upper 
surface. I have never seen a single female lay more than one egg on a 
clump of the grass, although under crowded conditions it is likely that 
a number of females may utilize each clump. Females while ovipositing, 
and mated pairs, are much less wary and thus easier to observe than 
under other conditions. 

Both sexes will fly into shade, but only for short periods. Females are 
much more active in cloudy weather than males, and may continue to 
oviposit while the males are at rest with wings folded. Neither sex flies 
in conditions of persistent overcast, however. 

As might be gathered from much of the preceding discussion, the 
population density in various sites is quite variable. The highest I have 
seen is about 120 observed in an area of slightly over half an acre. Of 
course, most of these were concentrated into parts of that area with 
highest Andropogon density. The species is quite common in most of 
its localities. The frequent failure to find it probably results in part from 
ignorance of its habits and in part from its veiy short flight period. In 
Pennsylvania, the first males appear about May 6, the first females about 
May 12, with the overall peak about May 18, and hardly any males by 
the 25th. The last females are still on the wing about June 1. To be 
sure of finding the species, it is virtually necessary to look between May 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 219 

12th and 22nd. Because of the sedentary habits of the butterflies, a 
thorough search is necessary; one may miss a small colony completely 
by only a few feet. 

In the New Jersey pine barrens, the ecology of H. metea is necessarily 
somewhat different. There it is associated with Andropogon scoparius 
var. glomeratus, a grass found locally in sandy barrens. In clearings in 
the pine forest metea exists in conditions not unlike those in Pennsylvania, 
although rarely in large numbers. The greatest populations seem to be in 
the so-called "plains" area near the Lebanon State Forest, in the Mount 
Misery vicinity. This is a high, wind-swept area characterized by a curi- 
ously stunted open growth of pine and blackjack oak (Quercus marilan- 
dica); it is subject to frequent burning. H. metea flies in and out of the 
scrub trees and low vegetation, behaving much as it does elsewhere. 
Territoriality does seem to exist in the more open parts, but principally at 
ground level since the vegetation is not conducive to pursuit at high levels. 
The largest numbers are found on the recent burn scars, but the quick- 
sprouting pine and oak make these areas much less stable than similar 
clearings in the oak-tulip, poplar-birch-maple forest of Pennsylvania, 
even when on projecting hillsides. 

It is almost certain that proper investigation will uncover H. metea in 
most of Pennsylvania's counties, and perhaps extend its known range 
elsewhere as well. 

Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder) 

The situation concerning published records of this species for Pennsyl- 
vania is analogous to the preceding, the only citation other than Williams 
in Tietz ( 1953 ) being my own ( Shapiro, 1963 ) . So far hianna has been 
found in Philadelphia and Chester counties, Pa., and Burlington and 
Ocean counties, N. J. Further searching will undoubtedly extend its 
known range in the area considerably. 

Forbes (1960) mentions that this and the preceding species occur to- 
gether; Franklin H. Chermock and George Ehle have mentioned the same 
fact to me in litt., referring to Maryland and Lancaster counties, Pa., 
respectively. Such indeed is the case. The association of hianna with 
Andropogon is quite clear, and generally one may find either where the 
other is known to occur. Generally, hianna is much rarer than metea, 
the numbers running in the ratio of from 1 : 5 to 1 : 20 in various colonies. 

The general behavior of the two species is similar, but on the whole 
hianna is a much more active and aggressive insect. Males are especially 
fond of flying up and down exposed rock surfaces in the sunshine, and 
when such surfaces are available, will take up their territorial vigil on 
projecting tufts of grass or other vegetation extending from cracks in the 



220 Shapiro: Skipper habits Vol. 19, no. 4 

surface. Otherwise, they will perch on or near the ground like metea, 
darting up to chase one another with great vigor. Where the species is 
at all common, the males are occupied in chasing one another for much 
of the day; this behavior is relaxed only in the early morning and late 
afternoon, when both sexes are feeding. Males returning from chases are 
apt to be assaulted again before reaching their original perch, and other 
males may move in to occupy it, so that there is a constant competition 
for resting sites, much more intense than in metea, even though the 
species is less abundant. The chase flights are no more sustained than 
in metea, except as renewed by new challengers, but the combatants rise 
much higher, sometimes escaping from sight. All of this behavior is 
exactly similar to that of A. vierecki (Skinner) as I have observed it in 
the Fallugia arroyos of Bernalillo County, New Mexico. 

Female hianna fly low, generally at six to eight inches above the 
ground; they have not been seen ovipositing, nor has the mating process 
been observed, but pairs in copula have been seen between 11:00 A.M. 
and 2:00 P.M., indicating that, as in metea, copulation probably occurs 
early in the territorial part of the day. 

A. hianna is less active than metea in cool or cloudy weather, the fe- 
males again flying much more than the males under such conditions. 
Both sexes visit flowers more consistently than metea, but like metea show 
a definite preference for Rubus, Fragaria, and Trifolium pratense. Unlike 
metea, it feeds regularly in the late afternoon as well as in the morning. 

Male hianna at rest hold the wings closed, as a rule, but both sexes 
open them somewhat while feeding. Despite its pugnacity, the species 
is no more wary than metea, and although a startled male will depart 
with a fast flight high into the air, it will, if not engaged in chase by 
another individual, return to its original perch in a few minutes. Females 
never seem to become agitated to the degree that the males do, and even 
when alarmed make a steady and erratic flight only a foot or so above 
the ground. 

A. hianna appears just as metea is disappearing, the first males about 
May 27, the first females about June 1, both sexes declining by June 10, 
with a few worn females still alive in early July. This flight period is 
about as limited as that of metea, and likewise contributes to its having 
remained unknown for over 100 years in a center of entomological activ- 
ity like Philadelphia. The insects wander a good deal more than metea, 
but still are quite local, and could very easily be overlooked by anyone 
not specifically searching for them. 

I have not had the time during the flight period of hianna to check all 
of the metea sites for this species, but those thus far examined have 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 221 

demonstrated the association of the two insects, and it is to be expected 
that this will be the rule throughout most of the range. It certainly holds 
around Philadelphia, on the serpentine barrens, and in the New Jersey 
pine barrens. 

I have not had the opportunity to investigate the early stages of either 
species. This may be possible in the future. Hopefully these preliminary 
notes will enable many more field workers to become acquainted with 
metea and hianna and extend our knowledge of them. 

Literature Cited 

Forbes, W. T. M., 1960. The Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States. 

Part IV. Ithaca, N. Y., 188 pp. 
Shapiro, A. M., 1963. The Butterflies of the Morris Arboretum: 1963. Morris Arb. 

Bull., 14: 67-69. 
Tietz, H. M., 1953. The Lepidoptera of Pennsylvania. University Park, Pa., 194 pp. 



A RECENT RANGE EXTENSION OF PIER1S BECKER1 
(PIERIDAE) IN WYOMING 

Dennis Groothuis and Richard Hardesty 

Douglas, Wyoming 

The years 1963 and 1964 have yielded very many interesting specimens 
in our study of Wyoming Rhopalocera, but perhaps the most unusual 
record has been the capture of two Pieris beckeri Edwards, one of each 
sex, in Douglas, Wyoming. 

Holland ( 1931 ) states that the range of P. beckeri is from "Oregon to 
central California and eastward to Colorado." In 1937, Cross in "Butter- 
flies of Colorado," and in 1956, Brown in "Colorado Butterflies," said 
that P. beckeri was found west of the Continental Divide. However, in 
1962, Hovanitz revised the eastern limits to be the "Rocky Mountain 
system in Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado." His map indicates three 
localities in Wyoming in which P. beckeri had been collected: (1) the 
vicinity of Highway 430, south of Rock Springs in Sweetwater County; 
(2) the vicinity of Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National 
Park, and; ( 3 ) the vicinity of Cody, Park County. The locality near High- 
way 430 is west of the Continental Divide. Cody and Mammoth Hot 
Springs are both east of the Continental Divide, and are in or near moun- 
tain ranges and are within Hovanitz' new eastern limits. 



222 Groothuis & Hardesty: Pieris extension Vol. 19, no. 4 

Douglas, Wyoming, where our two specimens were collected, is ap- 
proximately 100 miles from the Continental Divide, which at its nearest 
point, passes near Lamont and the Seminole Mountains in Carbon County. 
The Laramie Mountains, a northern extension of the Front Range in 
Colorado, lie about 40 miles to the southwest. Douglas is located on the 
western edge of the Great Plains and is in the Upper Sonoran Life Zone. 
The terrain is similar to the semiarid, hot, shrubby hillsides described by 
F. Martin Brown in "Colorado Butterflies," but Douglas is well out of 
the limits set by either Brown or Hovanitz. 

Both specimens were captured at Douglas at an elevation of 4,900 feet. 
A male was captured on June 25, 1963 and a female on July 30, 1964. Both 
were in near perfect condition and showed no signs of travel. No differ- 
ence between these and more western specimens can be noted. The late 
date of the capture in 1964 may have been due to heavy snows in April 
and May, which delayed the entire collecting season. 

In California, Powell (1957) recorded the foodplant Stanleya pinnata 
(Pursh.) (Cruciferae) in addition to the previously recorded Isomeris 
arborea Nutt. ( Capparidaceae ) and Brassica nigra (L.) (Cruciferae). 
S. pinnata is widely distributed in Wyoming and B. nigra is found spar- 
ingly. Due to the excellent condition of the specimens and the presence 
of the foodplant, there seems to be no practical reason why a local brood 
should not exist. 

The authors would appreciate hearing about any other records of P. 
beckeri east of the Continental Divide and a description of the terrain in 
which the specimens were captured. The records should help to de- 
termine more accurately the eastern limits of P. beckeri which seem to be 
rather uncertain. 

We wish to thank Mr. F. Martin Brown and Mr. Frank Chermock who 
checked our determination and Dr. Jerry A. Powell, who offered help in 
writing the manuscript. 

Literature Cited 

Brown, F. M., D. Eff, & B. Rotger, 1956. Colorado Butterflies. Pt. IV Pieridae 
and Papilionidae. Proc. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist., 6: 177-236. 

Cross, F. C, 1937. Butterflies of Colorado. Proc. Colorado Mus. Nat. Hist., 16: 
3-28. 

Holland, W. J., The Butterfly Book. Rev. Ed. 1931. Garden City, New York. 

Hovanitz, W., 1962. The distribution of the species of the genus Pieris in North 
America. Jour. Res. Lepid., 1: 73-83. 

Powell, J. A., 1957. A previously unrecorded foodplant for Pieris beckerii. Pan- 
Pacific Ent, 33 (3): 156. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 223 

A MIGRATION OF LIBYTHEANA AND KRICOGONIA IN 
SOUTHERN TEXAS 

Harry K. Clench 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 

During a summer vacation collecting trip in 1963 my family and I 
observed a migration of Libytheana bachmanii larvata (Strecker) and 
Kricogonia ( both castalia ( Fabricius ) and lyside ( Godart ) ) as we 
traveled through southern Texas. 

We first encountered them in the late afternoon of July 4 on the 
western outskirts of Catarina (Dimmit County) and stopped to observe 
and collect. The flight here was sparse, their combined density being 
only about three per minute over a 100-foot front. The Libytheana 
seemed about as numerous as the Kricogonia (presumably both species 
together), but the Kricogonia were flying about two to three feet above 
the level surface of the field, while the Libytheana were only about half 
that. They were all headed approximately north, flying at an estimated 
rate of about eight to ten feet per second. Two Kricogonia were taken 
( 1 # , ' 1 9 , both castalia ) and a single Libytheana. We left at sunset, after 
about one and a half hours, and the flight was still in progress. 

The next morning about 27 miles south of Catarina ( in northern Webb 
County) we again observed the migrants. Shortly after 8:00 A.M. they 
began to fly along with other butterflies, but at first their behavior 
showed no sign of migratory activity, being only conventional random 
movement. About 10:00 A.M. they started to migrate, the flight sparse 
as before, but now directed almost northeast (30° east of magnetic 
north, or about 39° east of true north). We collected: K. lyside (2 9 ), 
L. bachmanii (5). 

As we continued south on U. S. highway 83 the migration increased 
markedly in density. At 27 miles north of Laredo (Webb County) they 
were passing at an estimated combined rate of about 60 per minute on a 
100-foot front, at about the same speed and height above ground as be- 
fore. At 18 miles north of Laredo a single male K. castalia was taken. 

About 12 miles south of Laredo we noticed that the migration had 
become comprised chiefly of Libytheana; and about seven miles west of 
Zapata (Zapata County) signs of migration ceased. 

On the next day, July 6, the whole morning was spent collecting on 
the edge of Falcon Reservoir about eight miles south of Zapata. The 
migrant species were all present ( collected : K. lyside (1 $ ) , K. castalia 
(1 $ ), L. bachmanii (10) ), the Kricogonia few, the Libytheana in large 



224 Clench: Migration of Libijtheana and Kricogonia Vol. 19, no. 4 

numbers. No evidence of migratory activity was seen. Libytheana were 
particularly prevalent on a low, white-flowered, heathlike plant growing 
in large clumps in open areas and could be seen there by the dozen. 

Taking into account the direction of our route and the observed direc- 
tion of the flight one may conclude that the migratory flight was in a 
band about 60 miles wide. Assuming an average density of 10 individuals 
per minute per 100 feet of front, the total rate of passage comes to about 
190,000 per hour or 1.7 million per nine-hour day. 

Curiously, several days later and about a hundred miles to the east — 
specifically on July 10 at the junction of U. S. highway 281 and Texas 
highway 141 (about 14 miles west of Kingsville, in Jim Wells County) — 
we again encountered a heavy migration of Libytheana ( only ) , this time 
heading about due south. Our route took us north on 281 and we quickly 
left the migrants behind, but during the short time we were among 
them the car radiator became completely clogged. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 
NOMENCLATURE 

Notice of proposed use of plenary powers in certain cases (A. (n.s.) 70) 

In accordance with a decision of the 13th International Congress of 
Zoology, 1948, public notice is hereby given of the possible use by the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature of its plenary 
powers in connection with the following case, full details of which will 
be found in Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, Vol. 22, Part 3, pub- 
lished on 13 August 1965. 

( 2 ) Designation of a type-species for Anthanassa Scudder, 1875 ( Insecta, 
Lepidoptera) Z.N.(S.) 1697; 

Any zoologist who wishes to comment on the above case should do 
so in writing, and in duplicate, as soon as possible, and in any case before 
13 February 1966. Each comment should bear the reference number of 
the case in question. Comments received early enough will be published 
in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. Those received too late for 
publication will, if received before 13 February 1966, be brought to the 
attention of the Commission at the time of commencement of voting. 

All communication on the above subject should be addressed as follows: 
The Secretary, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
c/o British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, 
S.W.7, England. w E CmNA 

Assistant Secretary to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 225 



BOOK REVIEW 

BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS, A Guide to the more common American 
species. By Robert T. Mitchell and Herbert S. Zim. Golden Press, New 
York, 1964; 160 pp., with 423 text illustrations in color. Paper, $1.00; 
cloth, $3.95. 

Nearly 400 species of North American Lepidoptera are treated and 
illustrated in this little book, another in the Golden Nature Guide series. 
The illustrations, which are reproduced from paintings by Andre 
Durenceau, are nearly all superb, making this without a doubt the finest 
introductory publication on American butterflies and moths available. 
The authors, Mr. Robert T. Mitchell, a wildlife biologist at the Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, and Dr. Herbert S. Zim, 
supervising editor and co-author of the Golden Nature Guide series, re- 
ceived technical assistance from authorities at the U. S. National Museum, 
including Capps, Clarke, Field, and Todd. 

Some 180 species of butterflies and about 170 species of larger moths 
are treated in addition to a small number of the micros. Illustrations of 
the smaller moths are reproduced from the 1952 Yearbook of Agriculture 
"Insects" and do not approach the excellence of Mr. Durenceau's figures. 
Although the book is intended as an introduction for beginners or persons 
interested in general nature study, the large number of moths and figures 
of larvae and pupae, which are given for many species, together with 
the pocket-sized convenience of the book, will make it attractive to many 
experienced lepidopterists as well. The hard bound version has been 
slightly enlarged photographically to 5" X 7%" and a bit of the excellence 
of the color has been lost from some pages in the process. 

Introductory sections include discussion of classification of Lepidop- 
tera; eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults; techniques of collecting, mounting, 
rearing, etc. The treatment of species follows, in the sequence of the 
McDunnough checklist, with the adult shown in color for each species. 
Often the larva, dimorphic sexes, or underside are also illustrated. The 
common name and a brief discussion of pertinent features of the dis- 
tribution, flight period, and foodplants are included. Indexed lists of 
scientific names (but not authors) and common names terminate the 
volume. A surprising proportion of the fauna is covered, for some groups 
more than one third of the known species (e.g., Papilionidae, Pieridae, 
Lycaenidae, Sphingidae, Satumiidae). 

For nearly two-thirds of those treated, a distribution map of a general- 
ized range of the species in North America is also given. Most of these 
are quite useful since they give a quick, rough idea of the species' geo- 



226 Powell: Book Review Vol. 19, no. 4 

graphical distribution. Some are a little misleading, particularly to 
readers interested in distributions in the western states, usually because 
the ranges are too restricted (e.g., Limenitis lorquini, Lycaena rubidus, 
Philotes sonorensis and battoides, Coloradia pandora, Halisidota macu- 
lata); a few are severely restricted (e.g., Smerinthus cerisyi, Antheraea 
polyphemus, Esligmene acrea, Alsophila pometaria, Paleacrita vernata). 

In general all aspects of the treatment appear to be quite accurate. 
One inexcusable point is the mention of the "suborders" Jugatae, Frena- 
tae, and Rhopalocera, thus perpetuating for beginning students the old 
classification which has not been used by serious lepidopterists in 20 
years. One species may be figured under the wrong name. A moth which 
appears to be Hemileuca (Pseudohazis) washingtonensis Medlar is 
shown in an excellent figure but called P. eglanterina. Its distribution 
map appears to fit the latter species or a combination of the two if they 
were considered subspecies. In general, subspecies are not treated in the 
book. In the list of scientific names an annoying number of misspellings 
occur in the butterflies (e.g., Papilio machaon aliaska, P. eurymedom, 
Appias drusilla neumoezenii, Speyeria nevandensis, Limenitis tveide- 
meyrii, Incisallia ) . The moth names include very few errors ( e.g., Auto- 
maris, Pseudaletia unipunctata) . 

The editors of the Golden Press and the authors are to be congratulated 
on having produced an introductory book on butterflies and moths with 
accurate illustrations, at a price appropriate to the audience. Publica- 
tions of this nature have long been available in many parts of the world, 
such as in Japan, but nothing comparable to the Golden Nature Guide 
Butterflies and Moths has been available for recommending to the be- 
ginning student in North America. 

Jerry A. Powell, University of California, Berkeley. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 227 



THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY AND MIMICRY 
P. M. Sheppard 

Department of Genetics, University of Liverpool 

The theory of mimicry and the theory of warning coloration seem to 
generate more illogical reasoning and more ill-conceived and ill-executed 
experiments than any other evolutionary subject. Bruce Petersen in a 
recent issue of this Journal ( 1964 ) has not only given an uncritical account 
of Urquhart's arguments against the theories of mimicry and warning 
coloration, but has given also an account of an experiment which because 
of its design adds no light to the situation. 

Before considering the experiment reported by Petersen it is necessary 
to consider the validity of a number of the objections to the theory of mim- 
icry as presented in his paper. No one could take exception to the comment 
that some resemblance between model and mimic has to appear before the 
mimicry can be improved — this is part of the standard theory of mimicry 
(Carpenter & Ford, 1933: 161-168; Sheppard, 1960). Nor can one object 
to the statement that the food habits of captive animals may be suspect. 
However, there is grave objection to the statement that stomach analysis 
of wild animals is the best evidence of their food perference. This unsup- 
ported statement presupposes that the remains of all animals are equally 
likely to be detectable in the stomach. In fact observation of predators 
in the wild is far better evidence as is shown by the work of Kettlewell 
(1956) and of Tinbergen (1960) to mention only two workers in the 
field. Also the statement that no butterfly predator has been suggested 
as the evolutionary force responsible for mimicry is untrue, both birds 
and lizards have been so considered. 

One of the most amazing arguments against mimicry which Petersen 
uses is: "Birds frequently eat caterpillars (which show no mimicry) and 
rarely eat butterflies (which supposedly mimic each other frequently). 
If natural selection were responsible for mimicry one would expect to find 
it in caterpillars — not butterflies." It is perfectly true that birds frequently 
eat some kinds of caterpillars, one cannot just say "eat caterpillars" — it de- 
pends which caterpillars they are (for example they do not readily eat the 
larvae of Pseudosphinx tetrio (L.) or Hipocrita jacobaeae (L.), and more 
rarely eat butterflies. But the argument that if natural selection were re- 
sponsible for mimicry one would expect to find it in caterpillars not butter- 
flies is a nonsequitur. Birds are known frequently to eat moths, but you don't 
find mimicry here either except in some day flying ones. One would only 
expect mimicry to evolve in species which by their daytime activities 
are already fairly conspicuous. One would not expect it to evolve in 



228 Sheppard: Monarch Butterfly Vol. 19, no. 4 

animals which are highly cryptic and can remain almost motionless during 
the day. The statement that mimicry has not been found in caterpillars 
is completely unsubstantiated by him. However, most of the known cases of 
larval mimicry (except perhaps the snake mimics) are probably Miillerian, 
not Batesian. Since they can remain still during the day, most edible cat- 
erpillars are highly cryptic, it being a more effective mode of protection 
for them then Batesian mimicry would be. In fact mimicry theory predicts 
that Batesian mimicry will be very rare among animals which are chiefly 
nocturnal such as moths and caterpillars. This is supported by the obser- 
vation that both warning coloration and mimicry are not uncommon in 
day flying moths but both are rare in night flying ones, mimicry being 
excessively so. 

The statement that "even very distasteful creatures are better off to be 
inconspicuous than to be brightly coloured" is just false and has been 
shown to be so on many occasions. For a recent example see Sheppard 
(1964). Also the fact that 50 people did not find the monarch butterfly ob- 
jectionable is no argument against the theory of warning coloration or mim- 
icry since man has never been postulated to be the predator responsible for 
this mimicry. The scarlet tiger moth Panaxia dominula (L.) is not unpa- 
latable to the many people who have tried it, but is one of the most dis- 
tasteful British moths to many of its natural predators, as is shown not 
only by experiments with captive animals (Rothschild, 1961a, 1961b, 
Rothschild & Lane, 1960), but also by experiments on wild birds in a 
garden ( Sheppard, 1964 ) . The statement that "only in Dr. Brower's work 
is there any indication that birds dislike monarch butterflies," is untrue 
(see Jones, 1932, 1934). 

Again the objection that birds are almost never seen feeding on mon- 
arch butterflies is not a valid one. Birds are almost never seen feeding on 
the peppered moth Biston betularia (L.) and yet predation by birds has 
been shown to be responsible for the development of industrial melanism, 
and often acts at the rate of up to 15 to 50% of them being taken per day 
( Kettlewell, 1956 ) . The fact that monarchs marked for migration experi- 
ments have been eaten in large numbers apparently because their appear- 
ance has been altered (Urquhart, 1957) is in complete accord with the 
theory of mimicry. One might expect an alteration of the wing pattern 
to cause the individual to be attacked; in fact the statement indicates 
that butterflies can often be attacked by birds. 

If one accepts the suggestion that the tagged monarchs were eaten 
because their appearance had been altered and that the normal pattern 
does not elicit a feeding response, then the requirements for the evolu- 
tion of mimicry are satisfied, regardless of whether the model is distaste- 
ful or not. Clearly it would be an advantage to the viceroy to be mistaken 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 229 

for any animal that isn't eaten; this would be true mimicry. However, there 
is no evidence contrary to the view that the reason for the tagged mon- 
archs being eaten is that they were no longer recognized as distasteful 
models. 

Mimicry theory does not fail "to explain why the banded purple doesn't 
mimic the monarch, as it is the same genus as the viceroy." If mimicry is 
effective one would expect it to mimic some other model and be much 
less likely to mimic that utilized by its close relative, since the advantage 
of mimicry wanes as mimetic pattern becomes commoner. In fact a closely 
related species 1 to the banded purple, the red spotted purple Limenitis 
astyanax (Fabr. ), is a mimic, not of the monarch, but of the pipe vine 
swallowtail Battus philenor (L. ). 

The experiments reported by Petersen are no more informative or valid 
than his theoretical arguments. The experiments do not seem to have been 
designed at all. There is absolutely no control, nor apparently has any 
record been taken of which birds took what. It would have been perfectly 
possible for the monarch to have been lethal to every bird that ate it, 
and still the results given in the graph could be true ones. To show that 
the monarch is or is not distasteful requires a much more subtle experi- 
ment. To begin with distatefulness is only relative, so that one has to 
have some comparison — the best comparison of course would be butter- 
flies of about the same size, but with a different wing pattern, which are 
believed for other reasons to be edible. The fact that the wings were cut 
off so that the insects were not recognizable as models, they in fact were 
mimicking "elongated, jumping, black spiders with tetany," would mean 
that the birds might not learn to avoid them at all, if they were normally 
feeding on black spiders. 2 This would be in accord with the theory of 
mimicry. Winged and wingless monarchs were not given on alternate days 
or days picked at random, nor do we know how many birds were feeding 
on them. The data on the winged individuals is certainly far too scanty 
for one to determine whether any of the birds were gradually learning 
to avoid them. The only thing the experiment does do is to show that 
Urquhart's contention that the monarch does not elicit a feeding response 
is untrue since a proportion of the winged ones given in December were 
apparently eaten, although the data do not show how many of the ones not 
eaten were pecked at then rejected. Nor is the data as presented (graph 1) 
in agreement with the statement "the last one to be eaten had been lying 
dead on the patio for four days. A day-by-day tabulation of the butterflies 



1 The present author does not agree with the treatment of L. astyanax as a separate species in 
the recent dos Passos List and believes that all evidence indicates astyanax and arthemis are 
subspecies. 

2 See also: Parsons, J. A., 1965. A digitalis like toxin in The Monarch, Danans plexippus. 
Jour. Physiol., 178: 290-304. 



230 Sheppard: Monarch Butterfly Vol. 19, no. 4 



is presented in graph 1"! The last seven to be eaten appear to have been 
put out and eaten on the 2nd of January. 

Incidentally, the implied idea that the results from birds feeding at 
a feeding station, where they were used to finding quantities of food, is 
somehow more natural and therefore more valid than Dr. Brower's experi- 
ments is highly questionable. So also is the statement that the birds 
"could have lived off a bounteous Iowa summer, or the food in the bird 
feeders." The idea that when birds are raising nestlings there is always 
an abundance of food is refuted by a great deal of ecological work, 
(for example see Lack, 1954). 

Both the objections to the theory of mimicry and warning coloration 
and the experiments presented by Petersen (1964) are not of the sort 
which would allow one to arrive at a competent conclusion on the validity 
of the theories. 

Literature Cited 

Carpenter, G. D. H., & E. B. Ford, 1933. "Mimicry." Methuen, London. 

Jones, F. M., 1932. Insect coloration and the relative acceptability of insects to 

birds. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 70: 345-385. 
1934. Further experiments on coloration and relative acceptability of insects to 

birds. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond., 72: 443-453. 
Kettlewell, H. B. D., 1956. Further selection experiments on industrial melanism 

in the Lepidoptera. Heredity, 10: 287-301. 
Lack, D., 1954. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Clarendon Press, Ox- 
ford. 
Petersen, B., 1964. Monarch butterflies are eaten by birds. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 18: 

165-169. 
Rothschild, M., 1961a. Defensive odours and Mullerian mimicry among insects. 

Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond., 113: 101-121. 
1961b. Insect Polymorphism. Symp. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1: 328. 
Rothschild M., & C. Lane, 1960. Warning and alarm signals by birds seizing 

aposematic insects. Ibis., 102: 328-330. 
Sheppard, P. M., 1960. Natural Selection and Heredity. Harper Torchbooks, New 

York. 
1964. Protective coloration in some British moths. Entomologist, 97: 209-216. 
Tjnhercen, L., 1960. The dynamics of insects and bird populations in pine woods. 

Arch, neerl. Zool, 13: 259-473. 
Urquhart, F. A., 1957. A discussion of Batesian Mimicry as applied to the Monarch 

and Viceroy Butterflies (p. 27). Univ. Toronto Press. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 231 

SOME BUTTERFLIES OF THE PINOS ALTOS MOUNTAINS, 

NEW MEXICO 

John P. Hubbard 

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 

The Pinos Altos Mountains lie just north of Silver City in Grant County, 
New Mexico. This range is of rather small extent and has maximum 
elevations of just over 9,000 feet. On north-facing slopes at higher eleva- 
tions there are forests of Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga taxifolia ) , limber pine 
(Pinus flexilis), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) , New Mexico 
locust (Robinia neo-mexicana) , and mountain maple (Acer glabrum). 
A more xeric forest is also present and is composed mainly of ponderosa 
pine ( Pinus ponderosa ) and Gambel oak ( Quercus gambelii ) . Evergreen 
woodland occurs at lower elevations and consists mainly of pinyon ( Pinus 
edulis), junipers (Juniperus deppeana and /. monosperma) , and live oaks 
(Quercus hypoleucoides, Q. emoryi, and Q. grisea and/or arizonica). 
Chaparral is composed of such plants as mountain mahogany ( Cercocar- 
pus sp.), squawbush (Rhus trilobata), buckbrush (Ceanothus greggii), 
silk tassel (Garrya sp.), manzanita ( Arctostaphylos sp.), bear grass 
(Nolina microcarpa), and scrub oak (Quercus turbinella) . Streamside 
vegetation of middle and lower elevations in these mountains is domi- 
nated by Arizona alder (Alnus oblongifolia), narrow-leaved cottonwood 
( Populus angustifolia ) , box elder ( Acer negundo ) , Arizona walnut ( Jug- 
lans major), and willows (Salix spp.). 

Collecting was done in this area in the years 1957 through 1959 and 
was concentrated in the canyon of Cherry Creek. All of the previously 
mentioned habitats are present in some degree in or near this canyon. 
No species of butterflies which were found elsewhere in this range were 
absent from this particular site, although several which occurred here 
were not found elsewhere. 

In the following list, species are grouped on the basis of their abun- 
dance in suitable habitat and at the proper season. Doubtless some 
species were under-collected and with further study would be found to 
be more common. All species records listed here are based on collected 
specimens with the exception of the Monarch (Danaus plexippus), and 
include only true butterflies (a short list of skippers will be presented at 
a later date). I wish to thank Messrs. L. P. Grey, Fred Thorne, and Ray- 
mond Jae for their help in the identification of certain species. 

I. Common to abundant. 

Papilio multicaudata Kirby Celastrina argiolas ( Linnaeus ) 

Eurema mexicana ( Boisduval ) Phyciodes mylitta ( Edwards ) 

Strymon melinus Hiibner Melitaea minuta Edwards 

Callophrys apama (Edwards) Speyeria atlantis nausicaa (Edwards) 



232 



Hubbard: Butterflies of Pinos Altos Mountains Vol. 19, no. 4 



II. Uncommon to fairly common. 
Battus philenor ( Linnaeus ) 
Papilio rutulus Lucas 
Neophasia menapia (Felder & Felder) 
Pieris sisymbrii Boisduval 
P. protodice Boisduval & LeConte 
Colias eunjtheme Boisduval 
C. cesonia (Stoll) 
Phoebis sennae ( Linnaeus ) 
Eurema nicippe ( Cramer ) 
Nathalis iole Boisduval 
Limenitis bredowii (Geyer) 
Nymphalis calif omica (Boisduval) 
N. antiopa (Linnaeus) 
Polygonia zephyrus ( Edwards ) 
Chlosyne lacinia ( Geyer ) 
Phyciodes texana ( Edwards ) 

III. Rare. 

Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll 

P. Pbairdii Edwards 

Colias philodice Godart 

Strymon leda (Edwards) 

Hemiargus isola (Reakirt) 

Everes comyntas ( Godart ) 

Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Doubleday) 



Anthocaris sara Lucas 

Apodemia nais ( Edwards ) 

Hypaurotis crysalus ( Edwards ) 

Mitoura siva ( Edwards ) 

Erora quaderna (Hewitson) 

Leptotes marina ( Reakirt ) 

Plebejus acmon (Westwood & Hewitson) 

Libytheana bachmanii (Kirtland) 

Limenitis astyanax ( Fabricius ) 

L. weidemeyerii Edwards 

Euptoieta claudia ( Cramer ) 

Danaus gilippus ( Cramer ) 

Euptychia dorothea ( Nabokov ) 

E. rubricata Edwards 

Gyrocheilus patrobas ( Hewitson ) 



Vanessa atalanta ( Linnaeus ) 
V. virginiensis (Drury) 
V. cardui (Linnaeus) 
Melitaea fulvia Edwards 
Agraulis vanillae ( Linnaeus ) 
Danaus plexippus ( Linnaeus ) 



Such species as Cercyonis sthenele (Boisduval), Pieris napi (Linnaeus), 
and Colias alexandra Edwards were not found in this mountain range 
during the course of this study, although they are common in the nearby 
Mogollon Mountains. Their absence may be correlated with the fact that 
the Mogollons are higher, more extensive, and more mesic than the Pinos 
Altos Mountains. 

In summary, 52 species of butterflies of the superfamily Papilionoidea 
were recorded in the low, forested Pinos Altos Mountains in southwestern 
New Mexico in three years of collecting. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 233 

ADDITIONAL NOTES ON REARING AND PRESERVING 
LARVAE OF MACROLEPIDOPTERA 

Noel McFarland 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide, S. Australia 

Since my earlier paper on this topic was published in this Journal ( Vol. 
18, no. 4: pp. 201-210), a number of miscellaneous details have accumu- 
lated and are brought together here under the appropriate headings. This 
paper is intended as a supplement to the earlier paper. 

Rearing 

Feeding confined adult Lepidoptera while awaiting oviposition: Mr. 
H. Simmonds an entomologist in Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji, has developed a 
very useful, long-lasting medium (Honey-Agar) which is prepared as 
follows: (1) Dissolve 6-8 grams of agar-agar in 200 cc of water. (2) 
Add 250 to 320 cc of honey, and bring to a boil. (3) Pour out into a 
shallow plastic box or petri dish, and let cool. Store in refrigerator. 

Use small pieces of honey-agar as needed for feeding confined Lepidop- 
tera. A small amount of water may be placed on the piece to liquify its 
surface slightly, if this appears to be necessary. This substance may then 
be placed in the cage or jar with the confined insect, where it will serve 
as a food supply for many days. A small amount of water should be 
provided in another container nearby, but must be kept in such a way 
that the insect cannot fall into it or get its wings wet. Mr. B. O'Conner, 
Principal Entomologist at Koronivia Research Station, Nausori, Viti Levu, 
Fiji, told me that a slight modification of the above mixture, using 8 
grams of agar-agar in 50 cc of water, with 300 cc of honey, seems to be 
more mould-resistent. In any event, the honey-agar method (or modifi- 
cations of it) has obvious advantages over any method that requires 
the use of a wet or sticky solution needing to be frequently replaced. 
Difficulties with mould are also minimized. 

Keeping newly hatched larvae alive until a suitable foodplant is lo- 
cated: Mr. N. B. Tindale of the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, 
informs me that the following technique will save many small larvae for 
an additional few days, which may make all the difference in getting 
them started, when it is not possible to locate the foodplant immediately. 
Place a piece of cut apple in a small box with the newly hatched larvae. 
Recut a thin slice off the cut surface each day, so that the surface con- 
tinues to give off moisture. This slows down desiccation of the small 
larvae, and at the same time, they will often nibble at the cut surface of 
the apple, thus obtaining some nourishment. 

Larvae requiring sunlight for stimulation of feeding should be provided 



234 McFarland: More on rearing Vol. 19, no. 4 

with it every day if possible; electric light is only a second choice, and 
will not produce such good results (in as short a time) as will a little 
daily sunlight. However, if electric light must be resorted to, be certain 
not to use the "cool white" (daylight) fluorescent tubes. "Warm white" 
fluorescent tubes are very satisfactory, however. Incandescent bulbs 
are also satisfactory, but one must beware of overheating the larvae if 
they are employed. 

Pupae in diapause: Certain fall or winter-emerging moths need exposure 
to gradually lowering temperatures prior to emergence. This is just the 
reverse requirement of those emerging in spring or summer, but again, 
outdoor conditions are definitely preferable to any artificially produced 
conditions indoors, particularly about the time of emergence. 

Most pupae in diapause come through to emergence time in excellent 
condition if kept in empty (no soil, sand, or moss), clean, glass jars of 
small size, with tight-fitting lids without holes. Cheesecloth strips may 
be provided for any unexpected emergences. 

Preserving 

Further details on the preserving technique: It is well to have a 
separate jar for the killing-jar (into which the larva is first dropped), 
as the solution in it will rapidly become too cloudy for use in preservation, 
yet it will serve indefinitely for killing. This procedure will save pre- 
serving fluid to an appreciable extent. 

After the larva has been injected and replaced in the preservation-jar 
containing the solution, it should lie on its side until such time as it is 
to be removed to 95% ethyl alcohol for "clean-up" and permanent storage. 

Exceptions to the general rule of injecting larvae should be observed 
for all lycaenid larvae, and also for most geometrid larvae of small to 
medium size. Such larvae are simply killed and left in the preserving 
solution without being injected, and then are removed to 95% ethyl alcohol 
after sufficient time in the preserving solution. 

Larvae feeding on Quercus (any oaks) or certain leguminous plants 
sometimes need to be starved for a day to give best results in preservation. 
Otherwise, internal discoloration (darkening) may occur even after in- 
jection. This is not usually the case, but it happens often enough to 
warrant mention. These remarks also apply to many skipper larvae. 

Preservation of eggs: As the inner tissues of eggs pull away from the 
outer covering, in most solutions, Peterson (1960: Florida Entomologist, 
43 (1): 1-7), recommends the use of "a standard K.A.A. mixture diluted 
four or five times with ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. A standard K.A.A. 
mixture consists of 1 part commercial kerosene, 2 parts acetic acid, and 
10 parts ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. For many eggs, isopropyl alcohol in 
the K.A.A. solution produces the most satisfactory results." But, as Peter- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 235 

son states, bright colors, waxy coatings, and other surface characteristics 
of some eggs are apt to change upon standing in liquid preservatives. 

The eggs can be stored in vials of 95% ethyl alcohol, once they have 
gone through a preservation solution, but changes may occur in some 
eggs; others will remain in rather good condition, and still others may show 
external or internal features that are not so readily seen in the living 
eggs. If possible, it is worthwhile to either photograph, draw, or describe 
the eggs several days before the day they hatch. At the same time, note 
color changes as the eggs age. 

Preserving solution: As dioxane is highly toxic, it is advisable to use 
a preserving solution which omits it, or which contains only a very small 
amount of it (such as K.A.A.D.I. ). J. S. Buckett, of Davis, California 
recently produced a preserving solution that totally omits dioxane, but 
gives excellent results which are comparable to K.A.A.D.I., or perhaps 
even better. This solution ("K.A.S.A.") is as follows: 

Kerosene (as obtained at service stations) — 3 parts ± 

95% Ethyl Alcohol— 9 parts 

sec— butyl Alcohol, CH 3 CH 2 CH(OH) CH 3 — 5 parts ± (enough to 
"clear" the solution and make the kerosene miscible ) 

Glacial Acetic Acid — 2 parts 

In K.A.S.A., and in the other solutions given in the previous paper, the 
sec-butyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol ( ( CH 3 ) 2 CHCH 2 OH ) , or dioxane 
(depending upon the solution) must be varied slightly in quantity, its 
function being to "clear" the solution so that it is water-clear and no 
kerosene is on top. For example, if exactly five parts of sec-butyl alcohol 
do not totally clear the solution of K.A.S.A., keep adding small additional 
amounts (and stirring) until it becomes clear. All of these solutions 
should be used only under conditions of adequate ventilation. Contact 
with the skin by solutions should be avoided as much as possible. 

Briefly, the functions of the components of the various preserving solu- 
tions are as follows: the kerosene causes inflation of the specimens. The 
dioxane (or, the iso-butyl or sec-butyl alcohol) makes the kerosene 
miscible in the rest of the solution, and so must be increased or decreased 
along with variation in the amount of kerosene used. The acetic acid 
helps prevent internal darkening or discoloration of specimens. In stan- 
dard K.A.A.D., the amount of alcohol used can vary between 7-10 parts, 
and the dioxane can be replaced with sec-butyl or iso-butyl alcohol, but 
more than one part is needed when using one of these substitutes. 
K.A.S.A. appears to be the best of the solutions I have used so far, and 
it is easily prepared; also, it has the additional good feature that it con- 
tains no dioxane. 

All of these solutions seem to work better when slightly dilute with 
larval fluids (i.e., when light yellow-green in color); the fresh solution 



236 McFarland: More on rearing Vol. 19, no. 4 

used to replace old solution in the preservation-jar is often improved by 
adding to it a small amount of the old solution. Fats and oils that float 
on top of used solution are easily blotted up with a rolled piece of Kleenex 
or paper towel, and this should be done periodically. 

Injection of pupae is usually a simple procedure but the following points 
should be kept in mind: Pupae should never be injected and preserved 
until they are at least several days old, and are thoroughly hardened. 
Injection should be in the abdominal region, between the segments, and 
it is sometimes desirable to inject through several different places in one 
pupa; this is particularly necessary with nymphalid pupae, which will 
often turn pinkish or red if not sufficiently injected with preservative. 
In the case of very soft pupae, or those in which the wing cases tend to 
break away somewhat after injection ( some lycaenids and small geomet- 
rids, etc. ) , one light injection in the abdominal region is ample, and they 
should not be left more than a few hours in the preservative before being 
removed to 95% ethyl alcohol; in some cases, a few minutes is sufficient 
time in the preservative. If the wing cases collapse in a soft pupa, the 
pupa should be injected again upon removal from the preservation-jar, 
this time using 95% ethyl alcohol; then place it in 95% ethyl alcohol for 
permanent storage (after a period of soaking in the "clean-up jar," as 
described in the earlier paper). 

Stoppers and vials: The size-numbering system for neoprene stoppers 
is not the same as that used for standard cork stoppers. The following 
sizes of neoprene stoppers fit the sizes of vials given in parentheses: No. 
00 stopper (1 and 2 dram homeopathic vials); No. 1 (4, 6, and 8 dram 
homeopathic vials); No. 3 (6 dram shell vial); No. 4(8 dram shell vial). 
The stoppers should fit tightly, needing to be twisted in while letting out 
the trapped air with a bent insect pin. Neoprene stoppers come in vari- 
ous colors, including gray. 

Both the "long form" and the "short form" of the eight dram homeo- 
pathic vial are useful; although the former is difficult to obtain, it is just 
right for storing many sphingid larvae or other long larvae that will not 
quite fit into the usual (short form) eight dram vial. For very large 
larvae, it is necessary to use olive bottles or similar containers. To save 
metal screw-caps, thin sheet polyethylene can be placed over the bottle 
top before screwing on the cap. 

The various flexible plastic "push-in" or "snap-on" caps for vials are not 
as satisfactory as neoprene stoppers in the prevention of evaporation over 
long periods. Furthermore, neoprene stoppers will not harden in the way 
that some plastic caps will, and the neoprene stoppers can always be 
forced back in tightly after removal from vials. It is possible to write 
directly on neoprene stoppers, using permanent ink, which is a con- 
venience. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 237 

DESCRIPTION AND HABITS OF LARVAE OF 
ANNAPHILA PSEUDOASTROLOGA (NOCTUIDAE) 

William H. Evans 
5130 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

The following descriptions are based on 60 larvae reared from ova 
laid by three females collected during March, 1953, and March and April, 
1955, in La Tuna Canyon, Verdugo Mountains, Los Angeles County, 
California. 

Although the manuscript was completed in 1957, it seemed advisable to 
postpone submitting it until after Frank Sala had published information 
about his discovery, a few years earlier, of the habits of two closely re- 
lated species of Annaphila, one of which was astrologa B. & McD. These 
two species fed on different plant species growing in the same area of 
the Santa Monica Mountains, Los Angeles County, California. In his 
revision of the astrologa group, Mr. Sala ( 1964 ) has clarified the status 
of the several species involved. The species which I reared matches the 
description of the newly described pseudoastrologa Sala. 

In confinement, females of A. pseudoastrologa oviposited only on leaves 
of Phacelia minor (Harvey) Macbr., although several other species of 
native annual plants were also offered them. 

Newly hatched larvae fed readily on leaves, flowers, and unopened 
buds; a few entered buds, through holes chewed in the corollas, and 
remained hidden inside; while others fed externally on the buds. There 
is no variation in the actual pigmentation of various individual larvae in 
the first and second instars; however, because of their translucency, some 
appear to be greenish and others of a purplish tint, depending on whether 
they have eaten leaves or blossoms. After the second molt, the larvae 
acquire the pattern and coloring which is maintained throughout the 
third, fourth, and fifth instars with only slight changes in shade and 
maculation. In these last three instars larvae are extremely variable, 
hardly any two individuals being alike. 

Second Instar: Length 7 mm. Body translucent, cream-colored with fine white 
middorsal and subdorsal lines extending entire length. As in first, third, and fourth 
instars, the first two pairs of prolegs are smaller than others. 

Third Instar: Length 11 mm. Pattern and coloring same as in following instar. 

Fourth Instar: 

Larva no. 1. Length 20 mm. Narrow white middorsal and subdorsal lines ex- 
tending entire length of body, consisting of numerous minute specks of varying sizes 
and shapes, some confluent, others not quite touching each other; these specks never 
confluent for more than one-third the length of a segment. Ground color gray-green, 
cervical shield lighter. Thoracic segments entirely overlaid with deep purplish pink. 
Abdominal segments deep-purplish-pink except slightly less than one-third of the 



238 Evans: Annaphila larvae Vol. 19, no. 4 



posterior and anterior portion of each segment. A broad white subspiracular line, 
interrupted on the central one-third of each abdominal segment by a pink area, 
extending from the anterior one-third of abdominal segment I to the anterior one- 
third of abdominal segment VIII. Ventral surface and prolegs light green. Head 
light green, speckled with numerous tiny gray and brown dots; setae white. Spiracles 
with black centers encircled with white. Prominent white thoracic and abdominal 
setae arise from slightly raised white tubercles with black centers. 

Larva no 2. Yellow-green ground color. Area between subdorsal line and 
spiracles dark gray-green. A trace of pale pink surrounding each spiracle. Broad 
greenish-yellow subspiracular line extending from anterior of second thoracic segment 
to posterior of abdominal segment VIII; lower edge of line very irregular. Numerous 
greenish-yellow specks on bases, of prolegs and on ventral surface of body. Prolegs 
on abdominal segment IV slightly smaller than those of segments V and VI; prolegs 
on segment III slightly smaller than those of segment IV. 

Fifth Instar: Length 29 mm. All prolegs are same size. 

Larva no. 1. Markings and coloring same as previous instar. 

Larva no. 2. Ground color light green changing to brownish-green during latter 
part of instar; body densely speckled with small yellow-green flecks and blotches 
except in middorsal and suprastigmatal areas. The latter unspeckled area is 1.5 mm 
broad; middorsal unspeckled area is 0.5 mm wide. Thoracic segments with an in- 
distinct middorsal line consisting of a few disconnected yellow specks. From anterior 
edge of first abdominal segment to rear edge of seventh abdominal segment extends 
a broad irregular subspiracular band of yellow-green broken into a pattern of dis- 
connected blotches on the central one-third of each segment. Area around each 
spiracle tinged pink. 

Larva no. 3. Ground color dark yellow-green, speckled with light yellow-green. 
Deep purplish-pink stigmatal stripe approximately 1 mm wide extends from first 
thoracic segment to rear of spiracle on abdominal segment VIII. Spiracles set on 
lower edge of this stripe. More purplish-pink areas at bases of legs and prolegs, and 
in similar locations on abdominal segments I, II, and VII. Fine middorsal line of 
interrupted irregular yellowish-green specks (some confluent) extending as far as 
the rear of abdominal segment VIII, bordered by an irregular intermittent narrow 
strip of gray-green. Small white tubercles from which setae arise less conspicuous, 
not raised quite so much, as in previous instar. Head gray-green with numerous 
brown and black specks. 

Larva no. 4. The rear margin of each abdominal segment from number I through 
VI deep yellow, shading to reddish in middorsal area; these yellow bands not ex- 
tending beyond upper margin of the purplish suprastigmatal line. Ground color 
varying from light brown with green tinge to purplish-brown (the latter shade form- 
ing a middorsal band which is almost 1 mm wide). Green subspiracular line irregu- 
lar and rather obscure. Yellow-green specks on rest of body arranged similarly to 
those of larva No. 3. 

Larva no. 5. Entire body deep purplish-pink speckled lightly with a few minute 
gray flecks. Broad dark yellow substigmatal line broken into a series of dashes by 
dark pink area on central one-third of each segment, extending from pink area on 
center of second thoracic segment to pink area on center of abdominal segment VII. 

Larvae form cocoons on rocks, hard clods of soil, chips of wood, pieces 
of bark, or dead woody stems. Fragments of wood are chewed off and 
fastened together to form very hard thin-walled cocoons. The hollows 
chewed out of the wood serve as the bases of the well camouflaged co- 
coons. When no woody material is available, larvae attach cocoons of 
soil particles to clods or rocks. Pupation occurs in late May; adults emerge 
the following spring. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 239 

A small series of my reared adults has been placed in the collection of 
the United States National Museum. A few preserved larvae are in the 
Yale University collection. 

Literature Cited 
Sala, F. P., 1964. The Annaphila astrologa Complex. Jour. Res. Lepid., 2 ( 4 ) : 
289-301 ["1963"]. 



THE BEGINNING OF THE BUTTERFLY SEASON 
Harry K. Clench 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Work on another problem has yielded a by-product that may have some 
interest for collectors, particularly those who may be planning trips to 
areas with which they are not familiar. This by-product is a rough means 
of estimating the beginning of the "butterfly season" in any given place. 

The estimate depends heavily on two hypotheses. The first is that 
the yearly course of the mean temperature in a locality can be approxi- 
mated closely by a simple sine function: 

R 

T d = T c + —(l- cosA) 

T d = mean temperature for day d, counted from January 1; T c = mean 
temperature of coldest month (usually January in the northern hemi- 
sphere ) ; T H = mean temperature of hottest month ( usually July in the 
northern hemisphere); R = T H -T C ; and A =(72/73) (d-b). In the 
last, b is the seasonal lag and normally is around 13.5. 

The second hypothesis is less well documented: that there exists a 
temperature threshold above which butterflies fly, below which they do 
not; and which also functions as a limiting value for geographical oc- 
currence. As applied here, the threshold refers to mean temperatures 
and its value has been determined to be about 43° F. (6.1° C.). In 
confirmation of the hypothesis it can be observed that in localities where 
T H is below this value, virtually no butterflies occur; and in areas where 
T c is above this value, at least some butterflies fly through the winter. 
Furthermore, in several places where accurate data on butterflies are 
available the time of the year when the mean temperature, on the aver- 
age, reaches this value about marks the average time of appearance of 
the first butterflies ( overwintering hibernators ) . 



240 



Clench: Butterfly season 



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1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 241 

From the above formula it is not difficult to obtain the following re- 
lation, substituting X (the threshold value, unspecified) for T d and 
solving for d: 



• l no„ 73 ■ i IX + R-Tj 

starting date — 13.5 + — sirr 1 *!- 



36 \ R 



which gives the starting date (the date that the mean temperature 
reaches the threshold value X) as the number of days from the first of 
January. 

Using a value of 43° F. for the threshold gives a date rather ahead of 
the time most collectors would consider significant since it indicates the 
time when the first hibernators appear. By taking a higher threshold 
value, 50° F. (10° C), one obtains a date more nearly that when the 
first butterflies appear that have emerged from overwintered pupae. In 
the table both of these dates are given. 

In order to use the table, one needs only the values of T c and T H for 
the locality in question (usually respectively mean January and mean 
July values). From them obtain R and enter the table with R and T H , 
interpolating as necessary. The values of T H given in the table are the 
defining boundary values of the Merriam Life Zones, which are added 
along the side. If the area for which one seeks information has no tem- 
perature data directly available for it, obtain the data for the nearest 
station in about the same latitude, get the difference in elevation between 
that station and the area of interest and adjust the values of that station 
by a lapse rate of 1° F. per 300 feet (1° C. per 166 meters) of elevation 
difference. Since both T c and T H lapse at about the same rate, no change 
in R is needed. Instead of the table, of course, the formula may be used 
for a direct computation. 

These points should be kept in mind in using either table or formula: 
( 1 ) the premise is solely for a thermally controlled flight season. Where 
the flight season is more under control of pluvial conditions, it does not 
pretend to apply. (2) The premise is solely for average conditions. In 
putting it to practical use, any information available on the advancement 
or retardation of the particular season should be taken into account. ( 3 ) 
Error in the dates given in the table or calculated directly is likely to be 
most extreme in areas approaching the threshold values for either T H or 
T c . ( 4 ) For areas where the seasonal lag is markedly more or less than 
13.5, the difference should be added to or subtracted from the date ob- 
tained. Seasonal lag is a very difficult datum to get, but departure from 
the given lag value is rarely significantly great except ( so far as I know ) 
in the immediate vicinity of the Pacific Coast of North America. (5) Pre- 
sumably, d should be counted from July 1 in the southern hemisphere. 



242 Hensel: Collecting in Labrador Vol. 19, no. 4 

TWO WEEKS OF BUTTERFLY HUNTING IN 
CENTRAL LABRADOR 

Henry Hensel 

145 Bellevue Street, Edmundston, N.B. Canada 

On July 5, 1964, I left for Schefferville, Quebec, in quest of arctic 
butterflies. The modern community of Schefferville is located nearly in 
the center of the huge Labrador Peninsula. It can be reached by train, 
which winds 360 miles from Seven Islands to the well-developed iron- 
mining center in the Province of Quebec. Because of the thorough report 
given by Eugene Munroe ( 1951 ) , who collected in northern Quebec for 
six weeks in 1948, I was able to determine the best time for my trip and 
had a good idea of what to expect. 

The morning of July 8, my first day, was somewhat cloudy and cool. 
At noon it cleared up and was sunny for the rest of the day. I decided 
to search for Boloria polaris groenlandica Skinner on a mountain ridge 
that afternoon and found fresh males there in considerable numbers at 
about 2,600 feet. Next day again I only encountered males, but on July 
11, a hot day already in the morning, the first females appeared. The 
polaris flew only a few inches above the ground, mostly against the strong 
wind, as reported by Dr. Munroe. They were quite hard to catch, one 
being unable to keep sight of them while they were in flight. 

On July 10, I collected in a black spruce bog and an adjacent boggy 
meadow, at the outskirts of the town. There, besides Oeneis jutta 
ridingiana Chermock & Chermock, five species of Boloria were taken 
flying in the boggy meadow: Boloria selene atrocostalis Huard, toddi 
toddi Holland, frigga saga Staudinger, titania boisduvalii Duponchel, and 
eunomia trichris Huebner. The eunomia were by far the commonest. 
The toddi were all extremely dark suffused, even in the females which 
are of the same size as the males, or smaller. Many toddi and frigga ap- 
peared somewhat worn, indicating that these two species hatch in the 
first days of July. 

From Schefferville a 15 mile dirt road through tundra forest leads to 
Lake Attikamagan in the Province of Newfoundland. There on July 15, 
I collected Boloria titania males and females, eunomia, one B. freija 
Thunberg male, one Colias pelidne labradorensis Scudder, and some 
Pyrgus centaureae freija Warren. The weather up to that time was mostly 
hot, the temperature did not even drop greatly at night. A rainstorm 
occurred late at night July 15, and next morning the thermometer showed 
32° F. and a severe snowstorm developed, which lasted till noon! The 
next day it was sunny and warmer again, so I decided to go back to the 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 243 

mountain once more. There for the first time encountered Plebejus aquilo 
aquilo Boisduval. Both sexes apparently hatching the same day. Despite 
the fact that these were numerous, I was able to catch but few. The tiny 
blues are extremely wary, approached they fly up into the strong wind 
and one could see them only few seconds. Most of the few I took, were 
netted late in the afternoon, when the butterflies sat down to rest for 
the night. That last day I also found Oeneis taygete taygete Geyer more 
common that they had been a few days before, when only single speci- 
mens could be seen. I also took one Oeneis melissa assimilis Butler, sev- 
eral P. centaureae, C. pelidne, and B. polaris females. Besides the aquilo, 
the O. taygete were also hard to approach, let alone to catch. The col- 
lector simply cannot follow butterflies over the rocks, which make use of 
the always present strong wind while escaping! Owing to the fact that it 
must have been a "hot" summer in that part of the country, the butterfly- 
season was more stretched out, than in 1948 when Dr. Munroe collected 
there. No C. pelidne was seen before July 15 and only three July 17. 
Lycaeides argyrognomon scudderi Edwards and Hesperia comma borealis 
Lindsey were not found. Both seemed to be the last butterflies to appear 
in July and were recorded by Dr. Munroe. There are 15 species of butter- 
flies known to be breeding in the Schefferville region. Four of them: 
Boloria toddi, frigga, freija, and Oeneis taygete had previously not been 
reported from Central Labrador. O. jutta, was previously recorded north 
of Schefferville. 

It was a rich, unforgettable experience, collecting in the subarctic and 
truly arctic life zones of Labrador. Something to consider for collectors, 
who dream of collecting arctic butterflies. 

Literature Cited 
Munroe, Eugene, 1951. Field Notes on the Butterflies of Knob Lake, Northern 
Quebec. Lepid. News, 5: 7-9. 



EDWIN RAY HULBIRT ( 1886-1965) 

Edwin Ray Hulbirt was born in Lovelton, Pennsylvania, April 9, 1886, 
and died in Glendale, California, March 12, 1965. He was the son of 
Franklin J. and Nora Spring Hulbirt. He received his college degrees, 
B.S., June, 1908, and M.A., 1909, from Princeton, where he was Phi Beta 
Kappa. His thesis, "Specific Charge of Ions Emitted by Hot Metals," 
was published in the Philosophical Magazine of London in 1910. 

"Dr. Ray," as he was respectfully and affectionately known by many 
of his associates, had a long career as teacher, research chemist, and ad- 



244 Comstock: Hulbirt obituary Vol. 19, no. 4 

ministrative officer, in addition to his avocational interest in entomology, 
philately, music, and mountain climbing. 

He engaged in chemical research at the University of California in 1916, 
taught physics, chemistry, and mathematics at Grant Pass High School 
in Oregon, 1910-1913, and was instructor in science and Vice-Principal 
at Citrus Union High School, Azusa, California, 1913-1920. He helped 
organize the Citrus Junior College, and was its first Dean, 1915-1918. His 
research in hydrocyanic acid led to his appointment as Chief Chemist for 
the Owl Fumigating Corporation at Azusa. This company was absorbed 
by the American Cyanimid Company, in which he served as Chief Chem- 
ist, 1920-1941, and Administrative Assistant, 1941-1947, when he retired. 

His many entomological correspondents knew him as Lowell Hulbirt. 
This is explained by the fact that when his son Lowell developed an 
interest in Lepidoptera, Ray took an active exchange in his son's name. 
This was continued long after the son lost this interest, probably to save 
lengthy explanations. 

Ray's love of music led to competency in the alto-horn, clarinet, and 
bassoon, all of which gave him and his associates great pleasure. His 
mountain climbing led to the ascent of Pike's Peak, 1909, Mt. Shasta, 1911, 
Mt. Hood, 1912, Mt. San Antonio, 1915, 1917, 1920, Mt. San Jacinto, 1918, 
1924, Mt. Hoffman, 1921, Mt. San Gorgonio, 1922, Mt. Whitney, 1922, and 
Mammoth Peak, 1923. These early dates and heights were indicative of 
his exploratory daring. 

He was Past Master, Azusa Masonic Lodge #905, Past High Priest, 
Azusa Chapter #80, and Past Master, Azusa Council #32. 

He is well remembered in our entomological groups for his work in the 
Hesperidae and Lycaenidae. Two butterflies were named for him, 
Hesperia comma hulbirti Lindsay, 1939, and Lycaena dorcas hulbirti 
Field, 1936. 

He was active in the Lepidopterists' Society, (10 years), the Western 
Society of Naturalists, (6 years), The Lorquin Society, (20 years), and 
many other groups. 

He gave his worldwide collection of 18,000 mounted and 5,000 un- 
mounted specimens of lepidoptera to Citrus College, Azusa, California 
in January, 1963. 

He was first married May 20, 1913 to Lela Bertha Kumm, who died 
in 1944. Two children were raised, Virginia L. Harmon and Lowell H. 
Hulbirt. 

His second marriage, February 10, 1946, was to Sarah N. Gait, widow 
of Peter Gait, who resides at 950 Garden Way, Ashland, Oregon. 

John A. Comstock, 1373 Crest, Del Mar, California 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 245 



RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to 
lepidopterists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended 
that every work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here. Papers 
of only local interest and papers from this Journal are listed without abstract. Read- 
ers, not in North America, interested in assisting with the abstracting, are invited to 
write Dr. P. F. Bellinger ( Department of Biological Sciences, San Fernando Valley 
State College, Northridge, California, U.S.A.). Abstractor's initials are as follows: 

[P.B.] — P. F. Bellinger [W.H.] — W. Hackman [N.O.] — N. S. Obraztsov 

[I.C.] — I. F. B. Common [T.I.] — Taro Iwase [C.R.] — C. L. Remington 

[W.C.] — W. C. Cook [T.L.] — T. W. Langer [J.T.] — J. W. Tilden 

[A.D.] — A. DlAKONOFF [J.M.] — J. Moucha [P.V.] — P. E. L. VlETTE 

[J.D.] — Julian Donahue [E.M.] — E. G. Munroe 



B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Niculescu, Eugen, "Papilionidae" [in Rumanian]. Fauna Republicii Populate Ro- 
mine, vol. XI, fasc. 5, 103 pp., 8 pis., 32 figs. Academy of Sciences, Bucuresti. 
1961. [price 6,40 Lei]. In the introductory part the author describes the 
taxonomy of all genera of Roumanian Papilionidae with remarks on the exotic 
species also. In the taxonomic part (pp.41-103) all spp. which occur in Rou- 
mania are described. In this country occur: Papilio machaon, Iphiclides podalirius, 
Zerynthia polyxena, Z. cerisyi, Parnassius mnemosyne, & P. apollo. [J. M.] 

Niculescu, E. V., "Quelques remarques sur Pieris napi bryoniae Hbn. (Lep. Pieri- 
dae)" [in French]. Bull. mens. Soc. linn. Lyon, 30: 232-234. 1961. For the 
author, bryoniae is not a bona species, only a subspecies of P. napi of the high 
altitudes. [P. V.] 

Nieuwenhuis, E. J., "On the female of Charaxes mars Stgr. 1886 (Lepidoptera, 
Nymphalidae ) ." Ent. Berichten, 19: 37-40, 2 figs. 1959. Describes & figures 
2 2 of C. m. mars (previously unknown) & C. m. dohertyi (unique) from Celebes. 
[P. B.] 

Nieuwenhuis, E. J., "A new subspecies of Danaus albatus Zinken (Lepidoptera, 
Danaidae)." Ent. Berichten, 20: 67-68, 1 fig. 1960. Describes as new D. a. 
wegneri (Rana Mese, Flores). [P. B.] 

Nieuwenhuis, E. J., "Euploea algea melanopa Rober 1887 (Lepidoptera, Danaidae)" 
[in Dutch; English summary]. Ent. Berichten, 20: 217-218. 1960. On identity 
of species. [P. B.] 

Nieuwenhuis, E. J., "Over de Vindula-species in het oostelijk deel van de Indo- 
nesische archipel en op Nieuw-Guinea" [in Dutch; English summary]. Ent. 
Berichten, 22: 69-76, 4 figs. 1962. Describes as new V. dejone ambonensis 
(Ambon), V. arsinoe moluccana (Telewang, Halmaheira). Distinguishes the spp. 
& their races in New Guinea & Indonesia. [P. B.] 

Obraztsov, Nikolaus S., "OSTHELDERIELLA amardiana, neue Gettung und Art 
der Tribus Laspeyresiini (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae ) " [in German]. Mitt, miinch- 
ner ent. Ges., 51: 150-153, 1 pi., 2 figs. 1961. Type locality Sardab Valley, 
Elburs Mrs., 1,000-1,400 m, N. Iran. [P. B.] 

Obraztsov, Nikolaus, "Zwei neue und zwei wenig bekannte palaearktische Argy- 
roploce-Arten (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)" [in German]. Mitt, miinchner ent. 
Ges., 51: 154-158, 4 pis. 1961. Describes as new A. ernestiana (Akshehir, 1,000 
m, Anatolia), A. pfeifferiana (Achyr Dagh, Bertiz Jaila, 1,800 m, S. Syria). Notes 
on A. predotai & A. hyperboreana, with descriptions of $ genitalia. [P. B.] 



246 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, no. 4 



Obraztsov, Nicholas S., "North American species of the genus Eana, with a general 
review of the genus, and descriptions of two new species ( Tortricidae ) ." Jour. 
Lepid. Soc, 16: 175-192, 7 figs. 1963. Describes as new E. (SUBEANA) (type 
canescana); E. (Ablabia) subargentana (17 mi E. of Mayfield, Utah), E. (A.) 
idahoensis (Alturas L., Idaho). 

Okada, Muneo, "The genera Evippe and Stenolechia, of Japan, with the descrip- 
tions of two species of the latter (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae ) ." Trans. Shikoku 
ent. Soc, 7: 41-53, 5 pis. 1961. Describes as new S. issikiella ( Sakai, Osaka 
Pref. ). Transfers Recurvaria dorsalis & R. syrichtis to Evippe; redescribes these 
spp. & S. notomochla, & describes larvae of the Evippe spp. (food plants Lespedeza 
& Pinus, respectively). [P. B.] 

Okada, Muneo, "The family Xylorictidae of Japan (Lepidoptera)." Trans. Shikoku 
ent. Soc., 7: 81-96, 5 pis. 1962. Gives characters of family & of the 4 Japanese 
genera, keys to genera, & descriptions of 5 of the 8 Japanese spp.; 4 are new to 
Japan. [P. B.] 

Okano, Masao, "Descriptions of a new species and a new genus of Plusiinae from 
Japan (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Insecta matsumurana, 25: 91-92, 1 fig. 1963. 
Describes as new NEOPLUSIA (monobasic), N. furihatai (Fujisaki, Homori Pref., 
Honshu). [P. B.] 

Oku, Toshio, "A new mint borer of Tortricidae from Japan, with description of a 
new genus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Insecta matsumurana, 26: 104-107, 2 
figs. 1963. Describes as new ALLOENDOTHENIA (monobasic), A. menthivora 
(Nokkeushi, Hokkaido); detailed description of larva. [P. B.] 

Oku, Toshio, "Descriptions of two new alpine moths of Archipsini from Japan ( Lep- 
idoptera: Tortricidae)." Insecta matsumurana, 25: 93-95, 1 fig. 1963. De- 
scribes as new Lozotaenia kumatai ( Nagayamadake, Mt. Daisetsu, Hokkaido); 
Clepsis insignata (Mt. Daisetsu). [P. B.] 

Opler, Paul, & Jerry A. Powell, "Taxonomic and distributional studies on the west- 
ern components of the Apodemia mormo complex ( Riodinidae ) ." Jour. Lepid. 
Soc, 15: 145-171, 1 pi., 1 fig. "1961" [1962]. Describes as new A. m. tuolum- 
nensis (Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne, Calif.), A. m. dialeuca (5 mi NE of La 
Encantada, Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja Calif. ) . 

Orfila, Ricardo N., "Las Dalceridae (Lep. Zygaenoidea) argentinas" [in Spanish]. 
Rev. invest, agric, 15: 249-264, 1 pi., 12 figs. 1961. Proposes n. subfam. ACRA- 
GINAE. Describes as new DALARGENTINA (Acraginae) & type D. sexquicen- 
tenaria (Parque Nacional Iguazu, Misiones, Argentina); Dalcera haywardi (Salta, 
dep. Oran, Vespucio, Rio Aguai, Argentina). Redefines family & Argentine genera 
(including Acraga & Zaldacra); redescribes the 3 known Argentine spp. [P. B.] 

Orfila, Ricardo N., "Morpho breyeri sp. n. (Lep. Morphidae)" [in Spanish; English 
summary]. Rev. Soc. ent. Argentina, 26: 145-147, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1963. Type 
locality Caranda, 600 m, prov. Ichilo, dep. Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [P. B.] 

Orfila, Ricardo N., & Sergio Schajovskoy, "Geometridae (Lep.) del Parque Nacional 
Lanin (Argentina). III. Generos y especies nuevos de Ennominae" [in Spanish; 
English summary]. Physis, 24: 1-10, 3 pis. 1963. Describes as new MARTIN - 
DOELLOIA, & type M. juradoi (Pucara); ERANCISCOIA, & type F. morenoi 
(Pucara); DAGOSTINIA, & type D. fasciata (Pucara); all from Lanin National 
Park, Neuquen Prov., Argentina. [P. B.] 

Ota, Kyozo, & Hiroyuki Kusunoki, "Strymonidia-buttertlies of Shikoku, with the 
description of a new species." Trans. Shikoku ent. Soc, 5: 101-103, 1 pi. 1957. 
Describes as new S. iyonis ( Mt. Saragamine, Ehime-ken, Shikoku). Records & 
figures of S. w-album fcntoni & S. mera. [P. B.] 

Paclt, Jiri, "Genera of the Hepialidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera)." Jour. Asiatic Soc, 
19: 141-148. 1953. Agrees (with Eltringham and Ford) that importance of 
genital armature is overrated as a taxonomic criterion. Attempt to revise generic 
classification with a key that omits 3 little-known genera. Designates Hepialus 
amnion Wallg. as type of new genus EU DAL AC IN A. List of new generic syn- 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopt crisis' Society 247 



onymy of Hepialidae. Includes a brief correction to his diagnosis of Lossbergiana 
pseudodimiata that appeared in Tijdschr. Ent., 91: 149-152. [J. D.] 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "Taxonomic notes on some Nearctic Rhopalocera. 2. Papilio- 
noidea." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 15: 209-225. "1961" [1962]. 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "The authorship of three scientific names of Nearctic Rhopalo- 
cera variously credited to Boisduval or Lucas." Jour. Lepid. Soc., 16: 45-46. 
1962. 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "The dates of publication of the Histoire Generate et Icono- 
graphie des Lepidopteres et des Chenilles de VAmerique Septentrionale, by Bois- 
duval and Le Conte, 1829-1833[-1834]. Jour. Soc. Bibliogr. not. Hist., 4: 48-56. 
1962. Gives probable dates of publication of 26 parts & of 5 generic & 29 specific 
names proposed in the work. [P. B.] 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "Calephelis Grote and Robinson, 1869 (Insecta, Lepidoptera ) : 
proposed use of the Plenary Powers to designate a type-species in conformity with 
current usage." Bull. zool. Nomencl., 20: 313-320. 1963. Proposes naming vir- 
giniensis as type, and suppressing Nymphidia & Lephelisca. [P. B.] 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "Supplemental notes to previous taxonomic notes on some 
Nearctic Rhopalocera." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 103-104. 1963. 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera." Mem. Lepid. 
Soc, no.l, 145 pp. 1964. See Review by F. M. Brown, Ent. News, 75(5): 138- 
140. 

Pastrana, Jose A., "Una especie nueva de Lyonetiidae de la Argentina (Lepidoptera)" 
[in Spanish; English summary]. Acta zool. lilloana, 17: 217-219, 2 figs. "1959" 
[I960]. Describes as new Phyllocnistis hourquini (Tigre, Prov. Buenos Aires; 
reared from Tessaria integrifolia) . [P. B.] 

Petersen, Bjorn, "The male genitalia of some Colias species." Jour. Res. Lepid., 1: 
135-156, 4 pis., 6 figs. 1963. Gives a general description of $ genitalia in 
Colias & Protocolias & discusses variation in some quantitative characters. Gives 
a key to these genera, the subgenera Colias & Mesocolias, & some 35 spp. ( not 
all completely separable). Discusses phylogeny of genus. Figures genitalia of 
34 spp. of Colias & related genera. It is not clear whether Protocolias (type im- 
perialis) and C. (Mesocolias) (type vautieri) are new in this paper. [P. B.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "Identity, synonymy and generic position of Tinea confusella 
H.-S. (Lep., Tineidae)." Ent. Gazette, 12: 117-120, 5 figs. 1961. Obesoceras 
confusellum (= O. danubiellum, O. nigrescens) . T. "confusella" of Pierce & Met- 
calfe is Infurcitinea captans; T. "confusella" of Petersen, 1957 is renamed Infur- 
citinea banatica. [P. B.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "Zur Taxonomie und Verbreitung der palaarktischen Nemapogon- 
Arten (Tineidae)" [in German]. Acta Soc. ent. Cechosloveniae, 58: 272-283, 
13 figs. 1961. As new are described N. orientalis (Beyrouth and Shar Devesy) 
and N. levantinus (Shar Devesy, Haleb); new synonyms: N. granellus ( = T. 
fuscicomella Steudel in Worz), N. flavifrons Pet. (=N. kabulianus Gozm.), N. 
agenjoi Pet. ( = hispanellus Gozm.). [J. M.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "Ergebnisse der Albanien-Expedition 1961 des Deutschen En- 
tomologischen Institutes. 3. Beitrag. Lepidoptera: Tineidae" [in German; English 
& Russian summaries]. Beitr. Ent., 13: 1-20, 4 figs., 1 map. 1963. Describes as 
new Infurcitinea albanica (Kula e Lumes, Albania). Describes 2 of Novotinea 
carbonifera; figures genitalia of Monopis monimella. List of 44 spp. known from 
Albania, with records, known distribution, & notes on biology. [P. B.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "Revision der palaarktischen Arten der Gattung Catabola Durr. 
(Lepidoptera: Tineidae)" [in German; English & Russian summaries]. Beitr. Ent., 
13: 168-175, 2 pis. 1963. Sinks Aphrodoxa to Catabola; Petersenia to Catabola 
(Tineomorpha); C. perplexa to C. (Crassicornella) zernyi. Key to subgenera (in- 
cluding Lazocatena & Praelongicera) and 16 spp. [P. B.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "2. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tineiden von Afghanistan (Lepidoptera: 



248 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, no. 4 



Tineidae)" [in German; English & Russian summaries]. Beitr. Ent., 13: 176-188, 
1 pi., 7 figs., 3 maps. 1963. Describes as new Infurcitinea nuristanica (Nuristan: 
Bashgul Valley, 1,150 m. ). Records of 16 spp., with some descriptive notes and 
new synonymy. List of the 25 spp. known from Afghanistan. [P. B.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "Zur systematische Stellung von 'Tinea moeniella Rossler, 1877' 
(Lepidoptera: Tineidae)" [in German; English & Russian summaries]. Beitr. Ent., 
14: 391-393. 1964. Type series includes Lichenivora nigripunctella & Eumasia 
parietariella. Sinks moeniella to former name; notes on these spp. & on L. rhenania 
(= nigripunctella auctt. ). [P. B.] 

Petersen, Giinther, "Zweiter Beitrag zur Kenntnis der geographischen Verbreitung 
der Tineiden auf der Iberischen Halbinsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)" [in German; 
English & Russian summaries]. Beitr. Ent., 14: 395-420, 10 figs. 1964. Describes 
as new Novotinea anadalusiella ( Lanjaron, Prov. Granada, Spain ) . Annotated 
list of the 60 spp. known from Spain & Portugal, with some systematic notes & 
figures of genitalia, and survey of parts of Peninsula where collections have been 
made. [P. B.] 

Pierce, F. N., & J. W. Metcalfe, The genitalia of the group Tortricidae of the 
Lepidoptera of the British Isles, xxii + 101 pp., 34 pis. Reprint, 1960: E. W. 
Classey. See review in this Journal, 15: 127-128. 

Pinker, Rudolf, "Biologische Notizen iiber mazedonische Noctuiden (Lepidoptera, 
Noctuidae)" [in German]. Nachrichtenbl. bayer. Ent., 12: 97-100, 106-111, 125- 
127; 23 figs. 1963. Notes on early stages of Polyphaenis subsericata, Cosmia 
rhodopsis, Plusia chlorocharis, Blepharita leuconota, Episema lederi, E. trimacida, 
E. korsakovi, & Eugnorisma pontica. Gives first description of $ of P. chlorocharis. 
[P. B.] 

Pinker, Rudolf, "Interessante und neue Funde und Erkenntnisse fiir die Lepidopteren- 
fauna der Kanaren II" [in German]. Zeitschr. weiner ent. Ges., 48: 183-190, 4 
pis., 8 figs. 1963. Describes as new Mythimna saucesa (Barranco de Agua, 
La Palma); Cataclysme grandis lapalmae (Barranco de Agua, La Palma), C. g. 
grancanariae (Telde, Gran Canaria). Describes early stages of C. grandis, Epi- 
sauris kiliani, & Sterrha charitata, & larva of S. vilaflorensis. Names "forms" of 
C. grandis & E. kiliani. [P. B.] 

Povolny, Dalibor, "GNORIMOSCHEMINI trib. nov.— eine neue Tribus der Familie 
Gelechiidae nebst Bemerkungen zu ihrer Taxonomie" [in German; Czech summary]. 
Acta Soc. ent. Cechosloveniae, 61: 330-359, 14 pis. (3 in color). 1964. New 
taxa: SCROBIPALPULA (type S. psilella H.-S.); OPACOSIS subgen. nov. (type 
O. inustella) ; Ephysteris treskensis (Treska Valley, S. Yugoslavia); Scrobipalpa 
obsoletella hospes (Vredendal, S. Africa), S. erichi (Tighina, USSR; paratypes 
from Jericho, Israel & Budapest, Hungary), S. soffneri (Nessebar, Bulgaria). New 
synonyms: Gnorimo schema pazsizkyi Rebel ( = Phthorimaea tengstroemi Hack- 
man); Scrobipalpa suadella Richardson (=P. flavidorsella Amsel), S. gallincolella 
(Mann) ( = G. philolycii Hering = G. reisseri Gregor & Povolny), S. intestina 
(Meyrick) ( = G. mirabile Gregor & Povolny). [J. M.] 

Povolny, Dalibor, "Resultate einiger Typenuntersuchungen aus der Familie Gelechi- 
idae" [in German; Czech summary]. Acta Soc. ent. Cechosloveniae, 61: 53-57, 8 
figs. 1964. The types of following spp. are revised: Neofriseria singula (Staud- 
inger), Gelechia scotinella H.-S., G. senticetella (Staudinger), Aproaerema 
anthylidella (Hb. ). Genitalia are figured. Discusses synonymy. [J. M.] 

Povolny, Dalibor, & Josef Moucha, "Zur taxonomischen Klamng von Narraga tes- 
sularia ilia Whli. nebst einigen Bemerkungen zu dieser Gattung" [in German; Czech 
summary]. Acta Soc. ent. Cechosloveniae, 59: 152-155, 2 pis. 1962. New 
taxonomie research on IV. t. ilia & N. cappadocica Herbulot. Genitalia & imagines 
are figured. [J. M.] 

Powell, Jerry A., "Notes on the California species of the genus Pyla Grote (Lepidop- 
tera: Pyralidoidea ) ," Pan-Pacific Ent., 35: 109-114, 4 figs., 1 map. 1959. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 249 



Describes previously unknown 9 of P. nigricida. Sinks P. sylphiella to P. scintillans. 
Notes on characters & distribution of these spp. & P. viridisiiffusella. [P. B.] 
Powell, Jerry A., "Descriptions of new species of Argyrotaenia in the southwestern 
United States (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae ) ." Pan-Pacific Ent., 36: 83-97, 12 figs. 

1960. Describes as new A. cupressae (Los Angeles, Calif.; reared from Cupressus 
sempervirens) , A. beyeria (Berkeley, Alameda Co., Calif.) A. paiuteana (Rock 
Creek, 1 mi. W. of Tom's Place, Mono Co., Calif.), A. lautana (Camp Baldy, San 
Bernardino Mts., Calif.), A. burnsorum (Madera Canyon, 5,800 ft., Davis Mts., 
Texas), A. graceana (Hathaway Creek, San Bernardino Mts., Calif.), A. inartini 
(Pine Crest, Mt. Graham, Pinaleno Mts., Graham Co., Ariz., 7,300 ft.). [P. B.] 

Powell, Jerry A., "Taxonomic and biological observations on Pseudexentera habrosana 
(Heinrich) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Pan-Pacific Ent., 37: 203-209, figs. 

1961. This species has been confused with P. oregonana in collections; the pre- 
viously unknown female and larva are described. 

Powell, Jerry A., "Taxonomic studies on the Acleris gloverana-variana complex, the 
black-headed budworms (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Canad. Ent., 94: 833-840, 
figs. 1962. A. variana is limited to the eastern portion of North America; western 
populations are assigned to A. gloverana, originally described from northern Cali- 
fornia. Differences include genitalic structure and genital scaling associated with 
oviposition. 

Powell, Jerry A., "Two previously undescribed species of Canadian Archipsini, with a 
report of the genus Lozotaenia Stephens in North America (Lepidoptera: Tortrici- 
dae)." Canad. Ent., 94: 841-845. 1962. Describes as new Archippus tsuganus 
(Knight Inlet, B.C., Canada; reared from Tsuga), Lozotaenia hesperia (Dawson, 
Yukon, Canada, 1,100 ft.). 

Powell, Jerry A., "Biological and taxonomic notes on two California species of 
Proteoteras (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Pan-Pacific Ent., 38: 191-195. 1962. 
Male genitalia of P. arizonae (previously unrecorded from California) are similar 
to P. obnigrana Heinrich rather than that figured by Heinrich from New Mexico. 
Revised key to larvae is given. 

Powell, Jerry A., "Records and description of some interesting species of Eucosma 
in California (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 76: 235-246. 
1963. Describes as new, E. langstoni (Pozo, San Luis Obispo Co., Calif.), E. 
williamsi (Oakland Hills, Alameda Co., Calif.; reared from Baccharis pilularis); 
distributional notes on other spp. 

Powell, Jerry A., "Biological and taxonomic studies on tortricine moths, with reference 
to the species in California (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Univ. of Calif. Pnbl. 
Ent., vol. 32, 318 pp., 108 figs., 8 plates, 14 maps. 1964. A summary of biologies, 
geographical distribution, and phylogenetic relationships of and within the 
Tortricinae, based on observations on the Calif, spp. and on literature for the 
Nearctic fauna. Comparative biology reveals criteria available for comparison of 
the three North American tribes of the subfamily. The Archipini is considered to 
be the most divergent of the three from a presumed ancestral type. Behavioral 
characteristics of this tribe and the so-called Sparganothinae strongly suggest that 
the latter group is more closely related to the Archipini than are the Cnephasiini and 
Tortricini. This confirms the proposal of tribal status for the sparganothines, based 
on larval characters, by MacKay ( 1962, Canad. Ent. Suppl. 28 ) . About 35% of 
the Nearctic fauna, some 57 species, are treated from California, including four 
spp., and two subspp. described as new: Acleris keiferi (San Francisco; reared 
from Rubus vitifolia), A. paracinderella (Nevada Co.; reared from Prunus), A. 
aenigmana (Truckee, Nevada Co.), Choristoneura lambertiana calif ornica (Ander- 
son Springs, Lake Co.), Argyrotaenia franciscana insidana (Anacapa Island, Ven- 
tura Co.), A. isolatissima (Santa Barbara Island, Los Angeles Co.). 

Powell, Jerry A., "A review of Griselda Heinrich, with descriptions of a related new 
genus and two species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)." Pan-Pacific Ent., 40: 85-97, 
figs. 1964. Describes as new CHIMOPTESIS (type C. chrysopyla, n. sp., San 



250 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 19, no. 4 



Francisco, Calif.), C. matheri (Clinton, Hinds Co., Miss.); transfers Griselda 
gerulae Heinrich, 1923, and G. pennsylvaniana (Kearfott), 1907, to Chimoptesis, 
and Eucosma hypsidryas Meyrick, 1925, to Griselda. 

Powell, Jerry A., "Supplementary notes on North American and Mexican species of 
Decodes and Argyrotaenia, with descriptions of new species (Lepidoptera: Tortrici- 
dae)." Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 78: 65-80, figs. 1965. Describes as new Decodes 
lundgreni (Twain Harte, Tuolumne Co., Calif.), D. australis (Jocoque Dam, 
Aguascalientes, Mexico), Argyrotaenia lignitaenia (Pinyon Flat, Riverside Co., 
Calif. ) ; treats A. beyeria Powell, 1960, as subspecies of A. cupressae Powell, and 
A. lautana Powell, 1960, as a subspecies of A. dorsalana (Dyar); notes on dis- 
tribution and variation in other spp. 

Razowski, Jozef, "European species of Cnephasiini ( Tortricidae ) " [in English; Russian 
& Polish summaries]. Acta z'ool. cracov., 4: 179-321, pis. xvii-lxvii. 1959. New 
spp. & forms are described: Cnephasia (Cnephasia) sareptana (Sarepta, USSR); 
C. ( Anoplocnephasia) minima ( Mostar, Yugoslavia); Eana incognitana (Engadin, 
Switzerland), E. jaeckhi (Ecully), E. rundiapicana (Bomich), E. herzegovinae 
(Bisina, Hercegovina, Yugoslavia), E. penziana fiorana (Mte. Porttella, Abruzzo, 
Italy); and a new "form." Very important revision of Cnephasiini of Europe. 
Imagos and genitalia are figured. [J. M.] 

Razowski, Jozef, "Studies on the Cochylidae. Part II. The genera of the Palearctic 
Cochylidae" [in English; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. Pologne, 30: 281-356, 146 
figs. 1960. A number of new genera and subgenera are described (types in 
parentheses): OBRAZTSOVIANA nom. nov. (Tortrix maculosana) ; PARAHY- 
STEROSIA subgen. nov. (Cochylis simoniana); (SUBSTENODES subgen. nov. 
(Cochylis pontana); PARASTENODES subgen. nov. (Cochylis meridiana): 
EUSTENODES subgen. nov. (Euxanthis dorsimaculana); BIPENISIA subgen. nov. 
(Cochylis jucundana); CERATOXANTHIS gen. nov. (Cochylis argentomixtana) ; 
EUXANTHOIDES gen. nov. (Tortrix stra/minea); BLESZYNSKIELLA subgen. 
nov. (Tortrix alternana); PARAXANTHOIDES subgen. nov. (Cochylis chamomil- 
lana); PROCHLIDONIA gen. nov. (Tortrix amiantana); CRYPTOCOCHYLIS 
gen. nov. (Cochylis conjunctana) ; LONGICORNUTA gen. nov. (Cochylis phalera- 
tana); NEOCOCHYLIS subgen. nov. (Cochylis calavrytana) ; PARACOCHYLIS 
subgen. nov. (Cochylis amoenana); BREVICORNUTIA subgen. nov. (Cochylis 
pallidana ) . The family Cochylidae ( = Phaloniidae ) contains in the Palearctic 
region 24 genera of which 5 are described as new. From the taxonomic point of 
view an important study of this family. Heads, venation, and genitalia are figured. 
[J. M-] 

Razowski, Jozef, "Studies on the Cochylidae. Part III. On some studies from the 
collection of Dr. S. Toll" [in English; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. Pologne, 30: 
397-402, 10 figs. 1960. Describes as new Phalonidia tolli ( Manchuria, Djalantun, 
Prov. Kirin) and Eupoecilia citrinana (Manchuria, Hsiaoling, Prov. Kirin); many 
new combinations. Phalonidia chlorolitha ( = Phalonia azyga, n. syn. ). Describes 
also two "forms" of Cochylidia suhroseana. Types & their genitalia are figured. 
[J. M.] 

Razowski, Jozef, "The genitalia of some Asiatic Tortricidae described by E. Meyrick" 
[in English; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. Pologne, 30: 381-396, 22 figs. 1960. 
The genitalia are described & figured. All 19 types examined belong to the Paris 
Museum. Describes as new LASPEYRESINIA (type Eucosma metacritica) and 
CHOGANHIA (type Argyroploce sphaerocopa) . A number of new combinations. 
[J. M.] 

Razowski, Jozef, "Etude des types de tordeuses de M. D. Lucas et P. Real" [in French]. 
Bull. Mus. nut. Hist, nat., Paris, ser. 2, 32: 528-535. "1960" [1961]. Study of the 
types of spp. of leafrollers described by these authors; many taxa are synonyms. 
[P. V.] 

Razowski, Jozef, "Studien liber die Cochylidae ( Lepidoptera ) . Teil V. Cochylidae- 
Typen in Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 251 



Ges., 46: 23-28, 14 figs. 1961. Notes on 28 types, giving label data, generic 
assignment, & brief descriptions or figures of genitalia. [P. B.] 

Razowski, Jozef, "Studies on Cochylidae. Part VI. Remarks on the types of some 
Cochylidae" [in English; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. Pologne, 31: 301-319, 36 
figs. 1961. Describes as new PROHYSTEROPHORA (type Cochylis chionopa) 
and Euxanthoides hannemanni (Israel: Jordan Valley and Jerusalem). Many new 
combinations & new synonyms. [J. M.] 

Razowski, Jozef, "Two new species and one new subspecies of the genus Cnepliasia 
Curt. (Tortricidae)" [in English; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. Pologne, 31: 105-107, 
4 figs. 1961. Describes as new C. jozef i (Aflou, Prov. Oran), C. tremewani 
( Sidi-bel- Abbes, Prov. Oran), and C. sareptana alatauana (Ala Tau Mts. and 
Aremnia, Eriwan). The genitalia of all new forms are described and figured. [J. M.] 

Razowski, Jozef, & Tosiro Yasuda, "Description of new Japanese Ac/em-species 
( Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)" [in English; Japanese summary]. Trans. Lepid. Soc. 
Japan, 14: 80-89, 36 figs. 1963. Describes as new A. simplex (Tokusawa, 
Nagano Pref . ) , A. hokkaidana ( Hokkaido ) , A. electrina ( Kasugayama, Nara Pref . ) , 
A. crassa (Hosono, Nagano Pref.), A. phantastica (Sigakoogen, Nagano Pref.), A. 
ophthalmica (Sigakoogen), A. takeuchii (Ikeno, Gifu Pref.), A. roxana (Takayama, 
Gifu Pref.); A. ulmicola is a good species. [P. B.] 

Rebillard, P., "Revision systematique des lepidopteres nymphalides du genre Agrias" 
[in French]. Mem. Mus. nat. Hist, nat., n.s., A, Zool, 22: 157-254, 1 col. pi., 
2 pis. 1961. Study of the morphology and the geographical distribution of the 
genus Agrias. Bibliography of the 300 and more names included in this genus. 
[P. V.] 

Reisser, Hans, "Hyphantria cunea Drury in Europa (Lepid., Arctiidae) (Der 'ameri- 
kanische Webebar')" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 45: 51-61. 1960. 
Discusses problem of correct name for form found in Europe, concluding that 
textor is merely an extreme pale variant. Translates Drury's and Harris's descrip- 
tions. Surveys literature on occurrcence and biology in Europe, with comments. 
[P. B.] 

Reisser, Hans, "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Sterrhinae ( Lep., Geom. ) V. Was ist 
Sterrha dilutaria praeustaria Lah. (Mann i.l. )?" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener 
ent. Ges., 47: 21-24. 1962. Describes as new S. d. illyrica (Illyria, Tergeste, 
Cerovlje); "praeustaria" is a "form." [P. B.] 

Reisser, Hans, "Ocneria eos sp. nov., eine neue Lymantriide aut Kreta (vorlaufige 
Beschreibung)" [in German]. Nachrichtenbl. bayer. Ent., 11: 9-10, 3 figs. 1962. 
Type locality Genni Gave, N. Crete. [P. B.] 

Reisser, Hans, "Weitere neue Heteroceren aus Kreta" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener 
ent. Ges., 47: 193-216, 4 pis., 9 figs. 1962. Describes as new Axia vaulogeri 
nesiota (Assites, 800 m.); DANJELOSTYGIA (monobasic), D. persephone (Wur- 
wulitis); Phragmacossia albida minos (Knossos); Cryphia rectilinea insulicola 
(Assites, 500 m. ), C. raptricola cretica (Ida, Silva Rouva, 1,300 m. ); Phragmatoecia 
erschoffi ("Buchara Haus — "). Redescribes Ocneria eos. Comparative notes on 
Phragmacossia spp. & Phragmatoecia. Notes on Cosymbia ariadne & Dyscia 
crassipunctaria (names a fall generation). List of recent additions to the fauna 
of Crete. [P. B.] 



INDEX TO VOLUME 19 

(New names in boldface; synonyms in italics) 

Achylodes tamenund, 20 Agapema galbina, 42 

Achalarus, lyciades, 27, 51, 198 Agraulis vanillae, 33, 114, 232 

toxeus, 27 Airplane, collections by, 129 

Acronicta brumosa, 189 Alabama argillacea, 133 



252 



Index to Volume 19 



Vol. 19, no. 4 



Alsophila pometaria, 226 
Amblyscirtes, nysa, 180 

vialis, 2 
Amatidae, 133 
Ampeloeca myron, 189 
Amsel, H. G., Microlepidoptera Palae- 

arctica, 117 
Anacampsis, 134 
Anaea, aidea, 113, 192 

andria, 34 
Ancyloxypha numitor, 196 
Annaphila pseudoastrologa, 237 
Anthanassa, 223 
Antheraea polyphemus, 226 
Anthocharis, genutia, 50 

pima, 112 

sara, 112,232 
Apodemia, mormo, 112 

nais, 112, 232 

palmerii, 112 
Appias drusilla, 110, 226 
Apter, R. L., Connecticut records of 

Thymelicus, 195 
Arctiidae, 69, 82, 226, 228 
Arethusana, 202 
Aristotelia, 134 
Asterocampa, 200; celtis, 113, 180 

clyton, 180 

leilia, 113 

subpallida, 113 
Atalopedes campestris, 180 
Atlides halesus, 112 
Atreides plebia, 189 
Atrytonopsis, hianna, 215, 219 

vierecki, 220 
Automeris, 226; zephyria, 82 
Baron, O. T. (1847-1926), 35 
Battaristis concinusella, 134 
Battus philenor, 109, 223, 229 
Bedellia somnulentella, 135 
Bell, E. L. (1876-1964), 190 
Biston betularia, 228 
Blastobasidae, 134 
Boisduval letters, 197 
Boloria, 200, 201, 202, 204 

astarte, 60 

ehariclea, 58, 59 

distincta, 62 

eunomia, 61, 184, 242 

freija, 242 

frigga, 58, 59, 242 

improba, 60 

napaea, 60, 61 

polaris, 242 

selene, 62, 242 

titania, 59, 62, 242 



toddi, 104, 242 
Bomolocha, 133 

Book Notices, 46, 62, 90, 164, 230 
Book Reviews, 

Butterflies and Moths, 225 

Butterflies of San Francisco Bay Re- 
gion, 138 

Fauna U.S.S.R.; Tineidae, Nemapo- 
goninae, 102 

Prodromus Lepidopterorum Sloviciae, 
81 
Bowden, S. R., correction, 170 
Brephidium exilis, 112 
Brown, F. M., O. T. Baron, 35 

Boisduval letters and Melitaea identi- 
ties, 197 

Method for overwintering larvae, 187 
Brown, K. S., Jr., Arizona butterflies, 107 

Unusual California butterfly records, 
171 
Bucculatrix, 135 
Burns, J. M., Connecticut records of 

Thymelicus, 195 
Butterflies at light, 179 
Caenurgina caerulea, 165 
Calephelis virginiensis, 49 
Callophrys, apama, 112, 232 

gryneus, 49 

irus, 50 

macfarlandi, 177 
Calpodes ethlius, 2 
Carde, R. T., Taxonomic notes on Holo- 

melina, 69 
Catocala cara, 52 
Celastrina argiolus, 50, 113, 232 
Celerio lineata, 189 
Celotes nessus, 6, 133 
Celyphoides cespitana, 134 
Ceratomia, 189 
Cercyonis, 202, 203, 204 

ariane, 161 

oetus, 114, 164 

pegala, 114, 179 

silvestris, 164 

stephensi, 161 

sthenele, 232 
Chionodes, 134; albofasciatus, 29 
Chlaenogramma jasminearum, 189 
Chlosyne, gorgone, 48 

lacinia, 113, 232 

nycteis, 48 
Citheronia sepulchralis, 189 
Clench, H. K., Migration of Libytheana 
and Kricogonia, 223 

Beginning of the butterfly season, 239 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



253 



Cleora manitoba, 190 
Cochlididae, 190 
Coenonympha kodiak, 192 
Cogia outis, 23 
Coleophoridae, 134 
Colias, 200, 202 

alexandra, 61, 232 

boothii, 60 

cesonia, 34, 110, 232 

chrysomelas, 39 

eurytheme, 110, 133, 182, 183, 192, 
232 

hecla, 57, 58, 61 

nastes, 60, 61 

palaeno, 58, 60, 61 

pelidne, 242 

philodice, 110, 182, 232 

vividior, 192 
Collection by airplane, 129 
Coloradia pandora, 226 
Comstock, J. A., E. R. Hulbirt, 243 
Copaeodes aurantiaca, 4 
Correction, 170 
Cosmopterygidae, 134 
Cressonia juglandis, 189 
Danaus, 192; gilippus, 114, 232 

plexippus, 114, 137, 180, 182, 227, 232 
Darapsa pholus, 189 
Diakonoff, A., Book Review, Zagulajev, 

102 
Dichomeris ligulella, 134 
Dolba hylaeus, 189 
Downey, J. C, Mimicry and distribution 

of Caenurgina, 165 
Doryodes spadaria, 190 
Drasteria graphica, 190 
Durden, C. J., Speyeria callippe and 

Artemisia, 186 
Egg preservation, 234 
Elasmopalpus lignosellus, 134 
Emesis. 192; zela, 112 
Epargyreus clams, 30, 133, 180, 196 
Epermeniidae, 134 
Epiblema strenuana, 134 

sosana, 136 
Epistor lugubris, 189 
Erebia, 200; canadensis, 192 

disa, 57, 94 

discoidalis, 57, 76 

erinnyn, 57, 59 

epipsodea, 57 

fasciata, 57, 58, 61 

magdalena, 59 

rossii, 57, 58, 61 

theano, 57, 61 

vidleri, 76 



youngi, 57, 58, 60, 61 
Erora quaderna, 232 
Erynnis, baptisiae, 11 

horatius, 11, 180 

pacuvius, 192 

propertius, 192 

telemachus, 192 
Estigmene acraea, 226 
Estimating the butterfly season, 239 
Eublemma obliqualis, 133 
Euchloe, ausonides, 112 

creusa, 112, 203 
Euchromius ocelleus, 134 
Eucordylea, 134 
Euherrichia moneifera, 189 
Euphydryas, anicia, 59 

nubigena, 172, 174 

rubrosuffusa, 172 

sierra, 173 
Euphyes, bimacula, 196 

dukesi, 148 

vestris, 180 
Euptoieta, claudia, 104, 114, 232 

hegesia, 114 
Euptychia, areolata, 139 

cymela, 47 

dorothea, 114, 232 

gemma, 47 

henshawi, 114 

mitchelli, 148 

rubricata, 42, 114, 232 

septentrionealis, 151 
Eurema, boisduvaliana, 111 

mexicana, 112, 232 

nicippe, 112, 232 

proterpia, 112 
Eurystrymon Ontario, 50 
Eutelia pulcherrima, 190 
Evans, W. H., Larvae of Annaphila 

pseudoastrologa, 237 
Everes comyntas, 113, 180, 232 
Feeding adult Lepidoptera, 233 
Fleming, R. C, Catocala and Polygonia, 

52 
Freeman, H. A., New Megathymus, 83 
Gelechiidae, 134 
Geometridae, 133, 190, 226, 228 
Geshna primordialis, 133 
Gesta invisus, 18 

Glaucopsyche lygdamus, 167, 232 
Glena cognataria, 190 
Glick, P. A., Collections by airplane, 129 
Glyphidocera, 134 
Glyphipterygidae, 134 
Glyphipteryx impigritella, 134 
Gnorimoschema, 134, 136 



254 



Index to Volume 19 



Vol. 19, no. 4 



Gobeil, R. E., Butterflies on Kent Island, 

N. B., 181 
Gracillariidae, 135, 136 
Graphium marcellus, 199 
Groothuis, D., Range extension of Pieris 

beckeri, 221 
Gyrocheilus patrobas, 114, 232 
Habrodais grunus, 177 
Halisidota maculata, 226 
Hardesty, R., Range extension of Pieris 

beckeri, 221 
Heitzman, R., Life history of Problema, 
77 

Diurnal Lepidoptera at light, 179 
Heliodinidae, 136 
Heliopetes, laviana, 7 

macaira, 9 
Heliothis zea, 133 
Hemaris dif finis, 189 
Hemiargus, gyas, 112 

isola, 112, 136, 232 
Hemihyalea edwardsi, 82 
Hemileuca, 226 

Hensel, H., Two Weeks butterfly hunt- 
ing in Labrador, 242 
Hepialus, 39 
Herse cingulata, 189 
Hesperia, leonardus, 133 

metea, 215 

sassacus, 196 

viridis, 3 
Hesperiidae, 1, 51, 53, 77, 83, 91, 105, 
133, 148, 180, 190, 192, 195, 215, 
242 
Hessel, J. H., Hypaurotis at light, 55 
Hibernating larvae, 187 
Hipocrita jacobaeae, 227 
Holcocera, 134 
Holomelina, aurantiaca, 69, 71 

costata, 74 

ferruginosa, 70, 72 

fragilis, 74 

intermedia, 74 

laeta, 74 

lamae, 70, 73 

nigricans, 73 

opella, 73 

ostenta, 74 

pcdlipennis, 74 
Howe, W. H., Status of Agraulis in Kan- 
sas, 33 
Hubbard, J. P., Butterflies of Pinos Altos 

Mountains, 231 
Huber, R. L., Record for Erebia dis- 

coidalis, 76 
Hulbirt, E. R. (1886-1965), 243 



Hypaurotis crysalus, 55, 112, 232 
Incisalia, 226; fotis, 171 
Junonia, coenia, 113, 133 

evarete, 192 
Keiferia, 134 

Kendall, R. O., Foodplants for Texas 
Hesperiidae, 1 

Foodplant for Schinia olivacea, 105 
Kolyer, J. M., Inexpensive apparatus for 

photographing, 212 
Kricogonia, castalia, 223 

lyside, 111, 223 
Lambremont, E. N., Louisiana butter- 
flies, 47 
Langston, R. L., Distribution of Philotes, 
95 

Book Review, Tilden, 138 
Lapara, bombycoides (pineum), 206 

halicarniae, 189 
Laphygma frugiperda, 133 
Larval rearing and preservation, 233 
Legge, A. H., Collecting in Yukon and 

Alaska, 57 
Lephelisca nemesis, 112 
Leptotes marina, 112, 232 
Lerema accius, 133 
Lerodea eufala, 133 
Lethe portlandia, 180 
Lewis, G. G., Technique for spreading, 

115 
Libytheana bachmannii, 113, 223, 232 
Limacodes rectilinea, 190 
Limacodidae, 190 
Limenitis, 200, 202; archippus, 113, 183 

arthemis, 182 

astyanax, 113, 229, 232 

bredowii, 113, 232 

lorquini, 226 
Loxostege similalis, 133 
Lycaeides, 198; argyrognomon, 243 

melissa, 112 
Lycaenidae, 49, 55, 61, 95, 112, 136, 
165, 171, 177, 180, 182, 197, 198, 
200, 226, 232, 243 
Lycaena, americana, 183 

dorcas, 61 

hypophlaeas, 61 

mariposa, 61 

rubidus, 112, 226 

thoe, 200 

xanthoides, 171 
Lyonetiidae, 135 
Mather, B., Euptychia distribution and 

variation, 139 
McFarland, N., On Automeris and Hemi- 
hyalea, 82 



1965 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



255 



On Callophrys macfarlandi, 177 

Notes on rearing and preserving lar- 
vae, 233 
Megathymus, yuccae, 51, 83 

y. arizonae, 88 

y. kendalli, 83 

y. louisaeae, 84 

y. reinthali, 84 

y. reubeni, 88 

y. stallingsi, 83 

y. wilsonorum, 83 

y. winkensis, 87 
Melitaea, 204; baroni, 39 

callina, 207 

dymas, 114 

elada, 208 

fulvia, 232 

minuta, 232 

palla, 173 

perse, 114 

pola, 114, 206 

theona, 114 

ulrica, 208 
Microlepidoptera Palaearctica, 117 
Microtheoris, 133 
Microtia, 202, 114, 232 
Migration, 223 
Mimicry, 165, 227 
Mitoura siva, 112, 232 
Moucha, J., Book Review, Hruby, 81 
Nastra lheriminieri, 196 
Nathalis iole, 106, 112, 232 
Neominois ridingsi, 202 
Neophasia, menapia, 109, 232 

terlooti, 110 
Nepticulidae, 135 
Neurobatha strigifinitella, 135 
Newcomer, E. J., Type locality of Cer- 

cvonis stephensi, 161 
Noctu'idae, 52, 105, 133, 165, 183, 189, 

226, 237 
Nomophila noctuella, 133 
Notodontidae, 190 

Nymphalidae, 33, 37, 38, 39, 42, 48, 52, 
58-62, 104, 113, 133, 171, 172-175, 
180, 182, 183, 184, 186, 192, 200- 
208, 223, 226, 227, 229, 232, 242 
Nymphalis, antiopa, 49, 113, 182, 183, 
232 

californica, 232 

milberti, 113 
Oeneis, 199, 201, 202, 203 

bore, 61 

brucei, 60 

chryxus, 57, 173, 174 

jutta, 57, 242 



macounii, 125 

melissa, 60, 61, 242 

peartiae, 60 

polixenes, 60, 61 

taygete, 58, 242 
Oidaematophorus, 133 
Ommatochila mundula, 133 
Paleacrita vernata, 226 
Panaxia dominula, 228 
Panoquina hacebolus, 192 
Panthea furcilla, 189 
Panthiades m-album, 50 
Paonias, astylus, 189 

myops, 189 
Papilionidae, 37, 39, 57, 58, 60, 109, 173, 
180, 182, 192, 199, 203, 205, 226, 
229, 232 
Papilio, bairdii, 109, 232 

cresphontes, 109, 192 

eurymedon, 109, 226 

glaucus, 57, 192 

indra, 37, 39 

machaon, 57, 58, 60, 226 

multicaudata, 109, 232 

polyxenes, 109, 182, 232 

rutulus, 232 

zelicaon, 173 
Paramecera xicaque, 114 
Parnassius, 199, 203, 205 

eversmanni, 58, 60 
dos Passos, C. F., E. L. BeU, 190 

Addenda and Corrigenda to the "Syn- 
onymic List," 192 
Pectinophora gossypiella, 134, 136 
Periploca concolorella, 134 
Phaloniidae, 134 
Phillips, L. S., Flight habits of Boloria, 

104 
Philotes, 198; battoides, 95, 226 

enoptes, 97, 98 

sonorensis, 100, 226 
Phlegethontius, 189 
Phoebis sermae, 111, 232 
Pholisora catullus, 4, 51, 196 
Pholus, 189 

Photographing specimens, 212 
Phyciodes, 202, 204, 205 

campestris, 114 

mylitta, 113, 207, 232 

picta, 114 

texana, 48, 113,232 

tharos, 104, 113, 133, 180 
Pieridae, 34, 39, 50, 57, 58, 60, 61, 110, 
133, 180, 182, 183, 192, 200, 202, 
203, 221, 226, 232, 242 
Pieris, 200; beckeri, 221 



256 



Index to Volume 19 



Vol. 19, no. 4 



napi, 110, 192, 232 

protodice, 110, 180, 232 

rapae, 110, 182 

sisymbrii, 110, 232 
Plathypena scabra, 133 
Plebejus, 197, 198; acmon, 112, 232 

aquilo, 243 

argyrognomon, 61, 167 

icarioides, 165 

melissa, 167 

saepiolus, 171 
Poanes hobomok, 196 
Polites, coras, 196 

mystic, 196 

origines, 196 

sonora, 192 

themistocles, 180, 196 

vibex, 2 
Polygonia, 200, 203, 205; comma, 48, 180 

faunus, 113, 172 

hylas, 113 

interogationis, 52, 180 

satyrus, 113 

zephyrus, 113, 172, 173, 232 
Pompeius verna, 196 
Powell, J. A., Book Review, Mitchell and 

Zim, 225 
Predation, 169 
Preserving larvae, 234 
Presidential address, 193 
Problema byssus, 77 
Pseudaletia unipuncta, 133, 226 
Pseudoboarmia buchholzaria, 190 
Pseudosphinx tetrio, 227 
Pterophoridae, 133, 136 
Pterophorus tenuidactylus, 133 
Pupae, injection for preservation, 236 
Pyralidae, 133 
Pyralis farinalis, 133 
Prygus, albescens, 91 

centaureae, 242 

communis, 10, 91, 105 

oilus, 192 
Rearing and preserving larvae, 187, 233 
Recent Literature on Lepidoptera, 63-68, 

126-128, 245-252 
Rindge, F. H., Presidential address, 193 
Riodinidae, 49, 112, 192, 232 
Ross, G. N., Louisiana butterflies, 47 
Ruckes, H., E. L. Bell, 190 
Saturniidae, 42, 82, 189, 226 
Satyridae, 42, 47, 57-61, 76, 94, 114, 
125, 136, 139, 161, 173, 179, 180, 
199-204, 232, 242 
Satyrium, 49 
Scepsis fulvicollis, 133 



Schinia olivacea, 105 

Schizura apicalis, 190 

Scythrididae, 134, 136 

Shapiro, A. M., Ecology and behavior of 

Hesperia and Atrytonopsis, 215 
Sheppard, J. H., Erebia in Washington 

State, 94 
Sheppard, P. M., Monarch butterfly and 

mimicry, 227 
Smerinthus cerisyi, 226 
Speyeria, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205 

aphrodite, 114 

atlantis, 62, 114, 232 

callippe, 171, 172, 186 

hydaspe, 172 

leto, 37, 38, 42 

mormonia, 61, 114 

nevadensis, 226 

nokomis, 37, 114 

zerene, 172 
Sphingidae, 189, 206, 226 
Sphinx kalmiae, 189 
Spreading minute moths, 115 
Staphylus mazans, 23 
Stegasta bosqueella, 134 
Strymon, cecrops, 180 

leda, 112, 232 

melinus, 112, 180, 232 

sylvinus, 112 
Systasea pulverulenta, 9, 21 
Taylor, R. & B., Collecting sphingids on 

the Gulf Coast, 189 
Technique for spreading, 115 
Tetanolita mynesalis, 133 
Thorybes, albosuffusa, 27 

bathyllus, 25, 180, 196 

pylades, 26, 51, 180, 196 
Thymelicus lineola, 195 
Tilden, J. W., Urbanus procne and sim- 
plicius, 53 

Note on Pyrgus, 91 
Tineidae, 102, 135 
Tischeriidae, 135 
Tortricidae, 134, 136 
Trichoplusia ni, 133 
Urbanus, procne, 53 

proteus, 28 

simplicius, 53 
Vanessa, atalanta, 113, 180, 182, 232 

cardui, 113, 172, 180, 232 

carye, 113 

virginiensis, 113, 173, 182, 232 
Wallengrenia egeremet, 196 
Walshiidae, 134 
Xylophanes tersa, 189 
Zoological Nomenclature, 176, 224 



EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE JOURNAL 

Editor: Jerry A. Powell 

Associate Editor 

(Literature Abstracting): Peter F. Bellinger 

Associate Editor 

("Especially for Collectors"): Fred T. Thorne 

Editor, News of the Lepidopterists* Society: E. J. Newcomer 

Manager of the Memoirs: Sidney A. Hessel 

Editorial Committee of the Society: P. F. Bellinger, S. A. 
Hessel, E. G. Munroe, J. A. Powell, C. L. Remington 
(chairman), F. T. Thorne, E. J. Newcomer. 

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE JOURNAL 

Contributions to the Journal may be on any aspect of the collection and study 
of Lepidoptera. Articles of more than 20 printed pages are not normally accepted; 
authors may be required to pay for material in excess of this length. Manuscripts 
must be typewritten, ENTIRELY DOUBLE SPACED, employing wide margins and 
one side only of white, 8% X 11" paper. The author should keep a carbon copy of 
the manuscript. Titles should be explicit and descriptive of the article's content, in- 
cluding an indication of the family of the subject, but must be kept as short as possi- 
ble. Authors of Latin names should be given once in the text. Format of REFER- 
ENCES MUST CONFORM TO EXACT STYLE used in recent issues of the Journal. 
Legends of figures and tables should be submitted on separate sheets. 

Reprints may be ordered, and at least 25 gratis separates (including any other 
material published on these pages) will be provided, if requested at the time galley 
proof is received. 



Address correspondence relating to the Journal to: Dr. J. A. Powell, 112 Agricul- 
ture Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., U. S. A. 

Material not intended for permanent record, such as notices, current events, anecdotal 
field experiences, poems, philatelic Lepidoptera, etc. should be sent to the News 
Editor: E. J. Newcomer, 1509 Summitview, Yakima, Wash., U. S. A. 

Address remittances and address changes to: George Ehle, 314 Atkins Ave., 
Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A. 



Memoirs of the Lepidopterists' Society, No. 1 (Feb. 1964) 

A SYNONYMIC LIST OF THE NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA 

by Cyrdl, F. dos Passos 

Price: Society members — $4.50, others — $6.00; uncut, unbound signatures 
available for interleaving and private binding, same prices; hard cover bound, 

add $1.50. postpaid 
Order from the Society Treasurer. 



Printed in U. S. A. 

Allen Press 
Lawrence. Kansas 



1965 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society Vol. 19, no. 4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Presidential Address. The importance of collecting — NOW 

by Frederick H. Rindge 193-195 

First Connecticut records of Thymelicus lineola, an introduced hesperiid 

by Robert L. Apter and John M. Burns 195-196 

Three letters from J. A. B. D. De Boisduval to W. H. Edwards, and 
the true identity of Melitaea pola Bdv. and Melitaea callina Bdv. 
by F. Martin Brown 197-211 

An inexpensive apparatus for photographing mounted specimens 

by John M. Kolyer 212-214 

Ecological and behavioral notes on Hesperia metea and 
Atrytonopsis hiarma ( Hesperiidae ) 
by Arthur M. Shapiro 215-221 

A recent range extension of Pieris heckeri (Pieridae) in Wyoming 

by Dennis Groothuis and Richard Hardesty 221-222 

A migration of Libytheana and Kricogonia in southern Texas 

by Harry K. Clench 223-224 

The Monarch butterfly and mimicry 

by P. M. Sheppard 227-230 

Description and habits of larvae of Annaphila pseudoastrologa ( Noctuidae ) 

by William H. Evans 237-239 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

Some butterflies of the Pinos Altos Mountains, New Mexico 

by John P. Hubbard 231-232 

Additional notes on rearing and preserving larvae of Macrolepidoptera 

by Noel McFarland 23&-236 

The beginning of the butterfly season 

by Harry K. Clench 239-241 

Two weeks of butterfly hunting in central Labrador 

by Henry Hensel 242-243 

Edwin Ray Hulbirt (1886-1965) 

by John A. Comstock 243-244 

ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 224 

BOOK NOTICE, REVIEW 211,225 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 245-251 

INDEX TO VOLUME 19 .- 251-256 



™ 



Volume 20 1966 * Number 1 



/ 






Journal 



of the 



Lepidopterists' Society 

Published quarterly by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCIfiTE DES LfiPIDOPTfiRISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 

AUTOMATION IN RHOPALOCERA RESEARCH 

FACTORS IN PIERIS WING MARKINGS 

LIFE HISTORY OF SCHINIA NIVEICOSTA 

MINUTES OF PACIFIC SLOPE MEETINGS 

1966 ANNUAL MEETING IN OTTAWA 



(Complete contents on back cover) 
15 March 1966 



President: 

1st Vice President: 

Vice President: 

Vice President: 

Treasurer: 

Asst. Treasurer: 
Secretary: 

Asst. Secretary: 



THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 
1965 OFFICERS 

F. H. Rindge (New York, N. Y., U. S. A.) 
I. F. B. Common (Canberra, Australia) 
Ramon Agenjo ( Madrid, Spain ) 
H. E. Hinton (Bristol, England) 
George Ehle (Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A.) 
Sidney A. Hessel (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.) 
John C. Downey ( Carbondale, 111., U. S. A. ) 
Floyd W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.) 



Terms expire Dec. 1965: 
Terms expire Dec. 1966: 
Terms expire Dec. 1967: 



EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Shigeru A. Ae (Showaku, Nagoya, Japan) 
Lincoln P. Brower (Amherst, Mass., U. S. A.) 
Charles P. Kimball (Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A.) 
W. Harry Lange, Jr. (Davis, Calif., U. S. A.) 
Hiroshi Kuroko (Fukuoka, Japan) 
D. F. Hardwick (Ottawa, Canada) 



and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor 



The object of The Lepidopterists' Society, which was formed in May, 1947, and 
formally constituted in December, 1950, is "to promote the science of lepidopterology 
in all its branches, ... to issue a periodical and other publications on Lepidoptera, 
to facilitate the exchange of specimens and ideas by both the professional worker and 
the amateur in the field; to secure cooperation in all measures" directed toward these 
aims (Constitution, Art. II). A special goal is to encourage free interchange among 
the lepidopterists of all countries. 

Membership in the Society is open to all persons interested in any aspect of 
lepidopterology. All members in good standing receive the Journal and the News of 
the Lepidopterists' Society. Institutions may subscribe to the Journal but may not 
become members. Prospective members should send to the Treasurer the full dues for 
the current year, together with their full name, address, and special lepidopterological 
interests. All other correspondence concerning membership and general Society 
business should be addressed to the Secretary. Remittance in dollars should be made 
payable to The Lepidopterists' Society. There are three paying classes of membership: 
Active Members — annnal dues $6.00 (U. S. A.) 
Sustaining Members — annual dues $15.00 (U. S. A.) 
Life Members — single sum $125.00 (U. S. A.) 

Dues may be paid in Europe to our official agent: E. W. Classey, 353 Hanworth 
Road, Hampton, Middx., England. 

In alternate years a list of members of the Society is issued, with addresses and 
special interests. All members are expected to vote for officers when mail ballots are 
distributed by the Secretary annually. There are four numbers in each volume of the 
Journal, scheduled for February, May, August, November, and eight numbers of the 
News each year. 



The Lepidopterists' Society is a non-profit, scientific organization. The office of 
publication is Yale University, Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut. Second 
class postage paid at Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 



Journal of 
The Lepidopterists' Society 

Volume 20 1966 Number 1 

APPLICATION OF AUTOMATION IN RHOPALOCERA RESEARCH 

Charles R. Crowe 

5027 N.E. 23rd Ave., Portland, Oregon 

In the 1890 census of Baltimore, Maryland, Dr. Herman Hollerith intro- 
duced the first punched card method of tabulating data (Copeland, 
1949). Since that time, punched card procedures have mushroomed to 
the point where automated tabulating processes are being utilized in al- 
most all phases of science and industry. 

To date, automated procedures in the Rhopalocera field are few. It is 
true that some experimental, and highly controversial, work has been 
carried on in the taxonomic area — witness the recent papers of Ehrlich, 
Rohlf, Sokal, Michener, and Sneath, among others. The scope of this 
pilot work is quite limited as of yet, though implications indicate a much 
broader investigation of this lucrative field by butterfly taxonomists. 

From compilation of punchcard data, the volumes of Forest Lepidop- 
tera of Canada (McGugan, 1958; Prentice, 1962, 1963) have been real- 
ized, and forest entomologists in the United States are also accumulating 
data on punchcard file systems (Powell, 1965). 

My desire, stemming from a speculative note by J. W. Tilden in the 
March, 1962, issue of the Lepidopterists' Neivs, is to acquaint the average 
collector with automated tabulating machines, with the primary empha- 
sis on recording field records and observations of collectors, and standard- 
ization of collecting procedures. 

The equipment mentioned is commonly in use today in banks, offices, 
and department stores and is mentioned here due to its relatively low 
cost. Many more elaborate computing or tabulating systems, such as 
International Business Machines (hereafter abbreviated to IBM) highly 
versatile 1401 series (Anonymous, 1961), are on the market today. 

As we frequently see in the news media, the Federal Government is 
underwriting huge sums annually to other deserving aspects of natural 
science. Perhaps a grant from the National Science Foundation or a simi- 
lar organization would be sufficient to start the project. Already Cornell 



2 Crowe: Processing butterfly data Vol. 20, no. 1 

University has produced a Pilot Register of Zoology ( W. L. Brown, 1964 ) 
for card listing of all living and fossil organisms. Perhaps soon a project 
of that type may be developed on a continuing basis. 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture presently has in operation a 
system adapted to the study, by automatic data processing, of range 
plants (Garrison & Skovlin, 1960). The plants each have a number, in 
a general catalog, and when noted in the field, a coded report is sent to 
the central office where it is punched in a card and processed on tabulat- 
ing machines. 

Since 1950 the Canadian Forest Insect and Disease Survey has utilized 
standardized procedures of recording field data on punch cards. At pres- 
ent, close to a million records have accumulated, with an annual inflow 
of new records close to 50,000 (C. E. Brown, 1964). In 1962, program- 
ming a Univac Solid State Computer, maps of Lepidoptera distribution 
were produced for Canada, utilizing methods described by C. E. Brown 
(1964). 

The Punch Card 

The punch card, when properly prepared, can produce automatically, 
and at high speed, an almost unlimited number of statistical comparisons 
(Arkin & Colton, 1964). The card is the actual controlling agent of all 
the machines through which it passes, causing itself to be counted, 
printed, classified, sorted in a sequence, collated in sequence, compared, 
selected, reproduced, edited, coded, and decoded, plus doing all the 
normal arithmetical operations. 

The card is divided into 12 horizontal columns and 80 vertical columns. 
The horizontal values indicate a general topic, as date or species, while 
the vertical values give a specific value to each subject. In Fig. 1 is re- 
produced a standard IBM punch card. The specific fields (areas to be 
punched, like date and species) may be marked off in any desired ar- 
rangement. 

The vertical columns have 12 general positions for punching, the two 
at the top being known as 12 or X punch areas, which are used as con- 
trols, or to identify a specific card. Thus an X punch in column 47 might 
indicate that the card carries special data on Eiiphydryas. 

Some possible card field descriptions, with regard to butterfly data, 
are as follows: 

Date card punched. The first card field, or first five columns of the 
IBM card, would be reserved for the date the card was actually punched 
and a code number for the keypuncher. 

Species number. Card columns six to 10 could be reserved for a number 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



SPECIES :gq<&10 OATE:20/07/S8 AMT: if L0C-,36°30'itf lgl'Zl'W IE6:C32£ 






DATE 

n MX 

op 110 

ijii 



06 3 

s 4 



22 
33 

555 5 

6 e|6 



0| 

6 7 8 9 II 

M1|1 

22222 
33 333 
4 0444 
55555 
EE§66 

7 7 7 7 7 
|e 8 3 8 
99 939 



MfE 
CAP- 
EtRY. 

01,80 

i i 






"SITE 

o|ooo 

II 



2 2] 24 £5 26 27 J« 29 10 



Ul 

|o| 
1 1 1 

222 
333 

4|J4 4 4 



LEG. 



i i 
|| 
II 

4444 

5 555 
6 66 

7 777 

8 8 8 3 
99 9 9 



KESEARCH COLUMNS 

0000000000000000000000000 

1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 

22222222222222222222 22222222222222 222222 
333 33333333333333333 3333333333333 3333333 
4444444444444444444444444444444444444444 

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 
i 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 E 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 E 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 
/ 7 7 77 777777 777777777 777777777777 7 7777 7 7 7 

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 38888888888888 
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9939999999999999999999999 



Explanation of Figure 

Fig. 1. The IBM punch card, as would conceivably be used in an entomological 
IBM installation. 



to be ascribed to each "species." This number does not, of course, have 
to be five spaces long, but that gives sufficient room for general locality 
records of some 99,999 different varieties to be numbered. 

Locality. Present methods of citing localities will not suffice for use on 
IBM cards. The only logical approach for a punch card is with latitude 
and longitude. This would necessitate collectors keeping track of this 
new information for each collecting site. 

County and state. Vast numbers of cards would be sorted by species 
and geographically, to facilitate manual handling. This would be ac- 
complished by coding the county and state of the locality from any 
standard atlas. The numbering would not need to be limited to North 
America, but could cover the world. 

Elevation. The altitude of capture would best be stated in hundreds 
of feet or meters above sea level. 

Collector. Each collector would have an assigned number, determined 
automatically as data is received from that collector. 

Since the machines print alphabetical figures, the first figure of an 
individual's number would consist of the first letter of his last name, i.e., 
John Doe, being D422. 

Remaining columns. Those columns remaining could be utilized in 
any means desired. Any type of information could be coded by number, 
the data being dependent on standardization — the key word in automa- 
tion. The areas could be used in any field of research, with entries of 
taxonomic, climatic, genetic, or other interests. These columns may be X 
or 12 punched in any specific column to indicate any one of several hun- 



4 Crowe: Processing butterfly data Vol. 20, no. 1 

dred different areas of research. The specialist, then, need only develop 
a code for his area of study, and publish it in a suitable medium. 

I emphasize the policy of nonspecialists doing the basic fieldwork spe- 
cifically for the purpose, that it is intolerable that the specialist should 
have to do all his own sampling (Ehrlich, 1961b), often covering years 
of research, when abundant punch card data could be within easy reach. 

Determinations. It is rare, even with experts, when 100% accuracy in 
determinations is realized. The use of numerical taxonomy should quan- 
tify this greatly, by giving numerical limits to degrees of variation. This 
data, if to be properly utilized, must then be presented in a usable form 
to novice collectors, so that accurate carded data may be forthcoming. 

Perhaps then, general instructions could be presented to collectors, de- 
veloping a special taxon, procedure, or covering a related area such as 
ecology, genetics, or taxonomy. After completion of these instructions, 
specialists may reasonably expect a high degree of accuracy in the infor- 
mation submitted concerning those specialized areas studied by the ama- 
teur. In turn, one can also expect the novice to become proficient, and 
eventually a specialist in his own area of interest. If a pilot project of 
this sort could be sponsored by the Society, it might be well to investigate 
it further. 

The Data Processing Machines 

The actual data processing system consists of numerous machines, each 
designed for a specific purpose, and all with an extreme range of func- 
tion. 

The keypunch. Data received from collectors must be punched in code 
numbers onto cards. This is done on a keypunch, a typewriter-like ma- 
chine that punches holes rather than printing. The holes are then read 
by various machines, through which the card passes, by means of metal 
brushes completing a circuit through the cards, the body of the card act- 
ing as an insulator. 

The reproducer (IBM 514). Where large amounts of similar informa- 
tion are to be punched, a reproducer is utilized, which copies, or "gang 
punches," the data from the preceding card. 

When connected to the IBM 407 tabulator, the 514 acts as a "summary 
punch," punching totals accumulated on the tabulator into new cards to 
reduce handling of large volumes of similar cards. 

The interpreter (IBM 552). When data is to be manually handled a 
great deal, as will large volumes of butterfly record cards, the punched 
holes may be printed on the top of the card, so as to be read visually. 

The sorter (Several makes). The sorter is used to put the cards into 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 5 

any type of sequence or order. This machine can select, group, or reject 
the numbers on any single column. Quite probably, new incoming cards 
will be sorted by collector, county, state, and species (sorting the most 
minor area first), and collated with the main file. 

The collator (IBM 085). To facilitate filing of the cards, a collator is 
used to merge groups in a common sequence. New cards will then be 
easily merged with the main file, rather than a time-consuming sorting 
process, due to the 085's ability to read 80 columns simultaneously. This 
machine may also be used to select groups of common card fields or con- 
trol punches. 

The tabulator (IBM 407). The tabulator is used to list all the coded 
data. It is another machine with many uses, and can add and subtract 
the card data while printing, besides cut a summary card on the IBM 514. 

A wiring panel on this machine gives an almost unlimited field of alter- 
nate working functions, each function being controlled by individual con- 
trol wires on the panel. The IBM 514, 552, 085, and 602-604 systems also 
have this control panel. 

The computer (IBM 602-604). Oftentimes there is a need for mathe- 
matical formulas to be solved in large numbers. This is done by a 
computer, and can handle most problems encountered in statistical com- 
parisons, correlations, or ratios. A disadvantage of this specific machine 
is its relatively slow speed. 

Operation of the Machines 

Figure 2 shows the flow of information from collection of data to its 
dispersal in a typical operation. A quick sort yields all the cards of a 
species in a given region for those who desire listings of all available in- 
formation on distribution in an area. By sorting on latitude and longi- 
tude, the IBM 407 can put a series of dots in sequence on a sheet of 
paper, the student needing only to add a map outline which has been 
printed to scale, in order to receive the known distribution of that species 
in the area of interest (see C. E. Brown, 1964). Another request on cor- 
relation of wing length and precipitation would be summary punched to 
find totals, the cards having sums figured on the computer. Thus, any 
type information desired, if punched on the cards, may be arranged in 
any manner and printed, whether a simple sort is required for a distribu- 
tional study or a complex selection process comparing several factors 
against each other is desired. 

In practice, quite probably collectors would be asked to supply the 
raw field data to be punched in the cards described. Figure 3 is a sug- 
gested format for consolidating field data. The area to the left would 



Crowe: Processing butterfly data 



Vol. 20, no. 1 



IBM 514 
gangpunch 
date recvd, 
and leg. 


4- . 




I 


T 


MAIN FILE 
in order by sp. , 
Long. , Lat. , 
State, and Co. 



IBM 085 

merge with egleis file 
and climate cards for 
line and space control 



REQUEST FOR 
DISTRIBUTION OF 
Speyeria egleis 



IBM 407 


list all 


S. egleis 


data 



MAP OF S . 

egleis 

LOCALITIES 



LISTING OF ALL 
SPMS. OF S. 
egleis COLLECTED 



->• 



SORTER 
select all S . 
egleis with wing 
color data 



REQUEST FOR 
CORRELATION OF S. 
egleis FW COLOR AND 
MEAN ANN. PRECIP. 



ECOLOGY FILE 
SOIL, 
CLIMATE, 
FOLIAGE , 
ETC. 



' ">- 



IBM 085 
merge S . egleis 
file with 
precip. data 



514 SUMMARY 
punch summary 
card of totals 



IBM 407 
summarize precip 
and wing .color. 





IJ-' 


^v 




SORTER 


IBM 514 


<"-'•«• 


select precip. 


punch precip. in 




cards and return 


research cols . 




to ecology file 


of species card 



IBM 604 
do all 

arithmetical 
operations 



CORRELATION 
COEFFICIENTS 
OF PRECIP. AND 
WING COLOR 



Explanation of Figure 

Fig. 2. The flow of data cards through an IBM installation. Solid line indicates 
path of new data to main file. Short dashes indicate path of data in request for dis- 
tribution. Dotted line indicates path of data in request for correlation of data. 



serve for the IBM card, the balance of written material being for the 
collectors' convenience. The format is not copyrighted, and may be 
copied. 

In the checkered area at the bottom of the card, coded data of research 
interest would be written. The control figures on the left indicate what 
the following information might consist of, and how to control it. On the 
card, "Taxo. X-45" indicates taxonomic data, the control punch an X in 
column 45. The circled column indicates the first punch and last punch 
of a field, the number being the number of the column. The coded num- 
ber itself will represent a value for a standard taxonomic feature, as 
genitalic measurement ratios or wing pattern elements. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



CODED DATA 
05360:SPECIES 
1207 64:DATE 
1 male:AMOUNT 
43°35':LAT. 



119°56':LONG. 
13 :COUNTY 
37 : STATE 
50 :ELV. 
C211 :LEG. 



SPECIES: Lycaena cupreus Date: 12 Jul 64 
Co: Harney State: Oreg . SPM # 1256 

LOCALITY DETAIL: 12 Miles NNW of Burns , Hy. 
395. In small ravine in Pine forest, 
along Theimer Creek. 

TWP: 21S RAN: 31E SEC: center of 15 
WEATHER: abt. 85°, few cumulus, wind light 
PLANTS NOTED: Willow and Aspen underbrush, 
Lodgepole Pine dominant, Lupines abundant. 
Leg:C.R. Crowe Det by:C.R.C .-July 19 64 

OTHER SPECIES PRESENT: helloides, editha , and rubidus . 

MISC. DATA: Benchmark at base of ravine is BM4950'. Dock was 

common in marshy spots along the creek and along the road. 

specimens were visiting goldenrod . 

CODED RESEARCH DATA REQUESTED BY SPECIALISTS. 



TAXO. X in col. 45 29 235684452164231105 46 
ECOL. 12 in col. 727221445 80 

CLIM. X in col. 47 47 2311032651137250 63 



Explanation of Figure 

Fig. 3. The suggested field data card format (not copyrighted). With this type of 
card, all raw data concerning butterflies will be collected and punched on a standard 
punch card format. 



On some of the more controversial genera, as in Speyeria, Euphydryas, 
and Colias, areas of common ground will have to be agreed on, so that a 
number may be applied to any given specimen. There, of course, will be 
some specimens that resist numbering, but probably can be broken down 
statistically and defined by numerical taxonomic methods and proce- 
dures. 

Species 

Some systematists would attempt to consolidate various species and 
form names ( Hovanitz, 1943 ) , ignoring variants from the original descrip- 
tion or types. Others, more versatile, even attack basic species concepts 
(Ehrlich, 1961a). Realizing that probably both have some useful appli- 
cation, it is necessary for automation to approach the recording area with 
a general compromise. 

As the primary usefulness of data processing lies in standardization of 
all values to be coded, it is noticed that members of many genera are 
quite resistant to any form of pigeonholing. It would appear from some 
recent literature (Ehrlich, 1961a, b; Ehrlich & Holm, 1962) that a spe- 
cies or subspecies is only a signpost along a long trail, and the post is 



8 Crowe: Processing butterfly data Vol. 20, no. 1 

planted only at the convenience of the original describer of the first speci- 
men. Ehrlich and Holm believe this type of thinking is now slowly on the 
decline as it becomes more obvious that the clear-cut "biological species" 
concept is nonexistent in many cases, with the distinctness of many of our 
own butterfly species probably being vastly overrated. 

Recently Ehrlich demonstrated a method of discriminating specimens 
by comparing their taxonomic features. That is, Euphydryas editha 
colonia would no longer be a name, but a concept expressed with a 
specific number representing coded values of certain taxonomic charac- 
ters. These numbers, in themselves, would replace conventional methods 
of naming of various supposedly "distinct" entities found in the field. 
Names, then, will be retained only as a convenience in speaking or writ- 
ing of a very wide group. 

Ehrlich (1961a) after a careful analysis of 74 different characters on 
13 specimens of Euphydryas, was able to construct with automated equip- 
ment (Burroughs 220, checked on IBM 650 series) a statistical diagram 
that revealed significant discriminatory information of the specimens, and 
established a base for speculaton on origins. It is probable that in most 
cases, after a preliminary investigation of great numbers of characters 
with each taxon, the total number might be simplified and standardized 
to those characters that are most significant. Stroud pioneered in this 
statistical area using only 14 characters in a study of termites (Sokal & 
Michener, 1958). More, perhaps, would be necessary to accumulate sig- 
nificant data with most of our genera, but the possibilities that novice 
collectors, with simplified procedures and equipment, might be of value 
in this field are great. 

The present literature offers many examples of standardization suitable 
for widespread usage with automated equipment. Hovanitz (1943) has 
formulated a table for California Speyeria callippe, which need only be 
extended to other callippe forms, and addition of other characteristics 
than wing color patterns. In conjunction with Jude Le Gare (1951), he 
diagrammed and coded the pattern elements of Melitaea chalcedona, 
which may be applied to any form of Euphydryas, again adding other 
characteristics to better represent the known variation. These are only 
two of the many noted examples. By compiling, editing, and coding 
variable features of a species, then, eventually standardized procedures 
may be developed with which one may adequately deal with any butter- 
fly variation found in the field or produced in the laboratory. 

A notable quote from Ehrlich ( 1961a ) : "The continued presence of 
authors' names following the names of species of North American butter- 
flies is, in most cases, a waste of type." "Citation of authors' names as a 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 9 

matter of course should cease." To my way of thinking, the present dos 
Passos checklist ( 1964 ) should be used as a standard directory, ignoring 
authors, until such time as a truly knowledgable and meaningful change 
in the status of the names may be made. With governing by the Interna- 
tional Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, the rules and names com- 
prise a usable system, but perhaps another, more usable system, should 
replace it. 

Some Advantages of Automation 

A great number of existing possibilities for every collector and interest 
is apparent, besides having all records available even though files or col- 
lections may be lost through accident or demise. 

New specialists would be attracted to the field, making contributions 
from their own knowledge and specializations. Mathematicians and stat- 
isticians will be involved directly in the project, adding their training and 
experience to that of the taxonomist. 

Of necessity, the record-keeping practices of participating collectors 
will improve. Vast amounts of information normally ignored, or lost in 
field notebooks, will come to light. 

With a listing of all localities that have been collected, "blank" areas 
of previously uncollected areas will be noted, and perhaps collected, add- 
ing new distributional data to the files. 

The only requirement of card punching, as mentioned earlier, is stan- 
dardization of data, so that any conceivable type of data may be pre- 
served on the punched card and compared in a statistical analysis with 
any other type of data. 

With latitude and longitude accurately determined, it is possible to 
punch other sets of cards with extensive ecological data: climato- 
logical means, soil data, solar radiation maps, radioactive background 
counts, foliage cover and plant or tree distributions, geological maps, and 
other type of information found in a standardized format that could be 
carded. This data could be collated with that of the butterfly specimens 
to yield considerable information on life habits, habitats, and distribu- 
tions, besides giving a means of comparing taxonomic features with 
ecological data to find, possibly, a previously unknown or unsuspected 
correlaton. 

The long, tedious, computations necessary in correlating could be car- 
ried out rather simply with automated equipment. Large volumes of 
data could be automatically correlated as a matter of course, resolving 
obscure questions on pattern and ecology relationships, or other similar 
problems. 



10 Crowe: Processing butterfly data Vol. 20, no. 1 

Presently, the U. S. Navy has ventured into electronography (Plain, 
1964), with electronic taping of entire pieces of literature. With their 
present equipment, some 17,400 characters are composed per second, with 
enlarged microfilm negatives being printed at the rate of 240 an hour. 
This, in the future, then, would allow a specialist to microfilm every col- 
lected specimen and present it to the computer. At the press of a button, 
every known fact about that species could be at hand, along with photo- 
graphs of every specimen recorded. Fantastic, I admit, but such a process 
is well within the realm of possibility. 

Some Disadvantages of Automation 

Fred Thome ( 1964 ) writes that in the past, development of the Annual 
Season Summary series has had many difficulties, both in getting mem- 
bers to cooperate and in getting them to use the now standardized for- 
mat. How, then, would members cooperate in the gigantic task of 
accumulating the necessary data for automation? A difficult question, 
which could be answered during the eventual trial of automated data 
processing. 

The IBM equipment cannot perform miracles, and even the simplest 
operation may consume considerable time. This would necessitate re- 
search priorities, and possibly long waiting lists. To circumvent general 
requests of a distributional nature, the task of preparing the Annual Sea- 
son Summary could be assumed by the machines, only reporting on a 
much wider scope, giving species listings, or maps, of every specimen 
reported during that year. After sufficient data is collected and com- 
pared with ecological data, distribution maps of probable range could 
be easily issued. These maps could then be accumulated by collectors, 
and used to solve most distributional problems. 

Needless to say, many "specimen hunters" or commercial collectors will 
take neither the time nor effort to support a project of automated nature. 

Summary 

It is inevitable that one day a system similar to that described shall 
have to be initiated in this field. Presently, collections are becoming so 
vast, and scattered among so many institutions and individuals, that any 
major study is becoming quite difficult, through the sheer volume of data 
to be accumulated and processed. 

If a forecast were required, I should call for a vast system of inter- 
locked computers, handling the new information as it is collected and 
correlating the mass with giant stores of previous entries. We can prob- 
ably look forward to an institution that determines individual collectors' 



j 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 11 

annual catch, for the privilege of microfilming the specimens and sub- 
mitting the data to the computer. The vast amount of literature concern- 
ing butterflies will be scanned and all relevant information and facts 
taped or stored in the computers — the factual data being emitted in a 
single lump at the push of a button. The system will spread to encom- 
pass not only butterflies, but all insects, plants, and animals, present and 
extinct. 

Quite probably, before the end of the next few years stimulating 
entomological papers of significance will be forthcoming from those not 
directly interested in entomology, but in statistics, mathematics, and auto- 
mated equipment. While emphasis on nomenclature sinks to obscurity, 
data emitted from the bowels of an electronic maze of transistors, wires, 
and memory cells will formulate new concepts concerning behavior, com- 
parative anatomy, genetics, geographical and ecological distribution, and 
evolutionary trends. 

The author was graduated from the Western Automation Institute in 
Portland, Oregon, and for a year and a half before entering the meteo- 
rology field, operated the equipment mentioned in this report. 

I wish to offer my thanks to L. P. Grey, Dr. J. A. Powell, and F. T. 
Thorne for their invaluable aid with criticisms and suggestions on this 
paper. 

Literature Cited 

Anonymous, 1960. General Information Manual, Introduction to IBM Data Process- 
ing Systems. I.B.M. Corp. 
1961. General Information Manual, IBM 1401 Data Processing System from Con- 
trol Panel to Stored Program. I.B.M. Corp. 

Arkin, H., & R. R. Colton, 1964. Statistical Methods. Barnes & Noble, Inc., New 
York. 

Brown, C. E., 1964. A machine method for mapping insect survey records. Contr. 
1103, Forest Ent. & Pathol. Branch, Dept. Forestry, Ottawa, Canada. 

Brown, W. L., Jr., 1964. Pilot Register of Zoology. N. Y. College of Agriculture at 
Cornell Univ. 

Copeland, J. A., 1949. The Weather Bureau Punched Card Project. 1946-1947 Lec- 
tures to Professional Interns. Weather Bureau Training Paper No. 2: 35-48. 

dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Lep. Soc. 
Memoir, No. 1. 

Ehrlich, P. R., 1961a. Has the biological species concept outlived its usefulness? 
Systematic Zoology, 10(4): 167-176. 
1961b. Systematics in 1970: Some unpopular predictions. Systematic Zoology, 
10(4): 157-158. 

Ehrlich, P. R., & R. W. Holm, 1962. Patterns and populations. Science, 137(3531): 
652-657. 

Garrison, G. A., & J. M. Skovlin, 1960. Northwest range plant symbols. Pac. N.W. 
Forest & Range Exp. Sta., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture-Forest Service. 

Hovanitz, W., 1943. Geographical variation and racial structures of Argynnis cal- 
lippe in California. Amer. Nat., 77: 400-425. 



12 Wilkinson: Cercyonis at light Vol. 20, no. 1 



Jude Le Gare, M., & W. Hovanitz, 1951. Genetic and ecologic analyses of wild 

populations in Lepidoptera. II. Color pattern variation in Melitaea chalcedona. 

W'asmann Jour. Biol, 9(3): 257-310. 
McGugan, B. M., 1958. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada. Vol. 1. Papilionidae to 

Arctiidae. Canad. Dept. Agric. Publ. 1034: 1-76. 
Plain, C, 1964. Writers Envision Automated Library. San Diego Union. May ( day 

of issue unknown). 
Powell, J. A., 1965. Personal communication. 
Prentice, R. M., 1962. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada. Vol. 2. Nycteolidae to 

Liparidae. Canad. Dept. Forestry, Bull. 128: 77-282. 
1963. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada. Vol. 3. Lasiocampidae to Geometridae. 

Canad. Dept. Forestry, Publ. 1013: 283-543. 
Rohlf, F. J., 1963a. Classification of Aedes by numerical taxonomic methods. Ann. 

Ent. Soc. Amer., 56(6): 798-804. 
1963b. Congruence of larval and adult classifications in Aedes. Svstematic Zoologv, 

12(3): 97-117. 
Sokal, R. R., & C. D. Michener, 1958. A statistical method for evaluating systematic 

relationships. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38, Part 11(22): 1409-1438. 
Sokal, R. R., & P. H. A. Sneath, 1963. Principles of Numerical Taxonomy. W. H. 

Freeman & Co., San Francisco. 
Ulam, S. M., 1964. Computers. Sci. Amer., 211(3): 202-216. 
Urness, D. B. (IBM Systems Engineer), 1964. Personal communication. 



CERCYONIS PEGALA NEPHELE (SATYRIDAE) AT 
FLUORESCENT LIGHT 

Having read the recent notices of Rhopalocera taken at light, both in 
the Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society and the Entomologist's Record 
and Journal of Variation, I was most interested to find another species 
attracted to fluorescent light. While collecting Noctuidae in the company 
of John Newman at Morenci, Michigan, on the evening of July 31, 1965, 
using a 15-watt "BL" fluorescent black light suspended before a white 
sheet on a frame, a male Cercyonis pegala nephele (Kirby) was seen to 
fly at the lighted sheet and react in the same manner as a nocturnal in- 
sect. It was obviously attracted by the light, and soon settled upon the 
ground flap. 

Due to the location of the apparatus and other circumstances, it is safe 
to say that the butterfly was not mechanically disturbed from its resting 
place, but was actually drawn by the lamp. We had seen the species oc- 
casionally while collecting in the afternoon. The specimen was taken at 
approximately 10:30 P.M., and a light rain of over two hours' duration 
had just ceased, reinforcing the certainty of attraction. 

Ronald S. Wilkinson, 2337 Hamilton Rd., Okemos, Michigan 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 13 

THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND 
CHEMICALS ON THE MARKINGS OF PIERIS RAPAE (PIERIDAE) 

John M. Kolyer 

55 Chimney Ridge Drive, Convent, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

Introduction 
It is well known (Klots, 1951; Comstock and Comstock, 1943) that the 
dark markings of Pieris rapae ( Linnaeus ) are somewhat reduced, or even 
entirely absent (form immaculata), in the spring brood, which emerges 
from overwintering pupae. Therefore, the markings are capable of being 
diminished by particular factors that are involved in the spring brood, 
and the present work is essentially an attempt to reduce the markings by 
means of light and temperature variations and, especially, incorporation 
of certain chemicals in the larval diet. 

Rearing Procedure 
In the course of the experiments, five consecutive broods were reared 
indoors beginning with eggs laid by females captured at Morristown, New 
Jersey (July 2, 1964) and Doylestown, Pennsylvania (July 4, 1964). In- 
breeding was not very close, because a number of pairs from each brood 
were mated and the eggs of mixed parentage reared together to give the 
next brood. There was no evidence of declining vigor in the development 
rates; the durations of stages for the second and fifth broods (control 
groups ) were not greatly different, as seen below. 



Brood 


Date Eggs 
Laid 


Relative 
Humidity 

(%) 


Temp. 
(°F.) 


No. of Days 
Eggs Laid Hatched Pupation 


Eclosion 


2 
5 


July 31, 1964 
Nov. 15, 1964 


51-66 

36-53 


68-86 
67-75 


3 21-27 
0-2 3-7 21-24 


29-31 
30-34 



Incidentally, typical S-shaped curves were obtained by plotting length 
of the largest larva vs. time; in the case of the first brood, the largest 
larva increased from one mm ( calculated to be about 2 X 10 5 grams ) at 
hatching to a maximum of 25 mm ( 0.25 grams ) in the course of 14 days, 
and the same increase in length took place in the case of the third brood 
in 15 days. The length of the smallest larva in the third brood increased 
from two mm on the seventh day after hatching to only 10 mm on the 
19th day, showing the wide range in growth rates among individuals. 

The larvae were fed cabbage leaves from refrigerated heads and were 
reared in cardboard boxes (4.5 inches high and 9 inches square with a 
gauze window 5.5 inches square in the lid) in diffuse light. 



14 



Kolyeh: Pic ris wing markings 



Vol. 20, no. 1 



26 



22 

No. of 
Speci- 
mens 



18 



14 



10 



Female 
spot 2 



Male 





spot 1 



rx 



Female spot 1 



Total: 
107 males, 
\ 119 females 

1 (control group) 



0.6 



1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 

WIDTH OF SPOT (mm) (0.1 mm increments) 



Explanation of Graph 1 
Frequency curves for wing spot widths in Pier is rapae (L.). 

Mating was accomplished by exposing about 10 to 75 adults (roughly 
equal numbers of the sexes ) in a screen cage ( 16 inch cube ) to direct 
sunlight for one or two days. Then cabbage leaves were hung up on the 
sunny side of the cage for two or three successive days to obtain a yield 
of several hundred fertile eggs. In certain cases, a single pair was mated 
by exposing to sunlight in a jar, and the offspring were reared separately, 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



15 




Total: 

107 males, 
119 females 
(control group) 



20 21 22 23 

FOREWING LENGTH (mm) (1 mm increments) 

Explanation of Graph 2 
Frequency curves for wing length in Pieris rapae ( L. ) . 



but since variation in the markings for offspring of a single pair was as 
great as the general variation, groups of mixed parentage were used for 
most purposes. 

Chemicals were fed by sprinkling a fine powder from salt shakers, 
liberally onto the cabbage leaves. The chemicals were obtained from 
Matheson, Coleman, and Bell Co., with the exception of hydroquinone 
(from B. and A. Division, Allied Chem. Corp.) and 4-chlororesorcinol 
(from Koppers Co.; recrystallized to give a capillary melting point of 
108.5-110° C). Chemical feeding was initiated when the larvae had 
reached a length of 7-23 mm ( 3-8 mm in the case of tyrosine and phenylal- 
anine ) . 



L6 



Kolyer: Pieris wing markings 



Vol. 20, no. 1 



Table 1 

EFFECT OF PUPAL COLOR AND OF REFRIGERATION OF PUPAE 

ON ADULT WING SPOTS 



MALES 


Pupal 
Color 


Refrig- 
erated 


Wing 
Length 
( mm ) 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 




Spot ( mm ) 




Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


green 
brown 
green 
brown 


no 
no 
yes 
yes 


23 
22 
22 
22 


5 

9 
8 
6 


1.0-1.6 
0.9-1.9 
1.3-1.7 
0.9-1.6 


1.3 
1.3 
1.5 
1.4 


0.14 
0.24 
0.14 

0.33 


0.19 
0.29 
0.15 
0.35 


FEMALES 


Pupal 
Color 


Refrig- 
erated 


Wing 
Length 
( mm ) 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 




Spot 1 ( 


rim ) 




Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


green 
brown 
green 
brown 


no 
no 
yes 
yes 


22 
22 
21 
21 


7 
3 
4 
5 


2.1-2.5 
1.8-2.9 
1.9-2.5 
1.8-2.5 


2.3 
2.2 
2.1 
2.1 


0.13 
0.43 
0.25 
0.20 


0.15 
0.51 
0.26 
0.24 


Pupal 
Color 


Refrig- 
erated 


Wing 
Length 
( mm ) 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 




Spot 2 ( 


mm ) 




Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


green 
brown 
green 
brown 


no 
no 
yes 
yes 


22 
22 
21 
21 


7 
3 
4 
5 


1.2-1.6 
0.9-1.9 
0.9-1.6 
0.8-1.4 


1.3 
1.3 
1.2 
1.2 


0.07 
0.40 
0.22 
0.18 


0.13 
0.44 
0.26 
0.22 



Measurement of Markings 

In order to provide a quantitative parameter, the width of the forewing 
spots ( one in the male, two in the female ) was measured, and, since the 
spots are variable even among the offspring of a single pair, it was nec- 
essary to express results statistically by means of a range, an average, an 
average deviation (AD), and a standard deviation (SD). As will be 
seen ( Tables 1-4 ) , no emphatic reduction in the average was encountered 
for any test group. Intensity of the markings, as opposed to width, was 
not measured but was found to be diminished markedly, especially for 
the apical area, in certain cases ( Plates 1-3 ) . 

The spots were measured as shown in Graph 1 by means of a 6-power 
comparator with 0.2 mm scale divisions (Edmund Scientific Co., Bar- 
rington, N.J., No. 30,169 in Catalog 645). Estimation was necessary be- 
cause the edges of the spots are not very sharply defined, but good agree- 
ment was obtained among controls ( Tables 1-3 ) . 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



17 



Table 2 
VARIABILITY IN SIZE OF WING SPOTS 



MALES 


Group 




Wing 
Length 

(mm ) 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 




Spot ( mm ) 




Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


Control 




22 


107 


0.8-2.0 


1.4 


0.18 


0.25 


Offspring of si 


ingle pair 


22 


6 


0.9-1.7 


1.4 


0.15 


0.24 


Wild sample 1 




23 


25 


1.0-1.9 


1.5 


0.16 


0.22 


Wild (Spring Brood 2 ) 


22 


21 


0.6-1.3 3 


1.0 3 


0.16 3 


0.20 3 


FEMALES 


Group 




Wing 
Length 

(mm) 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 




Spot 1 (] 


rnn) 




Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


Control 




21 


119 


1.5-2.7 


2.1 


0.18 


0.24 


Offspring of si 


ingle pair 


21 


11 


1.5-2.5 


2.0 


0.24 


0.29 


Wild sample 




22 


4 


1.5-2.3 


2.0 


0.25 


0.30 


Wild (Spring Brood) 


22 


15 


1.4-2.2 


1.8 


0.17 


0.21 


Group 




Wing 
Length 
(mm) 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 




Spot 2 ( i 


mm) 




Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


Control 




21 


119 


0.6-1.8 


1.2 


0.20 


0.24 


Offspring of single pair 


21 


11 


0.4-1.5 


1.1 


0.20 


0.27 


Wild sample 




22 


4 


1.2-1.8 


1.5 


0.20 


0.22 


Wild ( Spring 


Brood 2 ) 


22 


15 


0.7-1.8 


1.2 


0.30 


0.33 



1 Collected at Doylestown, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1964. 

2 Collected at Flemington, New Jersey on May 1, 1965. 

3 These values are for the 10 specimens with spots; the others (11) had no spots (0—10 black 
scales in area where spot should be ) . 

Note: The spring brood females tended to have dusky basal regions on the forewing and weak or 
absent apical markings. 



Forewing lengths were measured as shown in Fig. 2 and averaged for 
each set of wings. Then the spot measurement for each wing was normal- 
ized to the mean wing length by multiplying by the quotient of the mean 
length divided by the particular length. Average deviation (AD) and 
standard deviation ( SD ) calculations indicated that approximately normal 
curves were obtained (Graph 1). 



Pupal Color 
Pupal color was studied to some extent, the main interest being in 
checking for correlation with adult markings. 

In many cases, pupae were definitely either brown or pale green, but 



IS 



Kolyer: Pic ris wing markings 



Vol. 20, no. 1 



Table 3 
EFFECT OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON SIZE OF WING SPOTS 

(Wing lengths normalized to 22 mm for males, 21 mm for females) 



MALES 








No. 






Spot ( mm ) 






Group 




Speci- 






























mens 


Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


Control ( 1 ) ; 18 hrs 


. light /day 


107 


0.8- 


-2.0 


1.4 


0.18 


0.25 


Control (2); as above 


16 


1.1- 


-2.0 


1.5 


0.25 


0.30 


Reared 


in darkness 


(1) 


11 


0.7- 


-2.1 


1.2 


0.30 


0.38 


Reared 


in darkness 


(2) 


18 


1.3- 


-2.2 


1.6 


0.13 


0.19 


Darkness and cold 1 




7 


1.2- 


-1.7 


1.4 


0.17 


0.19 


FEMALES 








No. 






Spotl (] 


urn ) 






Group 




Speci- 
mens 
















Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


Control 


(1) 




119 


1.5- 


-2.7 


2.1 


0.18 


0.24 


Control 


(2) 




18 


1.4- 


-2.6 


2.0 


0.25 


0.33 


Reared 


in darkness ( 1 ) 


6 


1.7- 


-2.1 


1.8 


0.15 


0.21 


Reared 


in darkness (2) 


16 


2.0- 


-2.9 


2.5 


0.23 


0.26 


Darkness and cold 1 




10 


1.9- 


-2.7 


2.3 


0.18 


0.22 








No. 






Spot 2 ( 


mm ) 






Group 




Speci- 






























mens 


Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


Control 


(1) 




119 


0.6- 


-1.8 


1.2 


0.20 


0.24 


Control 


(2) 




18 


0.6- 


-2.2 


1.3 


0.32 


0.40 


Reared 


in darkness ( 1 ) 


6 


0.7- 


-1.4 


1.1 


0.20 


0.25 


Reared 


in darkness 


(2) 


16 


1.0- 


-1.9 


1.5 


0.19 


0.24 


Darkness and cold 1 




10 


0.9- 


-1.7 


1.4 


0.19 


0.23 



1 The larvae, after reaching 3-8 mm, were reared at 37-68° F. and 38-78% rel. humidity, in 
darkness. Pupae were kept at 33-68° F. and 44-80% rel. humidity, in darkness, until eclosion. 



there were all variations between, so that the colors often had to be 
judged subjectively, making the following numbers only approximate. 
Also, there was a shift toward green (see below) as the pupae matured. 
Ultimately, of course, darkening before eclosion obscured the original 
colors. 

Sex ratio. — A pair that had eclosed from green pupae was mated, and 
the resulting larvae gave 16% green among the male pupae ( total of 25 ) 
( 36% after 3 days ) and 33% green among the female pupae ( total of 15 ) 
(60% after 3 days). This shows that neither sex necessarily has an es- 
sential monopoly on the green color. Incidentally, larvae are easily sorted 
by sex by means of the subcutaneous dorsal markings ( presumably testes ) 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



19 




Explanation of Plate I 

Pieris rapae (L.) specimens with unusual markings. 1, $, larva fed 4-chloro- 
resorcinol, light markings; 2, $ , larva fed p-aminobenzoic acid, unusually light mark- 
ings; 3, $ , larva fed p-aminobenzoic acid, spot 2 absent; 4, $ , larva fed cysteine -HC1, 
no black scales in spot of upperside shown; 5, $ , larva fed ascorbic acid, no black 
scales in spot; 6-8, reared at reduced temperatures (see "dark and cold" group, 
Table 3), 6, 2, light apical markings, 7, $, light markings, 8, $, pupal case on 
abdomen. 



20 Kolyer: Pieris wing markings Vol. 20, no. 1 

in the male. In one case, 27 male larvae were sorted from 17 females, the 
sexes being verified when the adults eclosed. 

Inheritance. — Larvae obtained from a pair which had eclosed from 
green pupae produced 21% green pupae (of total of 39), while brown- 
pupa parents gave larvae which yielded 28% green pupae (of total of 
108). A single pair of brown-pupa parents gave larvae which produced 
35% green pupae (of total of 31). Therefore, under the conditions of this 
particular test, pupal color of the parents had no control over pupal color 
of the offspring. However, it has been reported (Harrison, 1928) that 
the green pupal color, inhibited by orange light, in Pieris napi ( L. ) and 
Pieris brassicae is inherited. 

Photoperiod. — Larvae which were reared and pupated in darkness 
gave only brown pupae (of total of 93). With 18 hours of light/day, 
offspring of a single pair (from brown pupae) gave 24% green pupae (of 
total of 17), while the combined offspring of several brown-pupa pairs 
produced 30% green (of total of 330). With 10 hours light/day the 
offspring of a single pair of brown-pupa parents produced 29% green 
pupae (of total of 17). Thus it seems that reduction of the photophase 
from 18 to 10 hours had no pronounced effect but that complete absence 
of light gave only brown pupae. That darkness causes brown pupae in 
Pieris rapae has been reported (Okamoto, 1960). This reference also 
states that the pupal color is determined by photostimuli in the fifth instar 
larva and that the wavelength and quantity of light reflected from the 
pupal site is of great importance. However, in the present work there was 
no definite trend towards green pupae in those regions ( such as the gauze 
window) of the rearing boxes that received the most light. 

Chemical effects. — Larvae fed phenylalanine gave 7% green pupae ( of 
total of 29), and those fed tyrosine gave 24% green (of total of 17), while 
the control group gave 22% green (of total of 135). Increased melanin 
formation caused by phenylalanine (see discussion below) would explain 
the low proportion of green pupae, though this is a doubtful rationaliza- 
tion. 

In another series of experiments, the following melanogenesis inhibitors 
gave the percent green pupae in parentheses: 4-chlororesorcinol (61%, of 
total of 23), p-aminobenzoic acid (26%, of total of 31), cysteine hydro- 
chloride (14%, of total of 8), and ascorbic acid (8%, of total of 24). The 
control gave 38% ( of total of 24 ) . There is no obvious correlation in these 
data; the very high proportion of green pupae obtained with 4-chloro- 
resorcinol might be rationalized as inhibition of pigmentation, but there 
would seem to be an opposite effect with the other melanogenesis in- 
hibitors. It is to be understood that the biochemical reaction sequences 
which may be initiated by these chemicals are unknown. 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



21 




Explanation of Plate II 
Pieris rapae ( L. ) specimens with unusual markings. 9-10, larvae reared at reduced 
temperatures (see "dark and cold" group, Table 3), 9, $, light apical markings, 10, 
S , light markings; 11-12, larvae exposed to ultraviolet light (mostly 366 millimicrons) 
for total of 18 hours, 11, $, spot very light, almost absent, 12, 2, pupal case on 
abdomen; 13-15, larvae fed tyrosine, 13, 6 , apical black scales partly missing, 14, 2 , 
spot 1 nearer margin, 15, $ , apical markings very light; 16, $ , larva fed phenylalanine, 
markings normal. 



22 Kolyek: Pieris wing markings Vol. 20, no. 1 

Effect on adult markings. — Pupae which were definitely either brown 
or green were selected and allowed to develop and eclose under ambient 
conditions (72-81° F., 36-55 % relative humidity) or were placed (within 
three days following pupation) in refrigeration (0-2° C, 100% relative 
humidity) for one week and then allowed to develop and eclose under 
ambient conditions (69-81° F., 35-55 % relative humidity). The time 
from pupation of the first to eclosion of the last was 12 days for unre- 
frigerated pupae and 19 days for refrigerated pupae. The results are given 
in Graph 1. No significant variation in size of the forewing spots was 
found with respect to pupal color (or as a result of refrigeration under 
the specified conditions). 

Adult Wing Markings 

Variability of spots. — Graph 2 shows the variability in the size of the 
spots for a large control group of mixed parentage, the offspring of a 
single pair, and a series of wild specimens collected at Doylestown, 
Pennsylvania, on October 4, 1964. Frequency curves for the control group 
of 226 specimens are shown in Graph 1. It is seen that normal frequency 
curves are approximately defined by plotting the number of specimens 
having a particular size spot vs. spot size in 0.1 mm increments. For the 
control group, normal curves also are produced by plotting number of 
individuals with a particular length vs. wing length in 1 mm increments 
as shown in Graph 2. For wing length, AD was 0.70 for males or females, 
and SD was 1.1 for males and 0.96 for females. This means that at least 
997c of wing lengths will fall within 15% (for males) or 14% (for females) 
of the mean, while, for the same control group, the variance is 54% for 
the male spot, 34% for female spot 1, and 60% for female spot 2. Thus, 
the spots are much more variable than the wing lengths. It will be noted 
that the SD in the tables lies between 0.15 and 0.38 for the male spot, 0.13 
and 0.51 for female spot 1, and 0.13 and 0.44 for female spot 2. 

It may be concluded from examining Table 2 that the spots were as 
variable within a brood as within the general population. 

Effect of light and temperature. — Table 3 shows the results for (1) 
the large control group, raised with 18 hours light/day, (2) another 
control group, also raised with 18 hours light/day, (3) groups from dif- 
ferent broods reared in darkness from the time the larvae reached 4-10 
mm in length to eclosion (two males and one female were refrigerated 
with no noticeable effect on the spots ) , and ( 4 ) a group reared in dark- 
ness at reduced temperatures. Note that the lack of effect of refrigeration 
when initiated after pupation, was mentioned above. 

For one brood ( 1 ) reared in darkness, the indication is that the spots 
may have been diminished slightly in size. However, in the other brood 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



Table 4 
EFFECT OF CHEMICALS (FED TO LARVAE) ON SIZE OF WING SPOTS 



MALES 




Mor- 


No. 


Wing 




Spot (mm) 






tality : 


bpeci 


- Length 




















Chemical 


(%V 


mens 


( mm ) 


Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


DL-£-phenylalanine 


88 


10 


21 


1.0-2.0 


1.5 


0.22 


0.28 


L-tyrosine 


84 


6 


22 


0.8-1.9 


1.5 


0.33 


0.38 


4-chlororesorcinol 


45 


12 


22 


1.1-1.9 


1.6 


0.15 


0.20 


p-aminobenzoic acid 


41 


13 


22 


0.8-1.7 


1.5 


0.19 


0.25 


L( + ) cysteine -HC1 


85 


3 2 


21 


1.2-1.7 


1.5 


0.25 


0.26 


L ( + ) ascorbic acid 





13 2 


22 


1.2-2.0 


1.6 


0.20 


0.24 


FEMALES 




No. 




Wing 




Spot 1 (] 


mm ) 






Speci- 




Length 






















mens 




(mm) 


Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


DL-/3-phenylalanine 


9 




21 


2.0-2.7 


2.4 


0.18 


0.22 


L-tyrosine 


10 




20 


1.5-2.7 


1.9 


0.29 


0.36 


4-chlororesorcinol 


9 




21 


1.9-2.6 


2.3 


0.18 


0.22 


p-aminobenzoic acid 


15 




21 


1.0-2.6 


2.1 


0.27 


0.39 


L( + ) cysteine -HC1 


3 




19 


1.9-2.2 


2.1 


0.10 


0.13 


L ( + ) ascorbic acid 


9 




21 


2.0-2.6 


2.2 


0.11 


0.17 




No. 




Wing 




Spot 2 ( 


mm) 






Speci- 
mens 




Length 

(mm) 














Range 


Average 


AD 


SD 


DL-jQ-phenylalanine 


9 




21 


1.3-1.9 


1.5 


0.13 


0.18 


L-tyrosine 


10 




20 


0.7-1.5 


1.1 


0.20 


0.25 


4-chlororesorcinol 


9 




21 


1.0-1.7 


1.4 


0.10 


0.17 


p-aminobenzoic acid 


15 




21 


0.8-1.8 


1.2 


0.13 


0.23 


L( + ) cysteine -HC1 


3 




19 


0.8-1.3 


1.1 


0.20 


0.22 


L ( + ) ascorbic acid 


9 




21 


1.1-1.8 


1.4 


0.24 


0.26 



1 (100) (no. original larvae — no. of adults obtained ) /no. original larvae. Hydroquinone and thio- 
urea gave 100% mortality. 

2 There were no black scales in the spot in the case of one specimen. 



(2) there was no indication of decrease in size of either the male or fe- 
male spots, and no change in intensity was evident. 

When a group of larvae, starting at 3-8 mm, was reared in darkness at 
reduced temperatures (down to 33° F.) so that pupation occurred at 
32-50 days vs. 24-36 days for the control, and eclosion began at 62 days 
vs. 33 days for the control, the spots of the adults showed no general 
decrease in size (Table 3) or intensity. However, certain individuals 
were lightly marked apically (Figs. 6, 9), as were none of the large 
control group. One specimen (Fig. 8) retained the abdominal part of 
the pupal case. 



24 Kolyer: Pieris wing markings Vol. 20, no. 1 

Another group was reared under standard conditions, but the pupae 
were refrigerated (beginning at 0-4 days after pupation) for 39 days at 
32-38° F. (100% relative humidity); the markings were of normal size 
(averages: male spot 1.4 mm, wing 22 mm; female spot 1, 2.2 mm, spot 
2, 1.3 mm, wing 21 mm). Irradiation of larvae with ultraviolet light 
(mostly 366 millimicrons) for a total of 18 hours, in the case of another 
group, had no appreciable effect except that one male was lightly marked 
(Fig. 11) and a female happened to retain the abdominal pupal case 
(Fig. 12). 

It was concluded that those variations of light and temperature which 
were applied were unsuccessful in consistently reducing the size of the 
markings from the normal summer-brood range. However, the fact that 
four of the seventeen specimens reared in darkness at reduced temperature 
were lightly marked (Figs. 6, 7, 9, 10) suggests that possibly an exten- 
sion of low-temperature storage (via diapause) following pupation at 
rather low temperature might produce a consistent effect, as is presum- 
ably the natural situation producing the spring brood. 

Effect of chemicals. — Curious individual variations were obtained by 
feeding the larvae certain chemicals active in the process of melanin 
formation which operates during the pupal stage to produce the dark 
markings of the adult. 

The chemicals were ( 1 ) phenylalanine, found in Pieris brassicae larvae 
and food leaves (Stamm and Aguirre, 1955) and starting material for 
melanogenesis, (2) tyrosine, also a starting material for melanogenesis 
and found freely in insect blood ( Brunet, 1963 ) and, along with phenylal- 
anine, in silkworm skin (Watanabe, 1956), (3) 4-chlororesorcinol, which 
causes lack of melanin formation in mosquito larvae (Wallis, 1961) and 
fish (Kull, Bonorden, and Mayer, 1954), (4) p-aminobenzoic acid, an 
inhibitor of melanogenesis (Lorincz, 1950), (5) cysteine (as the hydro- 
chloride), which is inversely connected with melanin formation in skins 
of silkworm larvae (Inagami, 1956), (6) ascorbic acid, which inhibits 
melanogenesis in rabbits (Visetti and Ferrero, 1957) and occurs in cab- 
bage, (7) hydroquinone, an inhibitor of melanogenesis in mice and 
humans (Denton, Lerner, and Fitzpatrick, 1952), and (8) thiourea, which 
inhibits melanogenesis in the Planarian eye ( Kambara, 1954 ) and causes 
abnormal epidermis in the silkworm (Fukuda, 1953). A general discus- 
sion of melanogenesis inhibitors and their modes of action is given by 
Lerner (1953). 

In the control group (no chemical fed), the average male spot was 1.5 
mm (22 mm wing) and female spots 1 and 2 averaged 2.5 and 1.5 mm 
(22 mm wing). Therefore, examination of Table 4 shows no general 
reduction in size of the male spot and little, if any, reduction in size of 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



25 




Explanation of Plate III 
Specimens of Pieris rapae ( L. ) . 17-20, larvae fed phenylalanine, 17, $ , spot 
nearer margin, 18-20, $ $ , apical black scales partly missing; 21, $ & 9 , control 
group, markings normal; 22, pupae from larvae fed phenylalanine, deformed, con- 
stricted in middle. 



the female spots. Also there was no obvious general decrease in intensity 
of markings. However, several interesting anomalies resulted (Plates 1- 
3). Light markings were produced by 4-chlororesorcinol (Fig. 1), p- 
aminobenzoic acid (Fig. 2), tyrosine (Fig. 15), and phenylalanine (Figs. 



26 Kolyer: Picris wing markings Vol. 20, no. 1 

18-20). The latter compound incidentally produced many deformed 
(constricted) pupae (Fig. 22), which died. Deformed forewings, bearing 
the spots near the margin, were produced by phenylalanine ( Fig. 17) and 
tyrosine (Fig. 14). Perhaps the most curious peculiarity was the absence 
of scales ( on upper wing surface ) in the male spot of one specimen each 
from the cysteine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid groups (Figs. 4, 5); 
there were gray scales on the spot on the underside of the wing, and 
removal of these would give a transparent "window." Hydroquinone and 
thiourea were larvicidal and produced no pupae. 

Thus, the result was a tendency toward depigmentation, perhaps most 
marked when ingestion was heaviest, with all the chemicals, even though 
phenylalanine and tyrosine are materials for, rather than inhibitors of, 
the pigmentation process. This situation is not surprising, however, be- 
cause strange effects may well result, via obscure biochemistry, from 
massive overdoses of what normally is ingested in low concentration in 
the food. 

Difference in intensity of markings of the spring and summer broods 
is said (Pugh, 1934) not to be due to any difference in content of tyro- 
sinase (the enzyme catalyzing melanin formation) in the insect but to 
some other factor, depending on the temperature at which the pupae are 
kept. The present work extends this by suggesting that a general change 
in the markings is not caused by excess phenylalanine or tyrosine (raw 
materials for melanin) or by inhibitors of tyrosinase. 

Therefore, the final conclusion is that the reduced dark pigmentation 
of the spring brood is not the result of a lowered concentration of 
phenylalanine or tyrosine in the pupa or in increased concentration of 
some inhibitor but is due ultimately to the temperature factor, which 
(with the proper photoperiod) causes the diapause necessary for over- 
wintering. 

Summary 

1. Pupal color, green or brown, was not correlated with sex nor in- 
herited under the conditions of the test, nor did it affect the markings of 
the adult. In darkness only brown pupae were produced. 

2. Reduced temperature, in conjunction with darkness, caused reduced 
intensity of markings in about one of every four specimens. Darkness 
alone (at normal summer temperatures) had no effect on the markings. 

3. The feeding of phenylalanine, tryosine, and certain tyrosinase in- 
hibitors to larvae produced sporadic depigmentation effects, including 
total lack of scales within the male spot, but there was no consistent re- 
duction in intensity of markings. 

4. The data suggest that the reduced dark pigmentation of the spring 
brood of Pieris rapae is not the result of lowered concentration of melanin 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 27 

precursors (since greatly increased concentrations did not increase 
melanin) or the presence of tyrosinase inhibitors in the pupa but is re- 
lated to reduced temperature. 

Literature Cited 

Brunet, P. C. J., 1963. Tyrosine Metabolism in insects. In: Pigment cell; molecu- 
lar, biological, and clinical aspects. Part II, 1961. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 
100: 1020-1034. 

Comstock, J. H., & A. B. Comstock, 1943. How to Know the Butterflies; a Manual 
of Those Which Occur in the Eastern United States. Comstock Publishing Co., 
Ithaca, New York. [p. 78] 

Denton, C. R., A. B. Lerner, & T. B. Fitzpatrick, 1952. Inhibition of melanin 
formation by chemical agents. Jour. Invest. Dermatol., 18: 119-135. 

Fukuda, S., 1953. Effect of thiourea on the silkworm. Zool. Mag., Tokyo., 62: 
349-353. 

Harrison, J. W. H., 1928. Induced changes in the pigmentation of the pupae of 
the butterfly Pieris napi L., and their inheritance. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 
B 102 (718): 347-353. 

Inagami, K., 1956. The formation of the pigments in the silkworm. IX. The rela- 
tion between the reducing substance content and the melanin formation in some 
larval markings. Nippon Sanshigaku Zasshi, 25: 128-130. 

Kamrara, S., 1954. Depigmentation in the eye of Planaria as a result of thiourea 
treatment. Zool. Mag., Tokyo., 63: 51-54. 

Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, East of the 
Great Plains. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. [p. 200] 

Kull, F. C, R. Bonorden, & R. L. Mayer, 1954. Inhibition of melanin formation 
in vivo by 4-chlororesorcinol. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 87: 538-540. 

Lerner, A. B., 1953. Metabolim of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Advances in 
Enzymology, 14: 73-128. 

Lorincz, A. L., 1950. The inhibition of melanin formation. Jour. Invest. Dermatol., 
15: 425-532. 

Okamoto, H., 1960. Studies of the pupal color determination of the common cab- 
bage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval ( I ) . Physiol, and Ecol. ( Japan ) , 
9 (2): 84-89. 

Pugh, C. E. M., 1934. Tyrosinase in Macrolepidoptera. Biochem. Jour., 28 (4): 
1198-1200. 

Stamm, M. D., & L. Aguirre, 1955. Aromatic aminoacids and tryptophane in 
the metamorphosis of Pieris brassicae and Ocnogyna haetica. Rev. Espanola 
Fisiol., 11 (1): 69-74. 

Visetti, M., & F. Ferrero, 1957. Influence of vitamin C on the pigment of skin 
grafts. Minerva dermatol., 7: 457-459. 

Wallis, R. C, 1961. The effect of phenylthiourea and 4-chlororesorcinol on Aedes 
aegypti larvae. Mosquito News, 21: 187-189. 

Watanare, T., 1956. Dopa and tyrosine in the integument of silkworm larvae. 
Nippon Sanshigaku Zasshi, 25: 443-444. 



REVIVAL OF Lepidoptera 



This Danish journal, organ of the Lepidopterologisk Forening in Copenhagen, was 
published from 1946 to 1951. The first issue of Volume 1 of a new series has now 
appeared, and includes, among other notes, the first part of a series describing and 
figuring the Danish Eupithecia. One or two issues a year are planned. The editor is 
T. W. Langer. For subscriptions write the Honorary Secretary, Johs. Storm-Olsen, 
R0dkildevej 14, Copenhagen F., Denmark. — P. F. Bellinger 



28 Hensel: Alien skipper in New Brunswick Vol. 20, no. 1 

A COLONY OF THE EUROPEAN SKIPPER THYMELICUS 

LINEOLA (HESPERIIDAE) AT EDMUNDSTON, 

NEW BRUNSWICK 

Henry Hensel 

145 Bellevue St., Edmundston, N. B., Canada 

In 1957 I collected for the first time here in Edmundston, N. B. About 
mid July that year, I noticed some golden brown skippers flying slowly 
in the grass. Some specimens were collected and checked at home in 
Klots' Field Guide ( 1951 ) as to the species. Much to my surprise, they 
turned out to be Thymelicus lineola ( Ochsenheimer ) . 

According to Dr. Klots, the species has been introduced into Ontario, 
and later reports indicate that the weakly flying skipper has since spread 
rather widely in northeastern North America ( e.g., Thomas, 1952; Muller, 
1958). 

Here in the city of Edmundston it is extremely abundant, in fact, the 
most common skipper. In the evenings, when the butterflies become in- 
active, they roost together by the hundreds in tall vegetations in the 
"heart" of the colony at the bottom of a hillside, facing the south. We 
have, however, not noticed it anywhere else in the surrounding area. 
Adults have a fairly long flight season, being on the wing in early July 
through August. Judging by the large numbers I have seen year after 
year, it seems well established here, which to me is something of a sur- 
prise, for the winters here in northwestern New Brunswick are extremely 
cold indeed! 

Literature Cited 

Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies, east of the Great Plains. 

Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, 349 pp. 
Muller, J., 1958. Thymelicus lineola, a European skipper ( Hesperiidae) new for 

New Jersey. Lepid. News, 12: 174. 
Thomas, E. S., 1952. A European skipper, Adopaea lineola, at Columbus, Ohio. 

Lepid. News, 6: 92-93. 



NEW JOURNAL 

The Society Library has received a copy of the first issue of Entomops, devoted 
especially to the insect fauna of southeastern France and Corsica. Quarterly publica- 
tion is planned; subscriptions are 15 francs in France, 20 francs elsewhere. For sub- 
scriptions write Entomops, 3, Rue Bergondi, Nice (A.-M.), France. 

The first issue includes descriptions of new beetles and Lepidoptera and an article 
on moths trapped on late winter snow in the Alps. Both contents and layout are of 
high quality; few entomological journals are as attractive in appearance. The editor 
is Monsieur F. Dujardin, of Nice, a member of the Lepidopterists' Society. — P. F. 
Bellinger 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 29 

THE LIFE HISTORY OF SCHINIA NIVEICOSTA (NOCTUIDAE) 

D. F. Hard wick 

Entomology Res. Inst., Canada Dept. Agric, Ottawa, Ontario 

Schinia niveicosta (Smith) 1 feeds in the larval stage on the blossoms 
of Spanish needle, Palafoxia linearis (Cav. ) Lag., an herbaceous peren- 
nial composite common in washes and dunes in the Mojave and Colorado 
deserts of southern California. Although niveicosta is not generally well 
represented in collections, it may become locally very abundant in areas 
in which its food plant is common. Several hundred specimens of the 
species were collected between the latter half of February and the first 
week of April, 1955, in the Indio area of southern California. Although 
presumably primarily a spring-flier, niveicosta may be partially double- 
brooded, a few moths examined having been collected in October. 

I have not seen specimens collected in areas other than southern Cali- 
fornia and western Arizona, but the range of the species may be coinci- 
dent with that of its food plant, which is distributed from southern Utah 
to northwestern Mexico. 

Behavior 

The adults have a very characteristic manner of resting, head down- 
ward, on the pinkish purple flowering heads of the food plant, with 
which the maculation and coloring of the forewings blend almost indis- 
tinguishably (Fig. 1). This position is maintained even during copula- 
tion; a few mating pairs were found in the early morning with their 
heads downward and their abdomens joined over the top or around the 
side of the flowering head. 

The full, globular eyes of niveicosta, and the frequency with which it is 
taken in light traps, suggest that the species is primarily nocturnal. In 
common with many of its heliothidine relatives, however, it is not ex- 
clusively so. The moths are usually quiescent on the blossoms during the 
morning hours but towards midday they become restive, and during the 
afternoon they fly at the least disturbance and may often be seen actively 
feeding on nectar of the food plant. 

Among species of Schinia, niveicosta is relatively fecund; five wild- 
caught females deposited a mean of 157 eggs, and the maximum de- 
posited by a single female was 183. Eggs are usually inserted into the 
bud or newly opened flower head from the side, less commonly from the 
top. The eggs are lodged beneath the sepals or between the inner florets. 
Occasionally, eggs are deposited on the outside of unopened buds. 



Heliothis niveicosta Smith, 1906, Jour. N. Y. ent. Soc, 14: 15. 



30 Hardwick: Schinia life history Vol. 20, no. 1 

Rearing techniques employed were those outlined by Hardwick 
( 1958 ) . Of larvae reared at room temperature, 94% matured in six 
stadia, the remainder in five. The latter have been ignored in subsequent 
descriptions of larval stages. The newly hatched larva bores into the 
base of a floret, then tunnels up through the floral tube, feeding on the 
contents. The larva commonly remains within one floret throughout the 
first and second stadia. In the third stadium, the larva usually enters a 
second floret. Larger third stadium larvae are unable to contain them- 
selves within a single floret, and must feed from a position among the 
florets within the head. During the third stadium, larvae occasionally 
show a tendency to begin feeding on the developing seeds; in the fourth 
stadium, both seeds and florets are consumed. Occasionally in the fourth 
stadium, and commonly in the fifth stadium, the larva moves from the 
first flowering head, which has become heavily cluttered with frass, to a 
second, fresh head. During the latter part of the fifth stadium and 
throughout the sixth stadium, the larva ceases to secrete itself within the 
head and feeds on it from a position on the stem. Larger larvae are pri- 
marily nocturnal, most of them hiding at the base of the plant during the 
day. The larva tunnels into the soil to pupate. 

Description of Stages 

Adult (Figs. 1, 2). Vestiture of head and thorax pale creamy gray, that of abdo- 
men usually darker. Forewing creamy white, variably suffused with pink or pale 
purple and with olive gray. A creamy white costal band extending from base to sub- 
terminal line. Transverse anterior line unexpressed; basal and median spaces fused. 
Transverse posterior line closer than usual to outer margin of wing, weakly excurved 
around cell, then straight or weakly excurved to trailing margin. Orbicular spot 
absent. Reniform spot indicated only as a dark gray shade. A dark pink or pale pur- 
ple streak extending from base almost to center of wing. Area distal to basal streak 
and posterior to reniform spot usually suffused with olive gray. Commonly a pink 
or dull purple shade extending from basal streak to subtenninal space. Subterminal 
line indicated only by color change between subtenninal and terminal spaces. Sub- 
terminal space pink, dull purple, or pale purplish gray. Terminal space cream, vari- 
ably suffused with pale olive gray. Fringe pale olive gray. 

Hindwing white, with a variably defined, light brown discal spot. A pink or brown 
outer-marginal band and often a pink suffusion between discal spot and outer-mar- 
ginal band. Veins in basal white area of wing often outlined by brown scales. Fringe 
white. Underside, forewing cream with a brown discal spot and a subterminal pink 
shade. Hindwing cream with a pink or light brown discal spot and often with some 
pink outer-marginal shading. Fringe of both wings cream. 

Expanse: 24.4 ± 1.9 mm 2 (100 specimens). 

Egg. Micropylar surface corrugated, remainder smooth. Pale greenish yellow when 
first deposited. Losing greenish tone on second day, then remaining essentially un- 
changed until fourth day when a pink or pale orange flush becomes evident at mi- 
cropylar end. On fifth day, two definite brown spots evident on micropylar surface. 
Hatching on sixth day after deposition. 

Dimensions: Length, 0.74 ± 0.03 mm; width, 0.48 ± 0.03 mm (20 eggs). 



- Standard deviation. 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



31 



First Stadium Larva. Head black. Prothoracic and suranal shields dark brown. 
Trunk pale whitish cream. Thoracic legs and rims of spiracles dark brown. 

Head width: 0.29 ± 0.01 mm (20 larvae). 

Duration of stadium (at room temperature): 4.1 ±0.5 days (58 larvae). 

Second Stadium Larva. Head medium brown, dark brown, or blackish brown. 
Prothoracic shield somewhat paler than head, with three pale longitudinal lines. 





,«,*# 



' I 



lltillilSlil 

Explanation of Plate 

Figs. 1-4. Schinia niveicosta (Sm.), La Quinta, Riverside Co., Calif. 1, Adult 
resting on blossom of Palafoxia linearis (Cav.) Lag. 2, Adult male. 3, Ultimate 
stadium larvae, dorsal. 4, Ultimate stadium larvae, lateral. 



32 Hardwick: Schinia life history Vol. 20, no. 1 



Suranal shield concolorous with prothoracic shield, with a pair of pale longitudinal 
lines. Trunk yellowish cream, with a pair of dorsal, and a pair of subdorsal, paler 
longitudinal lines. Spiracles with dark brown rims. Thoracic legs medium to dark 
brown. 

Head width: 0.45 ± 0.03 mm (20 larvae). 

Duration of stadium: 3.0 ± 0.8 days (58 larvae). 

Third Stadium Larva. Head varying from pale fawn to medium grayish brown; 
variably, usually heavily, marked with dark brown. Prothoracic shield medium to 
dark grayish brown, with three broad, whitish gray longitudinal lines; often a pale 
blotch in median area of shield fusing median line with sublateral lines. Suranal 
shield concolorous with prothoracic shield, with a pair of grayish white sublateral 
longitudinal lines. Middorsal band yellowish fawn, orange-brown, or grayish brown. 
Subdorsal area with white, cream, or pale gray marginal lines, with a median band 
concolorous with, or somewhat paler than, middorsal band. Supraspiracular area 
concolorous with median band of subdorsal area; a prominent, somewhat irregular, 
cream, gray, or white median line. Spiracular band cream, white, or pale gray. Rims 
of spiracles brown. Suprapodal area gray, somewhat darker than spiracular band. 
Midventral area gray, paler than suprapodal area. Prolegs varying from fawn to dark 
blackish, brown. 

Head width: 0.76 ± 0.04 mm (20 larvae). 

Duration of stadium: 3.0 ± 0.7 days (58 larvae). 

Fourth Stadium Larva. Head fawn to orange-brown, variably mottled with 
chocolate brown, frequently heavily so dorsolateral to apex of frons. Prothoracic 
shield yellowish gray to fawn, variably suffused with medium to dark chocolate 
brown; usually a median and a pair of sublateral, longitudinal pale lines. Suranal 
shield dark brown, with a pair of grayish yellow sublateral longitudinal lines. Mid- 
dorsal band chocolate brown, purplish brown, reddish brown, or olive brown. Sub- 
dorsal area grayish white or cream, with a broad, brown or olive, median band. 
Supraspiracular area brown, or light green suffused with brown; an irregular grayish 
white median shade. Spiracular band white, occasionally margined ventrally by an 
irregular and discontinuous brown line. Rims of spiracles brown. Suprapodal area 
light smoky gray. Midventral area essentially concolorous with suprapodal area. 
Thoracic legs and proleg shields grayish fawn, variably mottled with chocolate 
brown. 

Head width: 1.27 ± 0.09 mm (20 larvae). 

Duration of stadium: 3.5 ± 0.7 days (57 larvae). 

Fifth Stadium Larva. Head pale orange fawn variably mottled with light fawn 
gray. Prothoracic shield pale orange fawn, variably, often heavily, suffused with 
brown; in heavily suffused shields, a median, and a pair of sublateral, longitudinal 
grayish white lines evident. Suranal shield grayish fawn, variably, usually heavily 
suffused with brown; a pair of grayish white, sublateral longitudinal lines. Mid- 
dorsal band reddish brown or purplish brown, often with a greenish suffusion. Sub- 
dorsal area grayish white with a brown median band; median band paler than 
middorsal band, occasionally very pale or even evanescent. Supraspiracular area 
shades of pale brown, with an irregular whitish gray median line. Spiracular band 
white. Rims of spiracles dark brown. Suprapodal and midventral areas pale gray. 
Thoracic legs and proleg shields pale translucent fawn, lightly suffused with brown. 

Head width: 1.98 ± 0.09 mm (20 larvae). 

Duration of stadium: 3.8 ± 0.7 days (58 larvae). 

Sixth Stadium Larva (Figs. 3, 4). Head fawn gray variably mottled with light 
orange-brown. Prothoracic shield fawn gray suffused with chocolate brown; with a 
median and a pair of sublateral, white or pale cream, longitudinal lines. Middorsal 
band reddish brown or purplish brown. Subdorsal area white or pale cream, with a 
reddish brown median band; median band of subdorsal area usually much paler than 
middorsal band. Supraspiracular area pale reddish brown; in more darkly pigmented 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



33 



specimens, supraspiracular area with an irregular, white or pale cream median line. 
Spiracular band white or pale cream. Rims of spiracles black. Suprapodal and mid- 
ventral areas shades of gray or fawn gray. In pale specimens, ventral area of trunk 
undistinguished from spiracular band. Thoracic legs gray or fawn gray, variably suf- 
fused with pale orange. Proleg shields paler than thoracic legs. 

Head width: 2.83 ± 0.12 mm (18 larvae). 

Duration of feeding phase of sixth stadium: 4.4 ±1.4 days (58 larvae). 

Duration of prepupal phase of sixth stadium: 3.3 ± 1.1 days (15 larvae). 

Pupa. Moderately dark orange-brown. Spiracles weakly projecting above general 
surface of cuticle. Anterior areas of abdominal segments 5, 6, and 7 moderately 
pitted. Cremaster without spines, consisting only of a truncated protuberance project- 
ing from apex of tenth abdominal segment (Figs. 5, 6). 

Length to posterior margin of fourth abdominal segment: 8.7 ± 0.5 mm (20 
pupae ) . 

Acknowledgment 
I am grateful to Mr. John E. H. Martin, Entomology Research Institute, 
Ottawa, for photographing adults and larvae in the field. 

Literature Cited 

Hardwick, D. F., 1958. Taxonomy, life history, and habits of the elliptoid-eyed spe- 
cies of Schinia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with notes on the Heliothidinae. 
Canad. Ent. Suppl. 6, 116 pp. 





Explanation of Figures 

Figs. 5, 6. Schinia niveicosta (Sm. ), apical abdominal segments of pupa. 5, Ven- 
tral. 6, Right lateral. 



BOOK NOTICE 

NICULESCU, EUGEN V.: Pieridae. Fauna Republicii Populare Romane, vol. XI, 
fasc. 6, 202 pp., 13 pis., 66 figs. (In Rumanian). Bucharest 1963. Price 13,- Lei. 
Nymphalidae. Fauna Republicii Populare Romane, vol. XI, fasc. 7, 361 pp., 25 pis., 
160 figs. (In Rumanian). Bucharest 1965. Price 29,- Lei. 

Further volumes of the series "Fauna of Rumania" treat the white butterflies and 
Nymphalid butterflies of that country. Fascide 6 (Pieridae) records eight genera 
with 18 species, which are described in detail. The taxonomic part contains descrip- 
tions of all stages. 



34 Huber: Thorybes in Minnesota Vol. 20, no. 1 



The speeies Colias australis Vty. is recorded as a form of Colias hyale L. Pieris 
bryoniae O. is discussed as a subspecies of Pieris napi L. 

In Rumania 44 species of the family Nymphalidae are recorded. In the introduc- 
tion the author gives a short review of morphology and geographical distribution of 
this family. The immature stages, distribution, and variability of all species are dis- 
cussed in more detail. Important are the morphological notes with good drawings. 
All species and some forms are figured in plates as black and white photographs. 

Both books are of interest for all students of European butterflies. — J. Moucha, 
Prague, Czechoslovakia 



FIRST MINNESOTA RECORDS OF THORYBES BATHYLLUS 

Although recent popular literature lists the distribution of the southern 
cloudy wing, Thorybes bathylhis (Smith) ( Hesperiidae ) , as westward to 
Wisconsin (Milwaukee) and Nebraska, Macy and Shepard (1941) 1 do 
not cite any records for Minnesota. The southeastern corner of Minne- 
sota, which is typically pseudo-Carolinian in its flora and fauna, provides 
good habitats for numerous "southern" species of butterflies. Unfortu- 
nately, a general lack of collectors has left us with very little knowledge 
of that area. 

Recently, Ray Glassel donated to me the bulk of his butterfly collec- 
tion and among these was a single specimen of Thorybes bathyllus, taken 
by him near Cedar Grove, Dakota County, Minnesota on 4 July 1960. I 
thought this to be the first Minnesota record, but a check of the University 
of Minnesota collection revealed one earlier specimen, taken at Mississippi 
Bluff, Houston County on 31 May 1942 by Morris Rockstein. Still another 
record appeared in the Season Summary ( Lepidopterists' News, 1963, 
No. 4: 8); a specimen was reported from Houston County, Minnesota, 
taken on 30 June 1962. 

These are the only known Minnesota specimens to date. Further col- 
lecting will probably find T. bathyllus in most of the southeastern corner 
of Minnesota where two of its foodplant species of Fabaceae, trailing 
wild bean (Strophostyles helveola), and small wild bean (Strophostyles 
leiosperma ) are found. 

Ronald L. Huber, 480 State Office Bldg., St. Paul, Minnesota 



1 Ralph W. Macy & Harold H. Shepard, Butterflies (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1941), p. 184-185. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 35 



LARVAL FOOD PLANTS FOR FIVE TEXAS HESPERIIDAE 

Roy O. Kendall 

San Antonio, Texas 

This paper will record for the first time local larval food plants for 
Vidius perigenes Godman, Erynnis juvenalis juvenalis ( Fabricius ) , Cogia 
calchas (Herrich-S chaffer), and Urbanus procne (Plotz). Although local 
larval food plants have been previously recorded for Chioides catillus 
albofasciatus (Hewitson), additional rearing data are given here in sup- 
port of a larval diapause for the species. Arrangement for the skippers 
follows dos Passos (1964). 

Of the larval food plants given, perhaps the most significant is the one 
for Urbanus procne. Burns (1964, p. 148) represented all contemporary 
lepidopterists when he wrote: "the larvae of pyrgine skippers are known 
to eat only dicotyledons." We must now change our thinking on this 
matter because the larvae of U. procne do eat grass, a monocotyledon. 
No doubt other members of this genus will be found to feed on grasses 
in the larval stage. 

The larval food plants given in this paper are here summarized and 
arranged alphabetically by plant family and genus: 

Plant Family Plant Species Lepidoptera 

Fagaceae Quercus fusiformis Erynnis j. juvenalis 

Quercus stellata Erynnis j. juvenalis 

Quercus marilandica Erynnis j. juvenalis 

Gramineae Cynodon dactylon Urbanus procne 

Stenotaphrum secundatum Vidius perigenes 

Leguminosae Mimosa berlandieri Cogia calchas 

Rhynchosia minima Chioides c. albofasciatus 

Vidius perigenes Godman 

Tilden ( 1964 ) recorded this species for the first time north of the Rio 

Grande River. At present its distribution in the United States north of 

Mexico is limited to Cameron County, Texas, where it is well established. 

Its principal habitat appears to be grassy areas in mesquite flats 

(Prosopis glandidosa Torr. ) along the south Texas plains. Three broods 

with some overlapping are indicated. The writer has collected it in March, 

April, and October; reared imagines emerged in June. Exact dates and 

localities follow. 

Cameron County, 21 April 1962. At the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, 
two males and one female were collected. The latter was kept for oviposition. It was 
confined in a small glass jar with St. Augustine grass, Stenotaphrum secundatum 
(Walt.) Kuntze. Six eggs were deposited the following day on the grass, after which 
the female died, probably due to overheating. The eggs hatched within a few days 
and the first-instar larvae accepted S. secundatum reluctantly. Three larvae pupated: 



36 Kendall: Texas skippers reared Vol. 20, no. 1 

1, 4, and 7 June and adults emerged 9 June (1 6 ), 13 Tune (16), and 17 June 
(1 9). 

On 28 March 1964 at a roadside park on Texas Highway 100 about 3.5 miles east 
of Los Fresnos, two males and three females were collected. One of the females was 
kept alive, and eggs were deposited on S. secundatum. This occurred at the begin- 
ning of a two-week field trip; the eggs hatched and the first-instar larvae were lost 
before returning to the laboratory. 

Other collections of this species in the county by the writer and Mrs. 
Kendall are: October 17, 1963 at Brownsville (1 $,1 5 ); March 29, 1964 
on FM 1792 near Port Isabel (3 8). Special attention was not given to 
collecting this species. 

Erynnis juvenalis juvenalis (Fabricius) 
Burns (1964) indicated that E. j. juvenalis was strictly or essentially 
univoltine in Texas. Recent rearing records confirm these findings. 
Locally, juvenalis flies from early March to early May, with an occasional 
abnormally rapid development of immatures which produce adults later 
in the same year. Specimens reared from eggs at San Antonio, in an out- 
door environment, except for one, produced imagines in March of the 
following year. This one larva matured early in the same season. It is 
doubtful that sufficient numbers of both sexes are produced in nature to 
establish a second brood. 

Larval feeding continues over a period of 6 to 8 months depending 
upon the geographical location, after which the larva enters diapause. 
Judging from the reared sample, this species spends about 4 to 6 weeks 
in larval diapause and about the same length of time in the pupal stage. 

In Texas juvenalis is less common than Erynnis horatius (Scudder & 
Burgess ) . This is attributed to the single brood and long larval period of 
juvenalis, which makes it more susceptible to predation and parasitism. 
Like horatius, adults of juvenalis are found associated with oaks, the lar- 
val food plant. Juvenile leaves are essential for first-instar larval develop- 
ment. Females deposit their eggs on or near juvenile leaves only, and it 
matters not whether the plant is a 6-inch seedling or a 30-foot tree. 

Harrison County, 4 April 1964. At Caddo Lake State Park, a female was collected 
as it was about to oviposit on the juvenile leaves of a 5-foot Quercus marilandica 
Muenchh. A number of eggs were obtained by confining the female in a jar with 
terminal shoots of Q. marilandica. These eggs started hatching 13 April; others were 
preserved. On 30 April, five larvae were inventoried; by 10 August, four had died. 
The remaining larva was then preserved. Death was attributed to confinement of the 
larvae in closed rearing jars. 

Kerr County, 4 April 1965. On FM 689 near Camp Verde, three males and three 
females were collected while they were feeding on blossoms of redbud, Cercis 
canadensis L. var. texensis (Wats.) Rose. One female was kept for oviposition. After 
depositing three eggs, she escaped. At the time of this writing (April, 1965) the 
three larvae were alive and feeding on Quercus virginiana Mill. var. fusiformis 
(Small) Sarg. 



1966 Journal of the Le p id opte lists' Society 37 



Polk County, 3 April 1964. On Nettles Cemetery road east of Livingston, a female 
was observed to oviposit on juvenile leaves of Q. marilandica. This oak was about 20 
feet tall and the egg-laying female was out of reach; however, three eggs were re- 
covered from twigs of one branch. These eggs soon hatched but were lost due to 
improper care in the field. Near this location on 16 March 1963, Kendall ( 1964 ) 
found numerous males flying but no females. This would indicate that females gener- 
ally emerge later than the males. 

Smith County, 4 April 1964. At Tyler State Park two females were observed to 
oviposit on oak. One deposited an egg on juvenile leaves of a 5-foot Q. marilandica 
bush about 3 feet above the ground. The other one deposited an egg on a 6-inch 
seedling of Quercus stellata Wang. Both were collected. The latter female was placed 
in a jar with the same seedling; 32 eggs were deposited the following day. Eggs 
started hatching 13 April and newly hatched larvae were offered juvenile leaves of 
Q. fusiformis, which they accepted. On 30 April an inventory disclosed 25 larvae, 
two of which were dead. On 11 May an inventory disclosed four more had died, 
leaving only 19. Two larvae were then preserved, and those remaining were placed 
on a caged living Q. fusiformis bush in the laboratory garden at San Antonio. Cursory 
periodic examinations thereafter disclosed larvae to be doing fine. On 2 September 
a shelter was opened for examination, revealing an empty pupal case; the adult was 
nowhere to be found, and the exact date of pupation and emergence was therefore 
unknown. Probably it had emerged sometime earlier, died, and ants had eaten it. 

On 13 September all larvae appeared to be feeding. On 15 November one larva 
appeared to be in diapause. Examination on 22 January 1965 disclosed 3 dead larvae, 
four more in diapause, and seven pupae, one of which had been killed by a predator. 
The four live larvae were then removed and placed in a small container for close 
observation. One larva escaped. Two others pupated 29 January and 6 February, 
respectively; the fourth died. Four males and four females emerged: 1 March ( $ ), 
14 March (2 S , 1 9 ), 15 March ( 2 ), 16 March ( $ ), 23 March ( $ ) (this one 
pupated 29 January), 29 March ( $ ). 

One interesting development occurred on March 14 when one of the 
males escaped from its emergence container and was flying about inside 
a screened walk-in cage. As Mrs. Kendall and the writer watched, the 
insect chanced to light near a chameleon lizard which had gained en- 
trance to the large breeding cage, and was immediately caught and swal- 
lowed. 

The writer and Mrs. Kendall have collected E. /'. juvenalis in the follow- 
ing Texas counties not previously recorded: Brown Co., Lake Brown- 
wood State Park, 9 April 1964 (2 $ , 1 9 ), 10 April 1964 (2 9); Cass Co., 
near Avinger, 6 April 1964, (19); Fannin Co., Bonham State Park, 7 
April 1964 (2 3,2 9); Kendall Co., 7 mi SE of Comfort, 4 April 1965 
(IS); Tarrant Co., Fort Worth city park, 8 April, 1964 (3 S,5 9 ). 

Cogia calchas (Herrich-S chaffer) 
The distribution of the calchas skipper in Texas seems to be limited to 
Cameron and Hidalgo counties, correlating highly with the distribution 
of its local larval food plant, Mimosa pigra L. var. berlandieri (Gray) 
(Turner, 1959). This insect has been field collected from March to No- 
vember. Reared specimens emerged in January, February, March, July, 



38 Kendall: Texas skippers reared Vol. 20, no. 1 

August, and September. It has a larval diapause and therefore would 
not normally emerge in nature during January or February when its lar- 
val food plant is dormant. It appears to be triple-brooded. 

Larval habits compare favorably with those of Cogia hippalus otitis 
( Skinner ) as described by Kendall ( 1965 ) . The mature larva vacates its 
growing leaf shelter and constructs another on the ground under leaf 
litter and debris where it pupates. 

Cameron County, 18 July 1964. In Brownsville, while the writer was collecting 
eggs and larvae from a 6-foot M. berlondieri plant growing in the edge of water, a 
female came and deposited an 'egg on a terminal leaflet of the plant being examined. 
The captured female died before reaching the laboratory. Two more ovipositing 
females were seen the same day but could not be collected. Several eggs and 28 
larvae were collected in an hour or so. All the eggs and a small series of larvae and 
pupae were preserved. The remaining larvae were reared on M. berlandieri. Pupation 
occurred from 19 July to 19 August. Ten males and five females emerged: 28 Julv 
( $ ), 31 July ( $ ), 3 Aug. ( $ ), 5 Aug. (U,19),6 Aug. ( $ ), 7 Aug. (2 $ ), 8 
Aug. ( $), 10 Aug. ( $ ), 23 Aug. (1 $, 1 $ ), 28 Aug. ( $ ), 31 Aug. (U,l?). 

The Brownsville area was revisited on 22 August 1964 and four more larvae were 
found on M. berlandieri. One larva died and the other three pupated 25, 26, and 
28 August. Adults emerged: 3 Sept. ( $ ), 4 Sept. ( $ ), and 7 Sept. ( $ ). 

On 4 December 1964, at a state-operated wildlife management area near Browns- 
ville, three eggs and 19 larvae were collected on M. berlandieri. Three larvae and 
the eggs were given to Norman E. Flitters of Brownsville for study. The first of the 
remaining larvae pupated 22 December; the others were unobserved. A few died 
and several entered larval diapause. The immatures were kept under semicontrolled 
laboratory conditions with the result that most of them produced adults prematurely. 
Two males and six females emerged: 12 Jan. 1965 ( $ ), 13 Jan. ( $ ), 31 Jan. ( $ ), 
6 Feb. ( $ ), 11 Feb. ( $ ), 14 Feb. ( $ ), 10 Mar. ( $ ), and 29 Mar. ( $ ). In na- 
ture, overwintering immatures should produce adults beginning about the middle of 
March. 

The writer and Mrs. Kendall collected other adults in Cameron County 
on 17 Oct. 1963 (2 $ ), 19 Oct. 1963 (3 $ ), 29 March 1964 (1 $ ), and 18 
July 1964 ( 1 S , 1 $ ) . Freeman ( 1949 and 1951 ) recorded it from Cam- 
eron County in June, August, and October, and in Hidalgo County in 
March, May, June, August, September, and October. He also gave the 
writer a male collected 7 April 1945. 

Urbanus procne (Plotz) 

Neither the distribution of U. procne in Texas nor the factors influenc- 
ing its distribution are well understood. The principal habitat of this 
species seems to be extreme south Texas where it is perhaps triple- 
brooded, with considerable overlapping. It has been collected in March, 
June, July, August, October, November, and early December. Reared 
adults emerged in August, September, and October. 

It will come as a surprise to most students of the Pyrginae to learn that 
the larva of this insect is a grass-feeder. Other species of this genus may 






1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 39 

also feed on monocotyledons. One of its most interesting larval habits 
is that a nest or shelter is not made until the larva is fully mature and 
then only as a place to pupate. When not feeding it hides in the grass 
near the ground. When ready to pupate, it constructs a shelter from 
grass litter and silk on the ground at the base of the clumps. Further re- 
search is necessary to determine whether or not an immature diapause 
occurs. Determination of the imagines was made by Dr. J. W. Tilden 
(1965). 

Cameron County Texas, 19 July 1964. In Brownsville along the banks of a resaca, 
two ovipositing females were collected and eggs recovered from a species of grass not 
yet determined. Later in the day at another location in the city, two more females 
were collected as they oviposited on two other species of grass, one of which was 
Bermuda, Cynodon dactylon L. All four females were kept alive for additional ovi- 
position. They were placed in separate containers and labeled A, B, C, and D. Eggs 
were deposited by each in the laboratory as follows: Female A, on C. dactylon, 19 
July (1), 20 July (22), 21 July (5), female died same day. Female B, on C. dactylon, 
19 July (1), 20 July (40), 21 July(9), 22 July (2); on Stenotaphrum secundatum 
(Walt.) Kuntze, 24 July (10), 25 July (62), 26 July (43), female died the same 
day. Female C, on C. dactylon, 19 July (1), 22 July (2); on S. secundatum, 24 July 
(4), 25 July (7), 26 July (15); it then died. Female D, on C. dactylon, 19 July 
( 1 ) , 20 July ( 11 ) , 21 July ( 3 ) ; it then died. 

Eggs hatched from 22 July to 31 July. First-instar larvae were offered C. dactylon, 
S. secundatum, and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Only those on the C. dactylon 
survived. Where S. secundatum was mixed with C. dactylon only the latter was eaten. 
After progressing through five instars, the first larva pupated 19 August and the last 
one on 17 September. Examples of all immature stages were preserved. Adults 
emerged: 28 Aug. (1 £ ), 29 Aug. (2 $, 1 2 ), 31 Aug. (2 S, 1 "$ J, 1 Sept. (3 $, 
1 $ ), 2 Sept. (1 $ ), 3 Sept. (3 $ ), 4 Sept. (1 $ ), 7 Sept. (1 $, 1 $ ), 8 Sept. 
(IS), 9 Sept. (1 $ ), 13 Sept. (1 $ ), 14 Sept. (18), for a total of 15 ^ $, 
7$$. 

On a return trip to Brownsville two females were collected 22 August 1964. One 
of these deposited a few eggs in the laboratory on C. dactylon. The eggs soon hatched 
and the larvae crawled away unobserved except for two; one of these died later. The 
one remaining larva matured on C. dactylon; it pupated 25 September and a female 
emerged 7 October 1964. 

Other Texas collection records by the writer and Mrs. Kendall are: 
Bexar County, 10 June 1956 (1 $); Cameron County, 17-18 Oct. 1963, 
common, 29 March 1964 (1 $ ), 21 Aug. 1964 (H.,3 9),4 Dec. 1964 
( 1 $ ) . Dr. J. W. Tilden ( 1965; in litt. ) found U. procne common in 
Cameron County 17-30 Oct. and 11-13 Nov. 1963. In Hidalgo County 
he collected two worn males on 11 Nov. 1963. 

Chioides catillus albofasciatus (Hewitson) 
Kendall ( 1965 ) stated that an immature diapause was not indicated 
for this species. Additional rearing has shown that C. albofasciatus does 
have a larval diapause. 



40 Kendall: Texas skippers reared Vol. 20, no. 1 



Cameron County Texas, 21 August 1964. At Brownsville a few adults were found 
flying; one female was collected and kept for eggs. It was confined in a glass jar 
with Rhynchosia minima ( L. ) DC, and numerous eggs were deposited during the 
next several days. When the eggs hatched, the first-instar larvae were placed on a 
caged living plant of R. minima in the laboratory garden at San Antonio. Only cur- 
sory examinations were made thereafter until two males appeared in the cage on 20 
September. The cage was then removed and a thorough examination made with the 
result that 48 pupae, mostly on the ground under fallen leaves, and 16 larvae were 
found. Of these, five pupae and three larvae, ready to pupate, were sent to Dr. C. L. 
Remington for chromosome study. Ten of the larvae pupated: 27 Sept. (3), 29 
Sept. (4), 30 Sept. (1), and 1 Oct. (2). This left three larvae which stopped feed- 
ing 17 October and entered diapause. They were placed outdoors in a screened cage 
on the ground and covered with dried leaves on 30 October. Periodic examinations 
disclosed that two of these larvae pupated about 21 February; the third larva died. 
From these pupae, males emerged on 8 and 10 March 1965. 

Other adults from the same parent emerged: 30 Sept. (1 $), 1 Oct. (1 $), 2 
Oct. (3 6 ), 3 Oct. (4 $, 2 $ ), 4 Oct. (7 $, 2 2 ), 5 Oct. (2 $, 2 9 ), 6 Oct. 
(3 $, 3 $ ), 7 Oct. (1 $ ), 8 Oct. (4 $, 2 $ ), 9 Oct. (2 $ ), 11 Oct. (1 3, 2 9 ), 
12 Oct. (2 2, 1 $ ), 13 Oct. (1 $, 2 $ ), 14 Oct, (1 $ ), 15 Oct. (2 9 ), 17 Oct. 
(1 9 ), 18 Oct. (1 9 ), 20 Oct. (1$), for a total of 31 $ $ , 23 9 9. 

A return visit to Brownsville was made on December 4 and 5, 1965. Two males 
were collected and numerous first- and second-instar larvae were found on R. minima 
growing along an irrigation canal. Only four larvae were collected because the food 
plant in the laboratory garden at San Antonio was already largely defoliated due to 
the advance of winter. A frost killed all the remaining food plant about December 
15. One larva, very small, pupated January 1, 1965; the other three were preserved. 
On January 24 a dwarfed female emerged; the larva and pupa had been kept in the 
laboratory at all times. 

These additional studies show the significance climate has on the dis- 
tribution of C. albofasciatus. Except for extreme south Texas, this species 
cannot become established because too few larvae from the summer 
broods enter diapause and, secondly, because the average early date of 
the first freeze in the fall ( Hildreth & Orton, 1963 ) kills the larval food 
plant, causing the immatures to die of starvation. Only under ideal cli- 
matological conditions could this species survive for more than one sea- 
son as far north as Bexar County, Texas. Such a period existed from 1957 
to 1959 (Kendall, 1965). 

Literature Cited 

Burns, Iohn M., 1964. Evolution in skipper butterflies of the genus Erynnis. U. 

Calif. Publ. Ent, 37, 217 pp. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem. Lepid. 

Soc, No. 1. 
Freeman, H. A., 1949. Notes on some tropical American skippers ( Lepidoptera, 

Rhopalocera, Hesperiidae). Field & Laboratory, 17: 75-81. 
1951. Ecological & systematic study of the Hesperioidea of Texas. Southern 

Methodist Univ. Studies, No. 6. 
Hildreth, R. J., & R. B. Orton, 1963. Freeze probabilities in Texas. Texas Agr. 

Exp. Sta. State College, Misc. Publ., 657. 
Kendall, R. O., 1964. New distribution records for three species from Arkansas, 

Louisiana and Texas (Hesperiidae, Papilionidae). Jour. Lepid. Soc, 18: 190- 

191. 






1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 41 



1965. Larval food plants and distribution notes for twenty-four Texas Hesperiidae. 
Jour. Lepid. Soc, 19: 1-33. 
Tilden, J. W., 1964. Two species of Hesperiidae previously unrecorded from the 
United States. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 18: 214-216. 
1965. Urbanus procne and Urbanus simplicius (Hesperiidae). Jour. Lepid. Soc, 
19: 53-55. 
Turner, B. L., 1959. The Legumes of Texas. University of Texas, Austin. 



OCCURRENCE OF CALLOPHRYS ERYPHON (LYCAENIDAE) 

IN MICHIGAN 

M. C. Nielsen 

3415 Overlea Dr., Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. 

For some time now, the record of Callophrys eryphon ( Boisduval) from 
Michigan has been in doubt. Specimens representing this record have 
been assumed by many lepidopterists to fall within the usual C. niphon 
(Huebner) variation. Moore (1960) listed eryphon from Mackinac 
County, referring to two specimens collected on May 18, 30, one near 
St. Ignace and the other near Naubinway; however, the specimens were 
never positively determined to represent this hairstreak. 

Recently, while examining butterflies in the collection at Northern 
Michigan College, I found a specimen in their Callophrys niphon series 
that strongly resembled eryphon, and it had been collected in Marquette 
County. Then on May 16, 1964, I collected four specimens in Chippewa 
and Luce counties (in the eastern Upper Peninsula) which fitted the 
description of eryphon. The specimens from Chippewa, Luce, and Mar- 
quette counties were subsequently examined by Harry K. Clench of the 
Carnegie Museum and found to be C. eryphon. The following is a quote 
from Clench's letter of September 16, 1964: 

"The eryphon are . . . perfectly good eryphon though a little peculiar: they run 
slightly smaller; the females are more extensively fulvous above (but are nicely 
matched in this by a series from Moffat County, Colorado); and on the underside 
there is a tendency towards an increased suffusion of hoary gray scaling in the 
terminal spots of the hind wing, faintly reminiscent of the condition typical of 
niphon. All of these traits are exceedingly slight, however, and there is certainly no 
reason at this time to even think of separating them as a different subspecies." 

The Marquette specimen is a slightly torn female taken by Richard L. 
Lake on May 22, 1960, a few blocks from the campus of Northern Michi- 
gan College within the city of Marquette — Township 49 North, Range 25 
West, Section 10. This specimen is now in the writer's collection. 

The Chippewa County specimens are two fresh females collected in 
company with females of C. niphon clarki (Freeman) (determined by H. 
Clench) and C. augustinus (Kirby) while sunning on a sandy road on 



42 Nielsen: Callophrys in Michigan Vol. 20, no. 1 

May 16 at 10:00 to 11:00 A.M. in Township 45 North, Range 5 West, 
Section 36. This road separates a large sphagnum-heath bog from an 
upland area of mixed pine and miscellaneous hardwoods and shrubs. 
Jack, red, and white pines (Pinus banksiana, resinosa, and strohus, re- 
spectively) were found in this vicinity, all possible foodplants for both 
eryphon and niphon. 

In Luce County, the eryphon specimens, two fine males, were collected 
later in the day on May 16, resting on sedges in a small opening within 
old growth hardwoods less than a mile north of Tahquamenon Falls in 
Township 48 North, Range 8 West, Section 1. A few white pines, seed- 
lings, and mature trees, were noted in the perimeter of this opening — 
representing a possible foodplant. Other species taken here with eryphon 
were Celastrina argiolus pseudargiolus (Boisduval & Le Conte) (fresh) 
and Vanessa virginiensis (Drury). 

It is extremely interesting to find this western species in Michigan and 
to find it strictly sympatric with its very near relative, niphon, in the 
Upper Peninsula. Klots (1951) does not list eryphon, nor refer to it in 
his list of casual species, as occurring east of the Great Plains. In Ehrlich 
& Ehrlich (1961), Clench cites Nebraska and northern Manitoba as the 
eastern limit of eryphon. It would therefore appear that these records 
represent a considerable eastward range extension of eryphon in North 
America. Additional observations and collections will be necessary to de- 
termine to what extent C. eryphon is permanently established in Michi- 
gan's Upper Peninsula and to what extent it can coexist with niphon in 
the same habitat. I strongly urge collectors in Ontario and the northern 
Lake States to reexamine their niphon series for the possibility of masquer- 
ading eryphon specimens. All doubtful material can be forwarded to 
Harry Clench for critical examination. 

Acknowledgments 
I would like to thank Dr. Gordon D. Gill, Department of Biology, 
Northern Michigan College, for permitting me to examine the butterfly 
collection from that institution and for providing information relative 
to the Marquette eryphon. Also, my sincere appreciation is extended to 
Harry K. Clench for his examination and verification of the Callophrys 
specimens, and for reviewing the manuscript and suggesting helpful 
comments. 

Literature Cited 
Ehrlich, P. R., & A. H. Ehrlich, 1961. How to Know the Butterflies. William C. 

Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 262 pp., 525 figs. 
Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, east of the 

Great Plains. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 349 pp., 40 pis. 
Moore, S., 1960. A revised annotated list of the butterflies of Michigan. Occ. Papers 

Mus. of Zool., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, 617, 39 pp., 1 pi., 1 fig. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 43 

REDISCOVERY OF EUPTYCHIA MITCH ELLII (SATYRIDAE) 

IN NEW JERSEY 

Frank Rutkowski 

50 Bayard St., New York, N. Y. 

The most recent guidebooks (Ehrlich & Ehrlich, 1961: 91; Forbes, 
1960: 169; Klots, 1951: 69-70) either question or ignore old records of 
Euptychia mitchellii (French) from New Jersey. This is not surprising, 
because these ambiguous records ("Dover, Woodport," "near Lake 
Hopatcong") seem to have been based on a single specimen which van- 
ished long ago (Engelhardt, 1936: 110), and the butterfly was not found 
in New Jersey since the 1890's despite careful search by experienced 
lepidopterists (McAlpine et al, 1960: 211). 

The unpromising history of this species made me feel singularly lucky 
in mid-July, 1963, when I found a colony of mitchellii in a favorite swamp 
near Newton, Sussex County, in northern New Jersey. I say "favorite" 
because this swamp offers a variety of wet habitats, all the way from a 
little acid bog to an alder thicket. Even more conveniently, it is traced 
with paths and footbridges, and seems free of poison sumac. In this New 
Jersey locality the butterflies tend to fly "along very narrow grassy strips 
bordering small watercourses," as McAlpine (1936: 221) reported of the 
Michigan colonies. 

Badger (1958: 46) has indicated that mitchellii populations seem 
prone to yearly fluctuation. During the two seasons that I have watched 
the New Jersey colony, the population has fluctuated from sparse (1963: 
about two dozen individuals seen at peak) to almost nonexistent (1964: 
only five or six stragglers found despite diligent search throughout July ) . 
Everyone seems agreed that mitchellii is easy to overlook. Perhaps its 
specialized habitat, which is repellent to the collector, to say nothing of 
its brief flight period and inconspicuous appearance, protects it 
from discovery in many places where it occurs. A sharp-eyed collector 
must chance to be in the proper spot during the right few days in a year 
of peak abundance. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. F. H. Rindge, I was permitted to compare 
my material with the mitchellii series (from the type locality at Wakelee, 
Michigan, and from Streetsboro, Ohio ) in the collection of the American 
Museum of Natural History. My New Jersey specimens, some of which 
have been deposited in that collection, did not show any consistent dif- 
ference, nor did they blend into a series of E. areolata septentrionalis 
(Davis) from its type locality at Lakehurst, Ocean County, in central 
New Jersey. 



44 Rutkowski: New Jersey Euptychia found Vol. 20. no. 1 

It appears that the location of the New Jersey colony of mitchellii, in 
the same part of the state as the old "Dover-Woodport-Lake Hopatcong" 
records, would make unlikely the possibility suggested by McAlpine et al. 
(1960: 210) "that the isolated New Jersey records of mitchellii . . . might 
have been based on specimens of E. a. septentrionalis showing extreme 
variation in the direction of mitchellii, or even . . . that mitchellii is a well 
defined subspecies of areolata." But Newton is a long way from the rail- 
road station at Lakehurst (Klots, 1951: 70), and the distribution of 
mitchelli is still not clearly understood. It would be interesting to exam- 
ine specimens from the still-undiscovered colonies in Pennsylvania and 
central New Jersey which may await the enterprising or the lucky col- 
lector. 

Literature Cited 

Badger, F. S., Jr., 1958. Euptychia mitchellii (Satyridae) in Michigan and Indiana 

tamarack bogs. Lepid. News, 12: 41-46. 
Ehrlich, P. R., & A. H. Ehrlich, 1961. How to Know the Butterflies. Wm. C. 

Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 262 pp. 
Engelhardt, G. P., 1936. Cissia mitchellii in New Jersey. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, 

31: 110. 
Forbes, W. T. M., 1960. The Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States. 

Part IV. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., Mem. 371, 188 pp. 
Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, 

349 pp. 
McAlpine, W. S., 1936. Note in: Proceedings Brooklyn Ent. Soc, March 12, 1936 

meeting. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, 31: 221. 
McAlpine, W. S., S. P. Hubbell, & T. E. Pliske, 1960. The distribution, habits, and 

life history of Euptychia mitchellii (Satyridae). Jour. Lepid. Soc, 14: 209-227. 



SPEYERIA CYBELE ( NYMPHALIDAE ) AT LIGHT 

At 1:15 A.M. on August 5, 1965, I was surprised to find a fresh male 
Speyeria cybele (Fabricius) actively fluttering against a lighted window 
of my home in West Acton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. The tem- 
perature was about 60° F., and there were numerous other Lepidoptera, 
mostly Geometridae such as Itame pusttdaria Guenee and Semiothisa 
granitata Guenee, at the window. Since there is a flower garden where 
this butterfly is a frequent visitor just outside, and since the house and 
garden are surrounded by fairly heavy pine woods, it is probable that 
the specimen was disturbed from its evening resting place, rather than 
coming any great distance to the light. 

The only other record I have been able to find of Speyeria cybele at 
light is that cited in Kimball, Lepidoptera of Florida, 1965, p. 40. 

Charles G. Oliver, West Acton, Massachusetts 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 45 

SOME EXPERIMENTAL COLOR ABERRATIONS IN 
DANAUS PLEXIPPUS 

Jo Brewer 

1090 Walnut St., Newton Highlands, Massachusetts 

During the summer of 1964 we conducted a pilot rearing project in 
which 114 larvae of Danaus plexippus (L. ) were reared under controlled 
light conditions in three cages, 38 in each cage. Light was provided by 
G.E. fluorescent lamps in combination with Rosco gelatine filters to pro- 
duce the spectral energy distribution and input shown in the figure. The 
cages were painted with nonselective, nontoxic Pittsburgh white paint. 
The temperature within the cages ranged from 69° to 80°, while the 
temperatures outside for the same period ranged from 45° to 90°. The 
experiments were conducted in a completely darkened underground room 
which was notably humid. Humidity, however, was not measured. The 
purpose of the experiment was to study the effects of specific light upon 
the complete metamorphosis of this insect. Each cage was given 14 hours 
of light and 10 hours of darkness in each 24-hour period. 

The first six larvae were found in the field in Walpole, Massachusetts, 
on May 31 and installed, two in each cage, while in the first and second 
instars. Of these, one in each cage survived. Cage 1 ("Blue," spectral 
energy: 4,000-5,000 angstroms) and cage 3 ("Red," 6,000-7,000 ang- 
stroms) produced color aberrations. The color of the scaling of the under- 
side of both wings was normal, but on the upperside of the forewings the 
orange scales were fewer and paler than usual, the apex showing almost 
no orange. The overall effect was of a monarch with buff-colored hind- 
wings and blue-black forewings with some dusky orange. The insect in 
cage 2 ("Green," 5,000-6,000 angstroms), although not brightly colored, 
was fairly normal. All three insects were females. 

The next three larvae were also found in the field, in Bennington, Ver- 
mont, in the first and second instars, and were installed in the cages on 
June 20. These emerged on July 7-10, and produced two females and 
one male. All were of normal color. The male mated with both females, 
and a total of 884 eggs resulted. Of these, 105 were installed, 35 in each 
cage. The distribution was as follows. 





Eggs 


Female 


July 


each cage, 


10 


1 


15 




5 


2 


18 




10 


2 


20 




10 


2 


23 



46 



Brewer: Experimental monarch colors 



Vol. 20, no. 1 



30 


1 


16 


71 


2 


18 


91 


2 


20 


74 


2 


23 



Control 



The controls were reared in separate cages according to day of oviposi- 
tion. 

Of the 30 eggs which reached maturity in the cages, four resulted in 
color aberrations. Cages 1 and 3 each produced another butterfly with 
dark forewings and light hindwings. Cage 2 produced two insects in 
which both forewing and hindwings were buff-colored. All were females. 

SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION 



70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 













' 




















BLUE V LAMP + BLUE FILTER *37 








GREEN "F" LAMP + GREEN FILTER *40 








PINK V LAMP + RED FILTER *15 


































































^BLUE N 




'green n 






' RED 





3500 4000 4500 



5000 5500 
ANGSTROMS 



6000 6500 



7000 



In the control group, kept under normal conditions of light and heat, 
93 of the original 215 emerged with no color aberrations. In brief, the 
only color aberrations came from the light-controlled cages. They were 
offspring of three different females and two different males. They may 
have been genetic mutations. There are two specimens somewhat similar 
in the Andrew J. Weeks collection of Lepidoptera at the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Harvard, both taken around 1900. However, in the 
course of rearing and banding during eight years I have never seen an- 
other living monarch with colors even approaching those mentioned 
above. It seems plausible that a lack of certain qualities of light, a lack 
of total light energy, a lack of stimulation provided by sharply rising and 
falling temperatures, or a combination of all three factors may have con- 
tributed to the alteration of wing scale color. No conclusions can be 
drawn until the experiment has been repeated with tighter controls, but 






1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 47 

in the meantime I have some rather strange-looking monarch specimens. 
Acknowledgment is made to R. L. Paugh, Specialist, Plant Growth 
Lighting, General Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio, who provided the 
spectral energy distribution graph. 



THE TERMINATION OF SATURNIIDS' DIAPAUSE 

Colleen Seeley 

47 Woodside Ave., Oneonta, New York 

Each spring for five years I have been forcing moths to emerge from 
their cocoons months before their normal time by bringing them into a 
warm room, spraying them with water, and wishing they would emerge. 
Last fall, 1964, because I had several hundred cocoons that I had pro- 
duced through rearing during the summer, I decided to find out just what 
factor, or combination of things, made moths emerge. I also wanted to 
know exactly how long it took. 

I set up the experiment by checking the time of the year when saturni- 
ids normally terminate their diapause, to see what conditions ordinarily 
exist at that time. 

I used Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer), Hyalophora cecropia (L.), 
H. gloveri (Strecker), 1 and Callosamia promethea (Drury). These emerge 
the last two weeks in June, here in New York. At that time there is plenty 
of rain and the ground is damp, there are 17 hours of light, and the tem- 
perature ranges from 68° to 80° F. All these moths diapause in the pupal 
stage and would normally be exposed to several months of cold. 

I ran two pretests on about 80 cocoons of 11 different saturniids, then 
set up the following tests on a more accurate basis. 2 

One hundred cocoons of the above four saturniids were divided into 
five groups of 20 cocoons each. All had been stored in the refrigerator for 
about five months. All were sprayed with water occasionally. 

Group I: Cocoons were kept in darkness and temperature about 40° 
(in refrigerator). This group was my control. No moths emerged. 

Group II: Cocoons were placed in an emergence box with a tight-fitted 
lid and taped to give total darkness, with the temperature 68°-75° F. Be- 
tween the 20th and 30th day 85% emerged; 100% of the cecropia, gloveri, 
and polyphemus emerged. Over 50% emerged between 20 and 23 days. 

Group III: Cocoons were placed in a screened box and given exactly 



1 The Hyalophora gloveri stock originally came from North Dakota. 

2 Science Congress Project 1965, Albany Science Congress, Biology Intermediate Group — First 
Award, also Grand Prize. 



48 Seeley: Saturniid diapause Vol. 20, no. 1 

17 hours of light from a 100-watt bulb each day. 8 The temperature was 
68°-75° F. Between the 20th and 30th day 85% emerged; 100% of the 
cecropia, gloved, and polyphemus emerged. Over 50% emerged between 
27 and 30 days. 

Group IV: Cocoons were placed in screened box with continuous arti- 
ficial light from a 100-watt bulb. The temperature was 68°-75° F. Be- 
tween the 20th and 30th day 90% emerged; 100% of the cecropia, gloveri, 
and polyphemus. Over 50% emerged between 22 and 25 days. 

Group V: Cocoons were placed in a screened box, with only natural 
light, and in the basement where the temperature was below 65° F. None 
emerged. 

It is unusual to have this high a percentage emerge in any experiment. 
Two prometheas were parasitized and others were still viable. They 
emerged four to six weeks later. 

I conclude the key to the termination of saturniids diapause is tempera- 
ture. Termination of saturniids diapause can be induced in 20 to 30 days 
by temperature 68°-75° F. 

Other interesting information from the experiment: 

(1) Total darkness or 24 hours of light sped up the termination 
slightly. 

(2) Males emerged in the first part of the week, females in the 
latter. 

(3) Half of the moths that emerged were males, 

(4) Cocoons can be stored in temperatures under 65° F regardless 
of hours of light. Termination can be delayed with low temperatures. 

(5) I found cecropia, polyphemus, and gloveri dependable subjects 
to work with. 

These moths usually have a set time of the day to emerge. Moths 
emerging in total darkness or 24 hours of light emerged at odd hours. The 
cecropia were coming out at 10:00 P.M. and 9 to 10:00 A.M. They also 
mated at odd times. One male cecropia even copulated with a promethea. 
She deposited a few eggs (fertility unknown now). 

This experiment held a surprise for me as I didn't expect to find any 
would emerge in the dark box. I might have expected it, though, because 
many shipments of moths have emerged in tight dark boxes en route. 

This information should aid classroom teachers and science teachers 
in the use of the moth for teaching. The scientist can store his cocoons 
below 65° to use at his convenience. Students experimenting on moths 
can see the results without waiting for the normal termination. More 
broods can be grown in a year, and so on. 

3 A time switch was used for accuracy. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49 



MINUTES OF THE TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY AND NINTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 

PACIFIC SLOPE SECTION 

August 25 and 26, 1962, Santa Barbara, California 

Saturday, August 25 

The joint meeting was called to order at 9:00 A.M. by Dr. John A. Comstock. Peter 
F. Bellinger was elected Secretary pro tern. Members of the society were welcomed 
by Dr. V. L. Vanderhoff, Director of the Santa Barbara Museum; in reply the chair- 
man expressed the thanks of the society. 

Dr. Comstock then delivered his Presidential Message, calling attention to the im- 
portance of accurate illustrations in entomological publications (see Journal, vol. 16, 
pp. 247-248). Dr. Vanderhoff took the opportunity to call members' attention to 
the dioramas in the museum and to Nelson Baker's illustrations for the insect hall. 

Two invitational papers for the morning were given by Dr. Jerry A. Powell, who 
spoke on "Some observations on the minimum temperature threshold of moth activity 
at light," and by Frank Sala, who discussed the "astrologa complex" of the genus 
Annaphila (a paper since published: 1964, Jour. Res. Lepid., 2: 289-301 "1963"). 

Following a group photograph and an excellent luncheon provided by the museum, 
the business meeting was called to order at 1:30 with Dr. C. L. Remington presid- 
ing. Motions of thanks to the staff and associates of the museum for their hospitality, 
and to Fred Thorne and Nelson Baker for their efforts on the program committee, 
were passed. Dr. Remington discussed publication plans for the Journal and Mem- 
oirs, and Dr. Tilden called for more material for the News, especially for the Season 
Summary; the possibility of using a standard form for submitting material for the 
summary was discussed. A motion by Fred Thorne was passed recommending the 
establishment of a class of patron members, with dues in excess of those charged 
sustaining members. 

It was announced that the next meeting of the Society would be held in San 
Antonio, Texas, in the summer of 1963. A motion to hold the next meeting of the 
Pacific Slope Section at the Santa Barbara Museum in the last week of August in 
1963 was passed, and Dr. Tilden was asked to head a committee to select a program 
committee. 

The following papers were presented in the afternoon session: 

Dr. J. W. Tilden — "Variations in Speyeria in the Sand Creek area of Oregon." 

Oakley Shields — "Preliminary report on the Libytheidae." 

Dr. William Hovanitz — "Preliminary analysis of populations of Pieris protodice 

and Pieris occidentalism 
Lloyd M. Martin — "The genus Lacinipolia." 

The annual banquet was held at the Miramar Hotel. Following the banquet Dr. 
Comstock spoke on his experiences on a recent trip to Samoa and showed slides of 
the island and of some of the Lepidoptera which he was able to rear there. 

Sunday, August 26 
The final session was called to order at 9:30 with Dr. Tilden presiding. It was 
announced that Dr. Hovanitz would be program chairman and Nelson Baker local 
arrangements chairman for the next meeting of the Pacific Slope Section. 
The following papers were presented: 

Dr. C. L. Remington — "Hybridization studies of Papilio, Limenitis and Cal- 

losamia." 
Dr. Roger W. Pease, Jr. — "Geographic variation and polymorphism in the Amer- 
ican Utetheisa." 
Wilbur S. McAlpine — "Butterflies of the genus Calephelis." 



50 Pacific Slope Section Meetings Vol. 20, no. 1 



Following the formal meetings, concluded at noon, members of the group were 
invited to an informal luncheon and open house at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Carl W. 
Kirkwood of Summerland. The hospitality of the Kirkwoods was greatly appreciated 
by those able to attend. — Peter F. Bellinger, Secretary pro tern 

MINUTES OF THE TENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE 
SECTION OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

August 24 and 25, 1963, Santa Barbara, California 

Saturday, August 24 

Following registration of members and a get-acquainted period, Mr. Lloyd M. 
Martin, Los Angeles County Museum, presided over the opening session. Miss Norma 
Morrer, Acting Director of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, delivered 
an address of welcome. 

Mr. Martin gave a report on the 1963 National Meeting of the Society, held during 
early August in San Antonio, Texas (see the Journal, vol. 18: 117-118, 1964). 

Dr. Rudolph Mattoni, Downey, California, presented a paper "Homing behavior in 
Philotes"; a capture-mark-release-recapture study of a colony of P. sonorensis in the 
foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in which two areas some 20 meters apart were 
designated and observed for cross movements. 

Charles H. Abbott, Redondo Beach, reported on "The 1963 migration of Vanessa 
cardui and other recent observations"; included was a request for additional informa- 
tion of activities of other Vanessa species north of central California. 

Following an excellent luncheon, again provided through the generosity of the 
staff of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, a business meeting was held. 
The selection of a site for the 1964 meetings was made in response to an invitation 
from Mr. Peter Herlan of the Nevada State Museum at Carson City, and Dr. J. W. 
Tilden, San Jose State College, was elected program chairman with Mr. Herlan acting 
as local arrangements chairman. Considerable discussion followed the reading of a 
letter from Mr. Charles F. Harbison, San Diego Museum of Natural History, dealing 
with the problem of the selection of site and month having been made in past years 
by members present at the preceding meeting; that is, those who are able to attend 
at a given place and time of year are apt to select the same site, which tends to lessen, 
rather than increase, the geographical movement of the meeting site and breadth of 
the attending group. A system was proposed, including a committee to investigate 
possible meeting sites two years in advance and to report a recommendation at each 
meeting at the time the next site is to be selected. Mr. Harbison and Dr. E. O. Sette 
were appointed to look into the 1965 meeting site. 

The afternoon session, with Dr. Mattoni presiding, included the following: 

"Philotes of central coastal California," by Robert L. Langston, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley: a paper subsequently published in this Journal (vol. 17: 201-223, 
1964). 

"Chemistry in Lepidopterology," by John M. Snider: use of chlorocresol as a mold 
preventer in holding fresh material; quaternary ammonium halide as an injection in- 
stant relaxer, and other little-known techniques were discussed. 

"Genitalic and wing differences in western Pieris," by Vincent Chang, Los Angeles 
State College: a paper subsequently published (Jour. Res. Lepid., 2(1): 97-125, 
1963). 

An exhibits and exchange period followed the afternoon session and included two 
well -prepared technique displays: a short explanatory introduction and display of 
equipment for field photography by Thomas C. Emmel, Stanford University; and 
Phillip A. Adams, University of California, Santa Barbara, showed a rubber stamp 
method for producing specimen labels; this inexpensive technique has since been pub- 
lished (Jour. Res. Lepid., 2(3): 225-228, 1963). 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 51 



The annual banquet was held at the El Mirasol Hotel and was followed by an il- 
lustrated lecture by Dr. William Hovanitz, the 1963 program chairman, on butterflies 
and their habits in the Canadian Arctic. 

Sunday, August 25 

Mr. Nelson Baker, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, presided over the 
morning session, which included the following papers: 

"Patterns and variation of subspecies in Philotes," by Rudolf Mattoni: primarily a 
consideration of spot variation in P. sonorensis. 

"Research in the genus Lacinipolia," by Lloyd M. Martin, Los Angeles County 
Museum: a progress report on taxonomic studies on Nearctic members of this large 
and difficult group. 

"The origin of sympatric species in Colias through the aid of natural hybridization," 
by Dr. William Hovanitz, Arcadia, California: a paper currently being published 
(Jour. Res. Lepid., 1(4): 261-274, 1963; 2(3): 205-223, 1963; 3(1): 37-44, 1964). 

No formal session was planned for the afternoon of August 25. Members and guests 
were again treated to the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Carl Kirkwood, who provided 
refreshments at their home in nearby Summerland. — Editor 



MINUTES OF THE ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PACIFIC 
SLOPE SECTION OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

July 18-20, 1964, Nevada State Museum, Carson City, Nevada 

Saturday, July 18 

The morning session was opened at 10:00 after the members and guests had regis- 
tered. E. J. Newcomer presided over this session. Paul A. Opler was elected Secretary 
pro tern. Judge Clark J. Guild, founder of the Nevada State Museum and Chairman 
of the Board, welcomed the members and gave a brief history of the museum. After 
having accepted Judge Guild's welcome on behalf of the members, Dr. Newcomer 
read the message from the president of the society, Dr. J. G. Franclemont. Dr. 
Franclemont pointed out the unfilled gap in the knowledge of the immature stages 
of North American Heterocera. 

The morning session was adjourned at 11:15 A.M. Mr. Peter Herlan conducted 
the members on a tour of the museum, after which the members were hosted at a 
luncheon by the Nevada State Museum. 

Mr. Robert L. Langston presided at the afternoon session. A symposium, entitled 
"Collecting in Unusual Places," was given and consisted of the reading and discus- 
sion of the following papers: 

1. "Collecting in Utah" — Kenneth B. Tidwell. 

2. "Collecting in southern Texas" — J. W. Tilden, Biology Dept., San Jose State 
College, San Jose, California. 

3. "Collecting in western Nevada" — Peter J. Herlan, Nevada State Museum, Car- 
son City, Nevada. 

A paper entitled "The distribution of Lacinipolia olivacea and its numerous sub- 
species" was presented by Lloyd M. Martin, Los Angeles County Museum, Los Ange- 
les, California. 

The meeting adjourned at 4:30 P.M. 

Sunday, July 19 

Dr. O. E. Sette presided at the morning session. Society business was conducted 
and the following topics were considered: 

1. Since the treasurer of the Pacific Slope Section was not in attendance, the trea- 
surer's report was deferred to 1965. 



52 Pacific Slope Section Meetings Vol. 20, no. 1 



2. Dr. J. W. Tilden moved that the balance in the treasury remain as is and not 
be redistributed. The motion was seconded, discussed, and unanimously passed. 

3. The society membership list was discussed and several suggestions were made 
to the secretary of the society, Dr. John C. Downey. 

4. The society newsletter was discussed and several suggestions were made to the 
new editor, E. J. Newcomer. 

5. It was decided that the 1965 meeting of the Pacific Slope Section be held at 
the San Diego Natural History Museum on the fourth weekend in June. 

6. Charles Harbison and Fred Thome were selected as cochairmen of the local 
arrangements and program committee. 

7. Dr. Tilden moved that letters be sent to the Board of Trustees of the Nevada 
State Museum and to Mr. and Mrs. Peter J. Herlan thanking them for their hospitality 
during the meeting. 

8. Dr. Downey proposed two resolutions which were discussed and approved by 
the members. 

a. Be it resolved that the Pacific Slope Section of the Lepidopterists' feels that 
the biennial membership list is of extreme value to the Society. 

b. Be it resolved that the membership expresses its appreciation to Dr. C. L. 
Remington, past editor of the Journal, and Dr. J. W. Tilden, past editor of 
the News, for the splendid job they have done and for their contributions 
to the Society. Be it also resolved that the Pacific Slope Section is pleased 
that Drs. Jerry A. Powell and E. J. Newcomer have accepted their editorial 
positions. 

The business meeting was closed and the following two papers were read and dis- 
cussed: 

1. "The distributional aspects of the Rhopalocera of Yuba Pass, Sierra County, 
California" — Paul A. Opler, San Jose, California. 

2. "Sound production in Lepidoptera" — Dr. John C. Downey, Southern Illinois 
University. 

The morning session was adjourned at 12:30. 

Dr. John C. Downey presided at the afternoon sessions. The following papers were 
read and discussed: 

1. "Distribution of Philotes in North America" — Robert L. Langston, University 
of California, Berkeley, California. 

2. "Sympatric colonies of Euphydryas in the Pacific Northwest" — David L. Bauer, 
Bijou, California. 

3. "Pieris yreka Reakirt: a request" — F. Martin Brown. 

"A study of the types of the W. H. Edwards names for butterflies" — F. Martin 
Brown, Fountain Valley School, Colorado. ( Both papers were read by Dr. J. W. 
Tilden. ) 

Lloyd M. Martin showed colored slides of several specimens from the collection of 
the late Harold M. Bower, which was recently bequeathed to the Los Angeles County 
Museum. The collecton contained 41,000 specimens. 

John and Tom Emmel showed colored slides of larvae and pupae of Papilio indra 
minori, P. i. fordi, and P. i. pergamus. 

Paul A. Opler made a research request for information about the ecology or life 
history of any members of the genus Euchloe. 

Dr. Downey adjourned the meetng at 4:45 P.M. 

• Monday, July 20 

The members were led on a collecting trip of the Virginia City area by Mr. Herlan. 
Numerous specimens were taken including topotypes of Tharsalea arota virginiensis 
and lcaricea icarioides ardea. — Paul A. Opler, Secretary pro tern 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 53 



MINUTES OF THE TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PACIFIC 
SLOPE SECTION OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

June 19-21, 1965, San Diego, California 

Saturday, June 19 

Members and guests gathered at the museum for registration and informal discus- 
sion. Shortly after 10:00 A.M. the meeting was called to order by Dr. J. A. Corn- 
stock. R. L. Langston was elected Secretary-Treasurer pro tern. An address of wel- 
come was given by Mrs. Jerri Heller, Acting Director, San Diego Natural History 
Museum. The acceptance by Dr. Comstock included historical aspects of the museum. 

The President's Message by Dr. F. H. Rindge, American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, was read in his absence by Dr. Comstock (published in the Journal, 
vol. 19: 192-194, 1965). 

The morning session included the following papers: 

"Overwintering of Agraulis vanillae in the San Francisco Bay Region" — Dr. O. E. 
Sette, Los Altos, California. ("Valley climate" in study area, Los Altos; drastically 
reduced in cold winter months, the population increases by late summer and fall. ) 

"Problems in the classification of Nearctic Euchloe" — P. A. Opler, University of 
California, Berkeley. (Adult, larval, foodplant data, and statistics were given to sug- 
gest need for change in the species concepts with new name combinations in this 
genus of Pieridae. ) 

"The four lives of a butterfly" — S. N. Laverents. (An excellent sound film through 
the eyes of a commercial photographer, principally the life history of Papilio zelicaon, 
developed for use in public schools. ) 

The meeting was adjourned for the taking of group pictures and lunch. 

The afternoon session was called to order with Dr. Sette presiding. The "Sympo- 
sium on the giant skippers ( Megathymidae ) " which brought to San Diego many of 
the specialists from such distant places as Arizona, Kansas, and Texas, included the 
following papers: 

"The eremology or desert habitat and distribution of western Megathymidae" — 
E. R. Tinkham, Yuma, Arizona. (Eremology was defined as the science of the desert. 
Accompanied by slides and several maps of the deserts throughout northern Mexico 
and western U. S.) 

"The tools and problems of taxonomy in the Megathymidae" — D. B. Stallings, Cald- 
well, Kansas. (External morphology and genitalia are not enough as tools. Others 
include food preferences, study of immature stages, statistical methods, genetics and 
pH factor of soil. ) 

"Cremaster of the Megathymidae as a tool of taxonomy" — Mrs. Viola Stallings, 
Caldwell, Kansas. ( Morphology of the pupal stage, particularly the cremaster diag- 
nostic. Illustrated by colored slides. ) 

"Life histories of some Megathymidae" — Dr. J. A. Comstock, Del Mar, California. 
( Early stages, seasons, and comparisons of yucca feeders and agave feeders, prime 
examples being M. yuccae martini and A. stephensi. ) 

"Speciation in the Agathymus" — H. A. Freeman, Garland, Texas. (Theories on de- 
velopment of species in this most complex genus, particularly in northern Mexico. ) 

"Early observations of Agathymus stephensi' — Mrs. Kate Stephens (1851-1954). 
( Mimeographed copies were provided by the Los Entomologos. Narrative on experi- 
ences with this giant skipper in the La Puerta area of the Vallecitos Desert in the 
1880's. ) 

"Chromosomes of the Megathymidae and their relation to classification and specia- 
tion" — Dr. C. L. Remington, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. ( Read in 
his absence by D. B. Stallings. Stated that Agathymus with basic 5n or multiples — 
5, 10, 15, 20, etc.; yucca feedings in the U. S. with 26, 27, or 29 chromosomes.) 

"Bionomics and morphology of Megathymus at the species complex level" — Kilian 



54 Pacific Slope Section Meetings Vol. 20, no. 1 



Roever, Phoenix, Arizona. (There are four major complexes: yuccae, ursus, cofaqui, 
and streckeri; confirmed by studies on early stages. ) 

"Problems in the botany of host plants of the Megathymidae" — C. F. Harbison, 
San Diego. ( Time did not permit presentation of this paper, but a display of numer- 
ous potted Agave was available during the meetings, and a planting of many species 
of agaves and yuccas were growing near the museum. ) 

After a brief coffee break, the symposium continued with most of the above speak- 
ers forming a panel; panel members made statements and directed questions. Then 
the symposium was thrown open to audience questions and discussions. Participation 
was vigorous, despite lateness of the hour. 

The annual banquet was held at a restaurant a few blocks west of Balboa Park. 
Following dinner, Dr. J. A. Comstock and Dr. F. X. Williams reminisced on the old- 
time entomologists, most of whom either one or the other or both have known per- 
sonally; the talk was accompanied by lantern slides of photographs of many early 
personalities. 

Sunday, June 20 

At 9:20 A.M. the meeting was called to order, with Dr. J. W. Tilden presiding. 
The program included the following presentations: 

"Biological interrelationships of prodoxid moths and Yucca whipplei" — Dr. J. A. 
Powell, University of California, Berkeley. (With each feeding at different loci — 
seeds, pods, high or low on stalk; four species are associated with Y. whipplei: 
Tegeticula maculata, Prodoxus marginatus, P. cinereus, and P. aenescens. None of 
these moths has ever been taken on any other species of yucca. ) 

"Population biology of a Plebejus icarioides colony" — T. C. Emmel, Stanford Uni- 
versity. (A colony on the Stanford Campus was mapped, butterflies marked and 
studied over a several-acre area. Recaptures were made up to 1,000 feet away from 
original colony sites. ) 

"Comparative morphology of the mesothoracic aorta in the Rhopalocera" — J. H. 
Hessel, Tucson, Arizona. (Differences among species and to a greater degree be- 
tween families. Many more need dissecting to draw conclusions. ) 

"A Venezuelan collecting trip" — John Masters, Osceola, Arkansas. ( Illustrated with 
color slides, particularly of forested areas and jungle clearings where many desirable 
species were taken. ) 

After a short break, the business meeting was called to order in the coffee room. 

Resolutions: It was moved and passed unanimously that the group officially thank 
the hosts for a very successful meeting; moved and passed that the secretary express 
thanks by letter to the San Diego Natural History Museum and to the program chair- 
man, F. T. Thorne. It was moved and passed that C. F. Harbison be reimbursed for 
the refreshments from the registration fees. 

Treasurers report: R. L. Langston reported $31.00 collected in registration fees. 
Nelson Baker, as permanent treasurer, reported that the Pacific Slope Section had 
$96.00 on deposit. It was moved and passed that since there were no outstanding 
debts at this time, it should be kept in the bank for future emergencies. 

Selection of 1966 meeting place and date: Nelson Baker offered on behalf of the 
Santa Barbara Museum, and the 1966 meeting was approved for Santa Barbara. A 
show of hands approved the third week in June. Since the meetings have never been 
in the Pacific Northwest, E. J. Newcomer made a 1967 tentative invitation for some 
place in Oregon, such as Corvallis. An informal show of hands indicated a favorable 
reaction to such a site. 

Election of 1966 program committee: It was moved and passed that Nelson Baker 
be local arrangements chairman. Dr. C. L. Hogue was elected program chairman. 
His assistants were chosen as Ron Leuschner and Tom Emmel. 

Other business matters: Dr. J. A. Powell, editor of the Journal, mentioned that 
although there is no charge to authors for illustrations (line and halftone) with the 
new printer, contributions to the illustrations fund are still encouraged in order to 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 55 



support colorplates. E. J. Newcomer, editor of the Neivs, asked for comments and 
suggestions in relation to the season's summary. ( A questionnaire has since appeared 
in the News. ) Fred Thorne, as program chairman, gave his thanks to Los Entomologos 
and the Museum Directors for providing a memorable meeting place. 

During the remaining time P. A. Opler showed slides of some unusual gynando- 
morphs, aberrant forms, and examples of certain Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. Dr. J. 
W. Tilden also showed slides taken during his recent stay in Hawaii. The meeting 
then adjourned for lunch. 

On Sunday afternoon no organized activities were scheduled. 

Monday, June 21 

Many of the members and their guests met for a bus trip to the Laguna Mountains 
in eastern San Diego County. East of El Cajon, the bus drove out of the overcast that 
plagued the meeting in San Diego. With warm, sunny conditions, collecting was 
good at all six localities visited in the Mt. Laguna-Cuyamaca area. Some species 
were in their peak flight, many common, and a few choice "rarities" were taken. 
Although most were what the resident collector would expect, it is certain that it 
would be considered a very successful day by the out-of-state collectors. 

According to the registration list, 10 states were represented: Arizona, Arkansas, 
California, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. Mem- 
bers, guests, and speakers who attended included: 

E. N. Agey, R. Albright, G. T. and Mrs. Austin, N. W. and Mrs. Raker, Andre and 
Mrs. Rlanchard, R. W. Rreedlove, J. A. Comstock, S. L. Ellis, T. C. Emmel, R. Fall, 
H. A. and Mrs. Freeman, R. S. Funk, C, F. Harbison, W. A. and Mrs. Hedges, Mrs. 
J. Heller, P. J. and Mrs. Herlan, J. H. and Mrs. Hessel, C. L. and Mrs. Hogue, W. 
Hovanitz, J. Lane, R. L. and Mrs. Langston, S. N. Laverents, R. H. and Mrs. Leusch- 
ner, A. C. Lyngholm, L. M. and Mrs. Martin, J. H. Masters, R. P. Minahan, E. J. 
Newcomer, P. A. and Mrs. Opler, J. A. Powell, W. S. Radcliffe, J. Roberds, K. Roever, 
Allen and Mrs. Rubbert, O. E. Sette, D. R. and Mrs. Starlings, R. E. and Mrs. Stan- 
ford, R. H. Stewart, D. Studebaker, F. T. and Mrs. Thorne, J. W. Tilden, E. R. Tink- 
ham, Mrs. M. A. Turner and F. X. Williams. — Robert L. Langston, Secretary pro 
tern 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF ANNUAL MEETING 
The Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Lepidopterists' Society will be held in 
OTTAWA, ONTARIO, from the evening of SUNDAY, MAY 29 to the morning of 
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 1, 1966. 

The general theme of the program will be: LEPIDOPTERA AROUND THE 
WORLD. 

We hope the program will be of interest to amateurs and professionals alike. Field 
trips will form a part of the program. 

The period of the meetings coincides with the Ottawa Tulip Festival and with 
Memorial Day in the United States; it should be an excellent time to collect some 
interesting local butterflies and moths, including some subarctic intrusions. 

Those wishing to participate in the program or requiring further information should 
contact: 

Dr. D. F. Hardwick, 
Entomology Research Institute, 
K. W. Neatby Building, 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
Papers to be delivered at the meetings should be received in Ottawa not later than 
March 1, 1966. 

Further announcements concerning the program will appear in the News at a later 
date. 



56 Zoological Nomenclature Vol. 20, no. 1 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 
NOMENCLATURE 

Required six-months' public notice is given on the possible use of 
plenary powers by the International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature in connection with the following names, listed by Case Number 
(see Bull, zool. Nomencl. 22, pt. 4, 2 November 1965): 

1706. Type-species for Phasia Latreille, 1804 (Insecta, Diptera). 

1708. Suppression of Papilio lintingensis Osbeck, 1765 (Insecta, Lepi- 

doptera ) . 

1709. Type-species for Monopsyllus Kolenati, 1875; Suppression of 

Ceratopsyllus sciuri Kolenati, 1856, Monopsyllus sciuri Kolenati, 
1857, and Ceratopsyllus monoctenus Kolenati, 1856 (Insecta, 
Siphonaptera ) . 

1710. Type-species for Stizus Latreille, [1802-1803] (Insecta, Hymenop- 

tera ) . 

1711. Type-species for Diodontus Curtis, 1834 (Insecta, Hymenoptera ) . 

1712. Type-species for Trychosis Foerster, 1868 (Insecta, Hymenoptera). 

1713. Type-species for Prospaltella Ashmead, 1904 (Insecta, Hymenop- 

tera ) . 

1716. Type-species for Chamaemyia Meigen, 1803 (Insecta, Diptera). 
1720. Suppression of Xyleborus Bowdich, 1825 (Insecta, Coleoptera). 

Comments should be sent in duplicate, citing case number, to the Sec- 
retary, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, c/o Brit- 
ish Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London S.W. 7, Eng- 
land. Those received early enough will be published in the Bulletin of 
Zoological Nomenclature. 



BOOK NOTICE 

MOUCHA, J., & F. PROCHAZKA: Beautiful Butterflies. 135 pp., 56 pis. London: 
Spring Books. 1963. 

This book is an attractive introduction to the diurnal Lepidoptera for the layman. 
An interesting and informative discussion of the group is followed by a series of 
magnificant plates, representing some spectacular tropical species and some repre- 
sentative European forms, with remarks on their distribution, biology, and variation. 
All families except the Hesperiidae are. represented. — Peter F. Bellinger 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 57 



RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to 
lepidopterists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended 
that every work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here. Papers 
of only local interest and papers from this Journal are listed without abstract. Read- 
ers, not in North America, interested in assisting with the abstracting, are invited to 
write Dr. P. F. Bellinger (Department of Biological Sciences, San Fernando Valley 
State College, Northridge, California, U.S.A.). Abstractor's initials are as follows: 

[P.B.] — P. F. Bellinger [W.H.] — W. Hackman [N.O.] — N. S. Obraztsov 

[I.C.] — I. F. B. Common [T.I.] — Taro Iwase [C.R.] — C. L. Remington 

[W.C.] — W. C. Cook [T.L.] — T. W. Langer [J.T.] — J. W. Tilden 

[A.D.] — A. Diakonoff [J.M.] — J. Moucha [P.V.] — P. E. L. Viette 

[J.D.] — Julian Donahue [E.M.] — E. G. Munroe 



B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Reisser, Hans, "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Sterrhinae ( Lep., Geom. ) VI. Sterrha 
alicantaria sp. n., eine neue Art der siidspanischen Kiistengebiete" [in German]. 
Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 48: 45-51, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1963. Type locality Alicante, 
S. Spain. 

Rezac, Miroslav, "Zur Bionomie der Argyresthia-Aiten auf mitteleuropaischen 
Obstbaumarten" [in German; Czech summary]. Zool. Listy (Folia zool.), 12: 
43-62, 12 figs., 2 col. pis. 1963. Life-history and taxonomic discussion of four 
spp. (pruniella, cornella, albistria and mendica). [J. M.] 

Riedl, Tadeusz, "Materiaux pour la connaissance des Momphidae (Lepidoptera) 
palearctiques. Partie II. Sur quelques especes des genres Mompha Hbn. et 
Psacaphora H.S. de la faune polonaise" [in French; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. 
Pologne, 33: 101-106, 5 figs. 1963. 3 spp. from Poland are recorded; descrip- 
tions & figures of genitalia. [J. M.] 

Reidl, Tadeusz, "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der palaarktischen Momphidae. I. Sorhagenia 
rhamniella (Zell. ) und zwei neue europaische Arten der Gattung Sorhagenia Spul." 
[in German; Polish summary]. Bull. ent. Pologne, 32: 69-75, 8 figs. 1962. 
New species: S. janiszewskae (Wroclaw, Poland) & S. tolli (Poland). Genitalia 
& imagines figured. [J. M.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A new species of Melanchroia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) 
from Jamaica." Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 69: 142-144, 2 figs. 1961. Describes as 
new M. venata (Milk River Bath). [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A revision of the Nacophorini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)." 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 123: 87-154, 6 pis., 46 figs. 1961. Retains this 
tribal name, although Nacophora is sunk to Phaeoura. Describes as new Betulodes 
euriceraea ( Zamora, Ecuador, 3,000-4,000 ft. ) ; Phaeoura kirkwoodi ( Pinery Can- 
yon, Chiricahua Mts., Ariz.), P. ianthina (La Polvosa, Chihuahua, Mex.), P. 
spadix (PAcapulco, Mex.), P. helua (Southwestern Research Station, Cochise Co., 
Ariz., 5,400 ft.), P. aetha (Smoky Valley, Tulare Co., Calif.), P. cana (Camp 
Angelus, San Bernardino Co., Calif.); Thyrinteina arnohia phala (Chichen Itza, 
Yucatan), T. unicornis (Phoenix Park, Moneague, St. Ann Parish, Jamaica), T. 
leucoceraea (Hansa Humboldt, Santa Catherina, Brazil); Holochroa dissociaria 
varia (Gran Quivira National Monument, Socorro Co., New Mexico). Revision 
includes 22 spp. in these four genera; all are redescribed, and keys based on ex- 
ternal characters & on genitalia of each sex are given. [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A synopsis of the genus Nycteola from North America, in- 
cluding a new species from Arizona (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Jour. N. Y. 



58 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 20. no. 1 



Ent. Soc, 69: 203-206, 2 figs. 1961. Describes as new N. fletcheri (South- 
western Research Station, Cochise Co., Ariz., 5,400 ft.). Gives keys to the five 
North American spp., based on genitalia. [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "Descriptions of and notes on North American Geometridae 
(Lepidoptera), no. 5." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 2065: 11 pp. 1961. Describes as 
new Yermoia glaucina (Morongo Wash, San Bernardino Co., Calif.), and reviews 
genus (including also perplexata). Redescribes Itame abruptata, n. comb. Trans- 
fers Bombycia Candida from Thyatiridae to Stenocharis. Records Olneya tesota as 
foodplant of Glaucina eupitheciaria lucida. [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "Notes on and descriptions of North American Eupithecia 
(Lepidoptera, Geometridae)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 2147: 23 pp., 7 figs. 1963. 
Describes as new E. phyllisae (Horseshoe Springs Camp., 2 m. W. of La Cueva, 
Sandoval Co., New Mexico, 7,900 ft.), E. hohokamae (5 mi. W. of Portal, Cochise 
Co., Ariz.). Notes on 46 other spp., including additional distribution records, 
some new synonymy, & description of previously unknown sexes of E. sperryi & 
E. sinuata. [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A revision of the genera Anavinemina and Vinemina (Lepi- 
doptera, Geometridae)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 2172: 40 pp., 26 figs. 1964. 
Describes as new ANAVINEMINA (type Tephrosia muraena), A. promuraena 
(Popocatepetl Park, Mexico), A. molybra (Cerro Pelon, Municipio Yolox, Oaxaca, 
Mexico), A. axicata (Mexico City), A. orphna (Popocatepetl Park); V. muraenata 
( Totonicapan, Guatemala). 12 spp. are included in these two genera. [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A revision of the genera Carphoides, Paraphoides, and 
Galenara (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 2189: 53 pp., 33 
figs. 1964. Describes as new PARAPHOIDES (type Tephrosia bura Druce), 
P. foeda (Juan Vinas, Costa Rica, 1,400 m. ), P. vafra (Jalapa, Mexico), P. 
largifica (Santa Rosa de Comitan, Chiapas, Mexico), P. stulta (Mo Cuou, Cerro 
Pelon, Municipio Yolox, Oaxaca, Mexico, 7,050 ft. ) . Redescribes the two other 
spp. of Paraphoides, three spp. of Carphoides, & nine spp. of Galenara. Third 
in a series of papers on genera near Melanolophia; spp. are found from the south- 
western United States to Costa Rica. [P. B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A revision of the genera Melanolophia, Pherotesia, and 
MELANOTESIA (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)." Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 126: 
241-434, 7 pis., 163 figs. 1964. Describes as new Melanolophia modica (Santa 
Cruz, S. Brazil), M. vitta (Petropolis, Brazil), M. substriata (Rio Negro, Colombia, 
800 m. ), M. inatrata (Region Chapare, Bolivia, 400 m.), M. umbrosa (Region 
Chapare), M. piura ( Huancabamba, Peru), M. producta (Balzapamba, Bolivar, 
Ecuador), M. vulsa (Sierra del Libane, Colombia, 6,000 ft.), M. rubrica (Cayuga, 
Guatemala), M. eudoxa (Chapare, Bolivia), M. e. simpla (Canon del Tolima, 
Colombia, 1,700 m.), M. trisurca elongata (Incachaca, Cochabamba), M. vegranda 
(Balzapamba, Bolivar, Ecuador), M. perversa (Nueva Teutonia, Brazil), M. triloba 
(Jalapa, Mexico), M. penicilla (Zamora, Ecuador), M. atrifascia (Barro Colorado 
Is., Canal Zone), M. homofascia (San Esteban, Venezuela), M. sadrina conara 
(Muzo, Colombia), M. sadrinaria (San Jose, Costa Rica, 5,000 ft.), M. imitata 
cana (upper Santa Ana R., San Bernardino Co., Calif.), M. flexilinea fragosa 
(Puntarenas, Monte Verde, Costa Rica), M. canadaria crama (Lyons Farms, 
Union Co., New Jersey), M. canadaria choctawae (Clinton, Hinds Co., Mississippi), 
M. signataria timucuae (Pensacola, Florida), M. imperfectaria solida (Guadalajara, 
Mexico), M. fimbriata (El Volcan, Chiriqui, Panama), M. parma (Tuis, Costa 
Rica, 2,400 ft.), M. pscudovallata (Chapare, Bolivia), M. reducta meridiana 
(Oconeque, Carabaya, Peru, 7,000 ft.), M. r. borea (Canon del Tolima, Colombia, 
2,700 m. ), M. reductaria (Agualani, Carabaya, Peru, 9,000 m.), M. dextera (Sierra 
del Libane, Colombia, 6,000 ft.), M. isoforma (Monte Tolima, Colombia, 2,700 
m. ), M. isometra (near Loja, Ecuador), M. attenuata ( Mt. Poas, Costa Rica), M. 
synargilaria ( Chachapoyas, Amazona.s, Peru), M. venatia (Rio Songo, Bolivia), 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 59 



M. elegia (Vista Hermosa, Oaxaca, Mexico, 4,650 ft.), M. mallea ( Chanchamayo, 
Peru), M. bugnathos (Yungas del Palmar, Bolivia), M. b. contracta (Balzapamba, 
Bolivar, Ecuador), M. b. elaphra (El Volcan, Chiriqui, Panama), M. conta 
(Chanchamayo, Peru), M. minca (Minca, Colombia, 2,000 ft.), M. rima ( Muzo, 
Colombia), M. semarcata (La Merced, Peru), M. paraconara (Popayan, Colombia), 
M. orthoconara (Lino, Panama, 800 m. ); Pherotesia simulatrix (Yuntas, near Cali, 
Colombia), P. lima ("Intaj," Ecuador), P. ultrasimilis (Coosnipata, Paucartambo, 
Cuzco, Peru), P. lunata (Sierra del Libane, Colombia, 6,000 ft.), P. malinaria 
minuisca (Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama), P. folds (Popocatepetl Park, Mexico), 
P. hamata (Mo Cuou, Cerro Pelon, Oaxaca, Mexico, 7,050 ft.), P. caeca (Orizaba, 
Veracruz, Mexico), P. bifurca (Volcan Santa Maria, Guatemala); MELANOTESIA 
(type Calospila? siderata Dognin). The revision of this predominantly neotropical 
group of Ennominae includes 112 spp. & sspp. [P. B.] 

Roever, Kilian, "Notes on Erora ( Lycaenidae)." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 16: 1-4. 1962. 

Ross, D. A., "The Maple Leaf Cutter, Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch) (Lepidop- 
tera: Incurvariidae ) , descriptions of stages." Canad. Ent., 90: 541-555, 38 figs. 
1958. Describes morphology of early stages & adults. [P. B] 

Rougeot, P. C, "Limenitis populi L. varie-t-il localement en France? ( Nymphalidae)" 
[in French]. Alexanor, 2: 8-10. 1961. Description of L. p. forezianus (central 
France, Loire, Mt. Forez). [P. V.] 

Rougeot, P. C, "Lepidopteres attacides du Musee de Dundo (Angola)" [in French]. 
Publ. cult. Comp. Diam. Angola, no. 58: 143-154. 1962. List of 24 spp. or sspp. 
belonging to the Dundo Museum in Angola. One of these cited species is 
Pseudantheraea imperator Rougeot (p. 149). About the name of this species, the 
author writes: "Noteworthy male specimen (151 mm.) dedicated the 22nd of 
March, 1961 to the general de Gaulle, President of the French Republic." Two 
criticisms will be made: (1) it is a pity to see entomology and politics mixed; 
(2) it will be noted, about this dedication, two errors: (a) the indication of the 
dedication appears in a publication subsequent to that in which the species was 
described; (b) a name given in honor of President de Gaulle should be, according 
to the Rules, gaullei. [P. V.] 

Sala, Frank P., "The Annaphila astrologa complex, with descriptions of three new 
species." Jour. Res. Lepid., 2: 289-300, 4 pis. "1963" [1964]. Describes as new 
A. olgae ("Arizona"), A. pseudoastrologa (above Seminole Hot Springs, Santa 
Monica Mts., Calif.), A. vivianae (Lower Kern Canyon, Kern Co., Calif.). Rede- 
fines A. astrologa. [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Was ist Gelechia trauniella Zeller, 1868?" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 45: 92-93, 1 fig. 1960. Transfers sp. to Caryocolum, compar- 
ing it with C. saginellum; figures $ genitalia. [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Neue Synonyme europaischer Gelechiidae" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 46: 30-31. 1961. Sinks Lita nitentella to Scrobipalpa ob- 
soletella; Gelechia decrepidella to Bryotropha desertella; G. nigrobipunctella to 
Lita solutella. [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "On the synonvmy of Anacampsis populella (Clerck) and A. blattariella 
(Hiibner) (Lep., Gelechiidae)." Ent. Gazette, 12: 115-116. 1961. Sinks 
betulinella to blattariella, & ambronella to A. p. fuscatella. Gives synonymy & 
references to figures. [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Uber Mirificarma cabezella (Chret., 1925)" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 46: 86-88, 4 figs. 1981. Redescribes this sp. Lists foodplants 
of Mirificarma spp. [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Filatima Busck, 1939 (Lep., Gelech. )" 
[in German]. Deutsche ent. Zeitschr., N.F., 8: 117-120, 2 figs. 1981. Describes 
as new F. angustipennis ( L'Argentiere, French Alps), F. asiatica (Alexander Mts.). 
[P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Der Wickler Apotomis infida ( Heinrich, 1926 ) in Deutschland ( Lepi- 
doptera, Tortricidae ) " [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 47: 157-159, 6 



60 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 20, no. 1 



figs. 1962. Describes sp. & figures genitalia; new to Germany. Foodplant Salix. 
[P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Die Gattung Xystophora Heinemann, 1876 ( Lep. Gelechiidae)" [in 
German]. Deutsche ent. Zeitschr., N.F., 9: 325-331, 9 figs. 1962. Revision of 
genus, with key to the 3 spp.: pulveratella (= steudeliella, n. syn. ), carchariella, & 
psammitella. [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Plagodis Hiibner, 1823 (Lepidoptera: 
Geometridae)" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 48: 25-32, 1 pi., 8 figs. 
1963. Sinks Anagoga to Plagodis, following extended comparison of type spp., 
P. dolahraria & A. pulveraria; describes wild hybrid between these (figures in 
color of both spp. & hybrid). [P. B.] 

Sattler, Klaus, "tiber Telphusa canariensis Walshingham, 1908" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 49: 88-90, 4 figs. 1964. Describes genitalia & assigns this 
gelechiid to Streyella. [P. B.] 

v. Schantz, Max, "Eucosma danicana n. sp. und einige dieser nahestehende Eucosma- 
Arten" [in German]. Notul. Ent., 42: 1-8, 11 figs. 1962. Described from Maribo, 
Denmark; reared from Picris. Descriptive notes on E. cana, E. fulvana, E. hohen- 
ivartiana, E. expallidana, & E. scorzonerana. [P. B.] 

Schnaider, Jozef, Janina Schneider, & Zbigniew Schnaider, "Przezierniki — Aegeriidae" 
[in Polish]. Klucze do Oznacz. Owadow polski, 27, part 37 (no. 34), 42 pp., 6 
pis., 53 figs. 1961. See review in Journal, 15: 132. 

Schiitze, Eduard, "tiber einige nordafrikanische Eupithecien (Lep. Geom. ) Eupithe- 
cien-Studien XIV" [in German]. Deutsche ent. Zeitschr., N.F., 8: 147-151, 6 figs. 
1961. Sinks Eupithecia pseudoscriptoria to E. elissa; describes genitalia & other 
features of E. elissa, E. unitaria, & E. orana. [P. B.] 

Schiitze, Eduard. "Weitere Eupithecien aus Iran und Arabien ( Lep. Geom. ) 
( Eupithecien-Studien XVII)" [in German]. Mitt, miinchner ent. Ges., 51: 58-71, 
8 pis. 1961. Describes as new E. inquinata (Iranshar, Baluchistan); E. 
(DELAEVERIA) (type E. gueneata), E. (D.) suhscalptata (Makran, SE of 
Nahu, 1,300 m., Persia), E. (D.) alhertiata. Notes on 14 other spp. [P. B.] 

Schwarz, Rudolf, "Bestimmungstabelle der Scopariinae Mitteleuropas" [in German]. 
Zeitschr. Arbeitsgen. osterr. Ent., 15: 37-50, 15 figs. 1963. Keys to 23 spp. of 
Scoparia based on external characters and (except for 10 spp. of subgenus Eudoria) 
on $ genitalia; the first key includes notes on distribution, variation, & biology. 
[P. B.] 

Schwarz, R., & E. Nicolescu, "Morphologische, biologische und systematische Beitrage 
zur Kenntnis der Aegeriidae (Lepidoptera)" [in German]. Zeitschr. Arbeitsgen. 
osterr. Ent., 14: 42-47, 4 figs. 1962. Describes genitalia of Aegeria apiformis, 
A. crabroniformis, & A. melanocephala, & early stages of the first two. [P. B.] 

Schwingenschuss, Leo, "Nachtrage, Erganzungen und Berichtigungen zur 'Lepidop- 
terenfauna von Albarricin in Aragonien' von H. Zerny" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 47: 4-11. 1962. Describes as new Agrotis (Rhyacia) elegans 
aragonensis, A. (R.) candelisequa zapateri, A. (R.) renigera hispanicola; Mamestra 
(Polia) genistae caerulescens; Polia (Antitype) dubia lutea. Also names two 
"forms" of Lithina convergata. Notes o nidentity of 63 spp. (Noctuidae, Geomet- 
ridae, Arctiidae, Zygaenidae) from Albarricin, Spain. The new entities are very 
superficially characterized; the publication of this paper from the author's manu- 
script, eight years after his death, is regrettable. [P. B.] 

Sheljuzhko, Leo, "Zur Kenntnis der Pieris me/eie-Gruppe" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 45: 4-13, 20-29, 36-51, 5 pis., 2 figs. 1960. Survey of geo- 
graphic & seasonal variation in P. melete & P. dulcinea, which are good, separate 
spp.; names in this group are discussed and original & later descriptions repeated. 
Names an "ab.," and a spring form of P. m. orientis. The involved synonymy is 
is given in full. [P. B.] 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 61 



Sheljuzhko, Leo, "Zur Kenntnis der Pieris melete-Gruppe. Teil II. Nordliche Inseln: 
Sachalin ( = Saghalien, Karafuto) und die Kurilen" [in German]. Zeitschr. 
wiener ent. Ges., 48: 6-10, 51-64, 141, 5 pis., 1 map. 1963. Exhaustive review 
of P. napi saghalensis, P. n. kurilina, & P. melete tomariana, & supplementary note 
to first part (on P. n. dulcinea & P. n, sichotensis) . [P. B.] 

Shepard, Jon H., "The genus Lycaeides in the Pacific northwest." Jour. Res. Lepid., 
3: 25-36, 1 pi., 1 map. 1964. Survey of L. melissa & the three races of L. 
ar gyro gnomon; figures of representative specimens from localities in British Colum- 
bia & northwestern states. [P. B.] 

Sieder, Leo, "Eine neue Psychide aus dem Chelmosgebiet in Griechenland (Lepidopt, 
Psychidae). HELLENIINAE subfam. nov. HELLENIA gen. nov. culminella spec, 
nov." [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 46: 121-126, 1 pi., 2 figs. 1961. 
Type locality: summit of Mt. Chelmos, 2,355 m., Peloponnesus. [P. B.] 

Sieder, Leo, "Eine neue Psychide aus dem Gebiet der Gurktaler Alpen in Karnten 
(Lepidoptera Psychidae)" [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 48: 90-93, 
129-130, 1 pi., 5 figs. 1963. Describes as new Proutia breviserrata (Fadenhohe, 
1,500 m., near Reichenau). [P. B.] 

Sieder, Leo, "Eine neue Psychide aus Nordostspanien ( Lepidoptera Psychidae ) . 
Brevantennia pinkeri spec, nov." [in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 49: 69- 
72, 1 pi. 1964. Type locality Port Bou, Spain. [P. B.] 

Soffner, Josef, "Zwei neue Lepidopteren-Arten aus Bulgarien" [in German]. Deutsche 
ent. Zeitschr., N.F., 9: 139-141, 5 figs. 1962. Describes as new Euzophera 
nessebarella (Nessebar, Black Sea Coast); Semasia nessebarana (Nessebar). [P. B.] 

van Someren, V. G. L., "Systematic notes on the associated blue-banded black 
Papilios of the bromius-brontes-sosia complex of Kenya and Uganda, with descrip- 
tions of two new species" [in English; Portuguese summary]. Bol. Soc. Estud. 
Prov. Mocambique, no. 123: 63-78, 11 pis., 3 maps. 1960. Describes as new 
P. brontes australis (Tanganyika: Usambara Range), P. teita (Kenya: Wandanyi- 
Mabida, Teita Range); P. interjecta (Kenya: Kaimosi Forest). Discusses East 
African races of P. brontes, P. bromius, P. sosia, & P. nireus, with some descriptions 
& figures; holotype of P. b. brontes figured. [P. B.] 

van Someren, V. G. L., "A new Charaxes (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae ) . Proc. R. 
ent. Soc. London (B), 31: 44-46, 2 pis. 1962. Describes as new C. kulal (Kenya, 
Mt. Kulal, SE of L. Rudolf). [P. B.] 

Starlings, Don B., J. R. Turner, & Viola N. Stallings, "A new subspecies of Agathymus 
mariae from Mexico ( Agathymidae ) ." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 15: 19-22, 1 pi. 1961. 
Describes as new A. m. micheneri (15-20 mi. S. of Allende, Coahuila, 1,300 ft.). 

Stallings, Don B., J. R. Turner, & Viola N. Stallings, "Two new species and one new 
subspecies of Megathymidae from Mexico and Texas." Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 81- 
88, 19 figs. 1963. Describes as new Megathymus gayleae (23 km. N. of Saltillo, 
Coahuila, Mexico, 4,200 ft.); Stallingsia jacki (Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico, 
2,500 ft.); Megathymus yuccae reubeni (Hueco Mts., Texas, 5,300 ft.). 

Stallings, Don B., J. R. Turner, & Viola N. Stallings, "Notes on five Megathymidae." 
Jour. Lepid. Soc, 18: 45-47. 1964. 

Stempffer, H., "Contribution a l'etude des lepidopteres Lycaenidae de l'Afrique 
equatoriale" [in French]. Ann. Mus. R. Afrique centr., Tervuren, ser. in 8°, no. 94, 
73 pp., 4 pis. 1960. Study on the Lycaenidae of equatorial Africa, with the 
revision of the genera Pseuderesia and Syrmoptera and descriptions of new species 
and subspecies: Telipna katangae (Belgian Congo, Katanga); Ornipholidotos 
jacksoni (Uganda, Sango Bay); Pseuderesia eleaza katera (Sango Bay), P. beni 
(N. Kivu, Beni), P. rougeoti (Gaboon, Tchibanga), P. clenchi (Cameroon, Bitje, 
Ja R. ); MIMERESIA (type species: Liptena libertina Hewitson), M. drucei 
owerri (Nigeria, Owerri area), M. russulus unyoro (Uganda, Unyoro); Liptena 
nigromarginata nom. nov. pro jacksoni Stempffer, 1953, L. ogojae (Nigeria, Ogoja 
area); Eresina pseudofusca (Ghana, Kpandu), E. jacksoni (Uganda, Toro); 
Toxochitona sankuru ( Belgian Congo, Sankuru ) ; Myrina sharpei fontainei ( Bel- 



62 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 20, no. 1 



gian Congo, Uele); Syrmoptera bonifacei (Cameroon, Mamfe); Aphnaeus asterius 
ugandae (Uganda. Alasaka); Pseudaletis nigra fontainei (Belgian Congo, Sankuru), 
P. lusambo (Sankuru); Anthene hobleyi kigezi (Uganda, Kigezi), A. h. teita (SE 
Kenya, Voi), A. musagetes jeanneli nam. now pro elgonensis Stampffer; Har- 
pendyreus marlieri (Kivu, Mt. Muhi), H. argenteostriatus (Mt. Muhi); Eicochrysops 
fontainei (Belgian Congo, Leopoldville ) . [P. V.] 

Stempffer. H., "Complements a la revision des genres du groupe des lolaus ( Lep. 
Lycaenidae)" [in French]. Bull Inst, franc, Afr. noire (A), 23: 88-101, 32 figs. 
1961. A complementary note to the revision of the genera lolaus group, with 
descriptions of many unknown females obtained by breeding; they are the neallo- 
types of: Iolaphilus maritimus Stempffer & Bennett (Kenya), I. gahunica Riley 
(Uganda), Epamera tajoraca (Somaliland), E. bellina exquisita Riley (Uganda), 
E. gemmarius H. H. Druce (-Nigeria), E. agues (Nigeria), E. neavei katera Talbot 
(Uganda), E. dubiosa Stempffer & Bennett (Tanganyika). Also describes as new 
Iolaphilus henryi (Uganda, Kiegezi, Kayonza Forest), /. maritimus usambara 
(Tanganyika, Usambara Mts., Amani); Epamera silanus alticola (Amani). [P. V.] 

Stempffer, H., & N. Bennett, "Revision du genre Pentila Westwood (Lep. Lycaeni- 
dae)" [in French]. Bull Inst, franc. Afr. noire (A), 23: 1098-1211, 146 figs. 
"1961" [1962]. Important revisionary study on the African genus Pentila, with 
some descriptions of new species and subspecies: P. nyassana benguellana (Angola, 
Calweha R.), P. pseudorotha (Brit. Cameroon, Mamfe), P. umangiarui fontainei 
(Belgian Congo, Uele), P. occidentalium gahunica (Gaboon, Azingo L. ), P. 
nigeriana (Nigeria, Ogoja), P. landbecki (Belgian Congo, Upper Kasai Distr. ), 
P. carcassoni ( N. Nyasaland, Mkuwazi, forest reserve ) , P. cloetensi neleensis 
(Belgian Congo, Uele), P. camerunica (Brit. Cameroon, Mamfe). [P. V.] 

Stempffer, H., & T. H. E. Jackson, "A note on the Rhopalocera of Bugalla Island, 
Sesse Isles, Uganda." Proc. R. ent. Soc. London (B), 31: 33-37. 1962. Stempffer 
describes as new Deudorix ( Virachola ) lorisona sesse, Anthene sylvanus bugalla, & 
Thermoniphas togara bugalla. List of 100 other butterfly spp. The islands have 
been isolated for less than 300,000 years; the spp., except for the three lycaenids, 
are similar to mainland spp. [P. B.] 

Sterba, Vladimir, "Beitrag zur Kenntnis von Pieris bryoniae O. in den Westkarpaten" 
[in German]. Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 46: 130-134, 2 figs., 1 map. 1961. 
Further records of this sp. in Carpathians with discussion of variation & racial 
status. [P. B.] 

Sterzl, Otto, "Der Formenkreis von Cidaria variata Schiff." [in German]. Ent. 
Nachrichtenbl, Vienna, 8, no. 8: 1-4. 1961. Review of morphological & biologi- 
cal characters of C. variata, C. cembrae, C. obeliscata, & C. stragulata. [P. B.] 

Sterzl, Otto, "Lythria purpuraria L. und L. purpurata L., zwei schwer unterscheidbare 
Arten" [in German]. Ent. Nachrichtenbl, Vienna, 9, no. 8: 1-6. 1962. Dis- 
tinguishes these two spp. & L. plumidaria. [P. B.] 

Sutton, S. L., "South Caspian insect fauna 1961." Ann. b- Mag. not. Hist., ser. 13, 6: 
353-374, 1 pi., 8 figs. 1964. Describes as new Meharia tancredii (Meyan 
Kaleh peninsula, N. Iran); Oxytrypia stephania (Firizkuh col., 7,000 ft., Elburz 
Mts., Iran). Discussion of Rhodometra antophilaria & related spp. Annotated list 
of Lepidoptera collected. [P. B.] 

Svensson, Ingvar, "Nordiska Bryotropha" [in Swedish; English summary]. Flora og 
Fauna, 68: 61-69, 37 figs. 1962. Describes all Scandinavian Bryotropha, with 
figures of wings & genitalia. [T. W. L.] 

Szabo, Richard, "The forms of Plebeius sephirus Friv. in the Middle Danubian Basin" 
[in Hungarian; English summary]. Folia ent. hung., s.n., 7: 29-39. 1954. De- 
scribes the Middle Danubian populations, of which two sspp. are described as 
new: P. s. proximus (Kolozsvar) & P. s. kovacsi (Fot). In the region of Deliblato 
in N. Yugoslavia lives P. s. uhryki Rebel. [J. M.] 

Szabo Richard, "The lycaenids of Hungary" [in Hungarian; English summary]. Folia 
oit. hung., s.n., 9: 235-361, 5 figs.. 1956. Monographic study on Hungarian 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 63 



Lycaenidae with a number of new sspp. Maculinea alcon curiosa ( Biikk Mts., N. 
Hungary); Lycaeides ar gyro gnomon argyropeza (Hungary); Plebeius sephirus 
foticus (Fot); Aricia agestis pelorion (Hungary); Lysandra thersites pergrata; 
Lycaena virgaureae pyronitens, L. dispar hungarica, L. hippothoe sumadiensis 
(District Somogy), L. alciphron cumanicus (Peszer). Some of new sspp. without 
exact locality. In the English summary a short differential diagnosis only is given. 
Some results are confusing, e.g., Maculinea arion ssp. vagula n. and ssp. animida 
n. "cannot be separated geographically from each other." [J. M.] 

Tilden, J. W., "Certain comments on the subspecies problem." Syst. ZooL, 10: 17-23. 
1961. Defends the use of this category, with examples of its value in Lepidop- 
tera. [P. B.] 

Tilden, J. W., "An analysis of the North American species of the genus Callophrys." 
Jour. Res. Lepid., 1: 281-300, 2 pis., 6 maps. 1963. Describes as new C. lem- 
berti ( West above Tioga Pass, Yosemite National Park, Calif. ) . Review of char- 
acters & distribution of the seven spp. of Callophrys (s. str. ) in North America, 
& comparison of characters with those of C. rubi, Incisalia augustinus, Mitoura 
siva, & Sandia macfarlandi. [P. B.] 

Tilden, J., "Two species of Hesperiidae previously unrecorded from the United 
States." Jour. Lepid. Soc., 18: 214-216. 1964. Vidius perigenes and Lerodea 
dysaules in southern Texas. 

Tilden, J. W., "Urbanus procne and Urbanus simplicius (Hesperiidae)." Jour. Lepid. 
Soc, 19: 53-55. 1965. 

Tite, G. E., "A new species of the genus Cacyreus ( Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)." En- 
tomologist, 94: 112-113, 5 figs. 1961. Describes as new C. ethiopicus (25 km. 
N. of Quiha, Ethiopia). [P. B.] 

Tite, G. E., "The Lepidochrysops ortygia complex (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)." 
Entomologist, 97: 1-7, 1 pi., 11 figs. 1964. Describes as new L. oreas (Simon's 
Town, Cape Province), L. wykehami ( Kamieskroon, Little Namaqualand). L. 
australis (Caledon District, Cape Prov. ), L. methymna dicksoni (Tygerberg Hills, 
Cape Prov.); redescribes L. ortygia. [P. B.] 

Toll, Sergiusz, "Glyphipterygidae, Douglasidae" [in Polish]. Klucze do Oznacz. 
Owadow polski, 27, parts 39-40 (no. 16): 50 pp., 120 figs. 1956. See review 
in Journal, 15: 132. 

Toll, Sergiusz, "Micropterygidae, Eriocraniidae, Krotkowasy — Hepialidae" [in Polish]. 
Klucze do Oznacz. Owadow polski, 27, part 2-4 (no. 29); 49 pp., 13 figs. 1959. 
See review in Journal, 15: p. 132. 

Toll, Sergiusz, "Studien liber die Genitalien einiger Coleophoridae XV" [in German; 
Russian & Polish summaries]. Acta zool. cracov., 4: 121-130, 7 pis. 1959. New 
spp. are described: Coleophora zukowskii ( Upszar-Massiv, Pieniny Mts., S. 
Poland), C. scabrida (Ohrid, S. Yugoslavia), C. s. polonica (Czorsztyn, Pieniny 
Mts.), C. macedonica (Ohrid), C. pseudodirectella (Cracow, S. Poland). [J. M.] 

Toll, Sergiusz, "Tischeriidae" [in Polish]. Klucze do Oznacz. Owadow polski, 27, 
part 6 (no. 30): 21 pp., 46 figs. 1959. See review in Journal, 15: 132. 

Toll, Sergiusz, "Studien iiber die Genitalien einiger Coleophoridae. XVIII ( Lepidop- 
tera)" [in German; Polish & Russian summaries]. Ann. zool. Polska Akad. Nauk, 
19: 209-227, 44 figs. 1961. Describes as new Coleophora namangana (Naman- 
gan, Fergana), C. fergana (Margelan, Fergana), C. impalella ( Krasnoarmiejsk ) , 
C. paradoxella (Amurland), C. uralensis (Uralsk), C. kuznetzovi (Kondara, 
Tadzhikhsk SSR), C. gerasimovi (Osh, Fergana). Compares last two with C. 
tadzhikella. [P. B.] 

Toll, S., "Studien iiber die Genitalien einiger Coleophoridae XX. Beschreibung neuer 
Coleophoridae aus Osterreich, Bulgarien, Spanien und Portugal" [in German]. 
Zeitschr. wiener ent. Ges., 46: 161-168, 23 figs. 1961. Describes as new 
Coleophora glaseri ( Wolkersdorf , Hochleitenwald, Austria), C. ochroflava (Bul- 
garia), C. soffneriella (Bulgaria), C. albarracinica (Valdovecar, Albarracin, Spain), 
C. monteiroi (Montalegre, Portugal). [P. B.] 



64 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 20, no. 1 



de Toulgoet, H., "Description d'arctiides malgaches nouvelles (Lep.) (13° note)" 
[in French]. Bull. Soc. ent. France, 66: 39-42, 1 pi. 1961. Description of new 
arctiids from Madagascar: Phryganopteryx viettei (Nossi-be); Spilarctia pseudam- 
brensis ( Ambre Mt. ) ; Fodinoidea pluto ( Ambre Mt. ) ; and description of the 9 
of Asota diastropha (A. E. Prout). [P. V.] 

de Toulgoet, H., "Description de Nolinae nouveaux de Madagascar (Lep. Arctiidae) 
(12" note)" [in French]. Mem. Inst, scient. Madagascar, (E), 12: 191-206, 20 figs., 
1 pi. "1961" [1962]. Descriptions of new Nolinae from Madagascar: Roeselia 
nigromixtalis (E. Madagascar, Perinet), R. nudalis (Integral Natural Reserve 3), 
R. saalmuelleri (Perinet), R. medialis (central Madagascar, Ankaratra Mts.), R. 
erythrinalis (central Madagascar, Betsileoland ), R. arcanalis (E. Madagascar, 
Anosibe Road ) , R. palpalis ( Betsileoland ) , R. bilineatalis ( Anosibe Road ) , R. 
rubiginealis (E. Madagascar, Ranomafana), R. convexalis (Betsileoland), R. c. 
griveaudalis (central Madagascar, Andringitra Mts.), R. infuscatalis (Ranomafana), 
R. dilutalis (Perinet), R. rufomixtalis (central Madagascar, Ampolomita), R. 
mediolinealis (Ampolomita), R. vieui (E. Madagascar, Moramanga), R. funebralis 
(E. Madagascar, Italaviana), R. modestalis (E. Madagascar, Andranomandevy), R. 
paulianalis (Moramanga), R. inexpectalis (S.W. Madagascar, Lambomakandro 
Forest); Celama triangulalis (Perinet). [P. V.] 

Trehan, K. N., & D. K. Butani, "Life-history, bionomics and control of jowar stem- 
borer (Chilo zonellus Swinhoe). Curr. Sci., 17: 127. 1948. Short note justifies 
full species status of C. simplex & C. zonellus; brief life history. [J. D.] 

Trehan, K. N., & Dhamo K. Butani, "Systematic position of Chilo zonellus Swinhoe 
and chaetotaxy of its larvae." Indian Jour, agric. Sci., 20: 79-85, 3 pis. 1950. 
Find C. zonellus & C. simplex distinct, but believe only former occurs in India. 
[J. D.] 

Tremewan, W. G., "On some type specimens of the genus Zygaena Fabricius, in- 
cluding the lectotype selection of Zygaena felix Oberthiir, Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae." 
Ent. Rec. br lour. Var., 74: 125-130, 1 pi. 1962. Notes on types of 14 names 
(including aberrations) with figures of 13. [P. B.] 

Tremewan, W. G., "A new subspecies and further records of the genus Zygaena 
Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) from south-west France and Spain," Ent. 
Rec. ir Jour. Var., 75: 251-254. 1963. Describes as new Z. occitana burgosensis 
(Ona, Burgos, 2,000 ft.). Records of 20 other forms. [P. B.] 

Tremewan, W. G., "Notes on Zygaena species from south-west France and Spain 
with descriptions of three new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)." Ent. Rec. 
ir Jour. Var., 75: 1-10, 1 pi. 1963. Describes as new Z. ignifera diezma (Diezma, 
Granada, 4,000 ft.), Z. lavandulae huescae (P. de S. Barbara, Huesca, 3,300 ft.), 
Z. trifolii pajini ( Riano, Leon, 3,500 ft. ) . Notes on 28 other races belonging to 
14 spp. [P. B.] 

Tremewan, W. G., "The type specimens of Zygaena ledereri Rambur and Z. pennina 
Rambur, Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae." Ent. Rec. 6- Jour. Var., 75: 166-168, 2 figs. 
1963. Former is ssp. of Z. punctum (n. syn.: contamineoides); latter is junior 
synonym of Z. contaminei. [P. B.] 

Tremewan, W. G., "The identity of Zygaena algira Boisduval, 1834 (Lepidoptera, 
Zygaenidae)." Ent. Rec. ir Jour. Var., 76: 35-36, 1 pi. 1964. North African 
sp., usually credited to Duponchel, was first described by Boisduval. Lectotype & 
genitalia are figured. [P. B.] 

Tremewan, W. Gerald, "The Silvicola Burgeff group of the genus Zygaena Fabricius 
(Lep. Zygaenidae)." Ent. Rev. & Jour. Var., 76: 1-10, 46-54, 75-82, 1 map. 1964. 
Review of the characters & geographic variation in species of this palearctic group. 
Species included are gallica, giesekingiana, mana, rjabovi, teberdica, and the 
highly polytypic nevadensis, romeo, & osterodensis (scabiosae auctt. ). Proposes 
Z. romeo faitocola n.n. for Z. r. faitensis Holik, preoccupied. Some new synonymy. 
[P. B.] 



EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE JOURNAL 

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Memoirs of the Lepidopterists' Society, No. 1 ( Feb. 1964 ) 

A SYNONYMIC LIST OF THE NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA 

by Cyril F. dos Passos 

Price: Society members — $4.50, others — $6.00; uncut, unbound signatures 
available for interleaving and private binding, same prices; hard cover bound, 

add $1.50. postpaid 
Order from the Society Treasurer. 



Printed in U. S. A. 

Allen Press 
Lawrence, Kansas 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society Vol. 20, no. 1 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Application of automation in Rhopalocera research 

by Charles R. Crowe __ 1-12 

The effect of certain environmental factors and chemicals on the markings 
of Pieris rapae (Pieridae) 
by John M. Kolyer 13-27 

A colony of the European skipper Thymelicus lineola ( Hesperiidae ) 
at Edmundston, New Brunswick 
by Henry Hensel 28 

The life history of Schinia niveicosta ( Noctuidae ) 

by D. F. Hardwick 29-33 

Larval food plants for five Texas Hesperiidae 

by Roy O. Kendall 35-41 

Occurrence of Callophrys eryphon (Lycaenidae) in Michigan 

by M. C. Nielsen 41-42 

Rediscovery of Euptychia mitchellii (Satyridae) in New Jersey 

by Frank Rutkowski 43-44 

Some experimental color aberrations in Danaus plexippus 

by Jo Brewer 45-47 

The termination of saturniids' diapause 

by Colleen Seeley 47-48 

FIELD NOTES 

Cercyonis pegala nephele (Satyridae) at fluorescent light 

by Ronald S. Wilkinson 12 

First Minnesota records of Thorybes bathyllus 

by Ronald L. Huber ___ 34 

Speyeria cybele ( Nymphalidae ) at light 

by Charles G. Oliver 44 

MINUTES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE SECTION MEETINGS 49-55 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF 1966 ANNUAL MEETING, IN OTTAWA 55 

ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 56 

BOOK NOTICES __ _ „.__„ 33, 56 

NEW JOURNALS 27, 28 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 57-64 



Volume 20 1966 £f Number 2 



A' 



Journal 



of the 



Lepidopterists' Society 

Published quarterly by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS , SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCIfiTfi DES LfiPIDOPTfiRISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 

ITINERARY OF H. W. HENSHAW 

NEW GENUS OF CUCULLINE NOCTUIDAE 

FLIGHT HABITS OF MORPHO THESEUS 

TAXONOMY OF BOLORIA EPITHORE 
TECHNIQUE FOR REARING CECROPIA 



(Complete contents on back cover) 
31 May 1966 



THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 
1966 OFFICERS 

President: D. B. Stallings (Caldwell, Kansas, U. S. A.) 

1st Vice President: Z. Lorkovic (Zagreb, Yugoslavia) 

Vice Presidents: C. A. Clarke (Liverpool, England) 

E. Suomalaenen (Helsinki, Finland) 

Treasurer: R. O. Kendall (San Antonio, Texas, U. S. A.) 

Asst. Treasurer: Sidney A. Hessel (Washington, Conn., U. S. A.) 

Secretary: John C. Downey (Carbondale, 111., U. S. A.) 

Asst. Secretary: Floyd W. Preston (Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.) 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Terms expire Dec. 1966: Charles P. Kimball (Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A.) 

W. Harry Lange, Jr. (Davis, Calif., U. S. A.) 

Terms expire Dec. 1967: Hmosm Kuroko (Fukuoka, Japan) 

D. F. Hardwick (Ottawa, Canada) 

Terms expire Dec. 1968: P. R. Ehrlich (Stanford, Calif., U. S. A.) 

C. D. MacNeell (Oakland, Calif., U. S. A.) 

and ex-officio: the above six elected Officers and the Editor 



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Journal of 
The Lepidopterists' Society 

Volume 20 1966 Number 2 

THE SYNONYMY AND SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF SOME 
TEXAS LYCAENIDAE 

Harry K. Clench 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Three species of North American hairstreaks remained systematically 
unplaced when I prepared the account of that group in Ehrlich & Ehr- 
lich's "How to know the butterflies": "Strymon" laceyi Barnes & McDun- 
nough; "Strymon" facuna Hewitson; and "Strymon" buchholzi Freeman. 
All three are primarily Mexican and barely reach the United States in 
southernmost Texas. All are, furthermore, quite rare in collections. 

Thanks to Mr. Roy O. Kendall of San Antonio, Texas, and to Mr. H. 
Avery Freeman of Garland, Texas, I have been able to study Texas 
specimens of the first two of these species, with the systematic and 
synonymic results set forth below. Remarks are also added on another 
misunderstood species from the same region. 

Strymon alea (Godman & Salvin) 

Thecla alea Godman & Salvin, 1887, Biol. Centr. Amer. Rhop., 2: 95, pi. 58, figs. 10, 
11 (Tres Marias Ids., Nayarit, Mexico); Hoffmann, 1941, An. Inst. Biol. Mexico, 
11: 720. 

Callicista laceyi Barnes & McDunnough, 1910, Canad. Ent., 42: 365 (Del Rio, Texas). 
New Synonymy. 

Strymon laceyi, Stallings & Turner, 1946, Ent. News, 57: 49; Freeman, 1950, Field & 
Lab., 18: 68; Klots, 1951, Field Guide Butterflies, 282; Clench, 1961, in Ehrlich 
& Ehrlich, How to Know the Butterflies, 219, fig. 422. 

Thecla (Callicista) columella (not Fabricius, 1793), Holland, 1931, Butterfly Book, 
rev. ed.: 240 (in part). 

The male genitalia show a single acuminate cornutus in the aedeagus, 
exserted with the vesica in the specimen examined, and numerous small 
basally directed teeth on the tips of the valvae, characteristic of true 
Strymon. There is little question that this is the correct generic place- 
ment of the species. The tip of the aedeagus is somewhat upturned. 

Strymon alea appears to exist in two seasonal forms (cf. also Stallings 



66 Clench: Texas Lycaenitlae Vol. 20, no. 2 

& Turner, 1946 ) . The summer form, represented by the illustration of alea 
in Godman & Salvin, by the type of laceyi, and by the single Mazatlan fe- 
male cited below, has a fairly even grayish ground color below, the pm lines 
edged inwardly with red, a more or less distinct reddish cap on the 
"Thecla spot" below, and probably a more extended pale marginal area 
on the hindwing above in both sexes. The winter form (Figs. 3, 4) is 
represented by a pair loaned for study by Mr. Kendall: the male from 
San Patricio Co. (April) and one of the two Comal Co. (November) fe- 
males in the list below. In these specimens the ground of the underside 
is darker gray between the pm line and the postbasal spots on the hind- 
wing, much lightened distad of the pm line, lacks red edging on the pm 
line, the cap on the "Thecla spot" is faintly ochreous, and the pale mar- 
ginal area of the hindwing above is reduced ( particularly in the male ) to 
hardly more than pale bluish rings around the subterminal spots. 

The synonymy is, I believe, correct, though the problem is complicated 
by the description of the two names from widely separated localities, by 
the seasonal differences just described, and especially by the rarity of 
the species and the consequent insufficiency of comparative material. 
The possibility that laceyi may be subspecifically distinct from alea can 
be neither excluded nor affirmed at this time. 

The following records are all that are known to me of the species. 

Texas: Del Rio (Val Verde Co.), vii.1909 (1$, type of laceyi); Pharr (Hidalgo 
Co.), v, x, xii (Stallings & Turner, 1946; Freeman, 1950; Klots, 1951); Lake Corpus 
Christi State Park (San Patricio Co.), 22.iv.1961 (1$, R. O. Kendall); Landa Park, 
New Braunfels (Comal Co.), 7.xi.l964 (2$, R. O. Kendall). 

Mexico: Islas Tres Marias (Nayarit) (type of alea); 16 mi N of Mazatlan 
(Sinaloa), 29.x. 1961 (1$, Cary-Carnegie Museum Exp.); Cordoba (Veracruz) (W. 
Schaus); (Godman & Salvin, 1887); Tampico ( Tamaulipas ) , 21-22.vi.1964 (1$, 
H. A. Freeman); Cd. Mante (Tamaulipas), 21-22.vi.1964 (1$, 1$, H. A. Free- 
man); states of Jalisco and Michoacan (Hoffmann, 1941). 

Callophrys (Cyanophrys) goodsoni (Clench) 

Thecla goodsoni Clench, 1946, Entomologist, 79: 186 (Tegucigalpa, Honduras). 

Thecla (or Strymon) facuna (not Hewitson, 1877), Freeman, 1950, Field & Lab., 
18: 14, 72; Klots, 1951, Field Guide Butterflies, 281; Clench, 1961, in Ehrlich & 
Ehrlich, How to Know the Butterflies, 220. 

Strymon pastor facuna, dos Passos, 1964, Syn. List. Nearctic Rhop., 56. 
Compare: Thecla facuna Hewitson, 1877, 111. Diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae, 202, pi. 80, 
figs. 661, 662. 

The Texas records of facuna given by Freeman and Klots were based 
on three specimens taken by Mr. Freeman and determined as facuna by 
W. P. Comstock and E. I. Huntington. Hewitson's figures of facuna in- 
deed resemble the present species closely, every bit as much as his other 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



67 




Figs. 1, 2. Callophrys goodsoni Clench, male, Hidalgo Co., Texas; 1, upperside; 2, 
underside. Figs. 3, 4. Strymon alea (Godman & Salvin), winter form; 3, male upper- 
side, San Patricio Co., Texas, April; 4, female, underside, Comal Co., Texas, Novem- 
ber. (Photographs by L. D. Miller). 



figures resemble their respective species. On looking into the matter I 
became all but convinced that goodsoni would have to fall to facana. Ac- 
cordingly, I wrote to Mr. G. E. Tite of the British Museum Department 
of Entomology to ask his help. His prompt and detailed reply included 
a careful comparison of external characters of goodsoni and facuna, based 
on the types of each (among other material), and a drawing of the male 
genitalia of the type of facuna, reproduced here in Fig. 7. 

In external features they differ (according to Mr. Tite's notes) as fol- 
lows: in facuna males the blue of the upperside is shining and rather 
dark, deeper than in Hewitson's figure, while the blue of goodsoni male 
is pale and not shining; the male of facuna has no scent pad on the fore- 
wing, while goodsoni has; the green of facuna below has a tawny reflec- 
tion absent in goodsoni; the fuscous area on the inner margin of the fore- 
wing underside reaches halfway to Cu 2 in facuna, all the way in goodsoni; 
the white pm spots of the hindwing below are few but present in good- 
soni, completely absent in facuna; the tornus is less produced in facuna 
than in goodsoni. 

The male genitalia of facuna (Fig. 7) show clearly how distinct it 



68 Clench: Texas Lycaenidae Vol. 20, no. 2 

really is from goodsoni (Fig. 6). Particularly notable is the virtual ab- 
sence of a saccus, the apically divergent valvae, the simple, acuminate, 
widely separated cornuti. By this configuration facuna is clearly no 
Callophrys at all and, indeed, cannot yet be assigned to any known genus. 
It must be a rare species, for there are only three specimens in the British 
Museum: the type (with no data), and two others both labeled as from 
Venezuela, one from the Godman & Salvin collection, one from the Felder 
collection. 

The type of Callophrys goodsoni is in the British Museum also, but 
unfortunately it lacks its abdomen. This, however, is of no great moment, 
for in its external characters goodsoni is unlike any other member of the 
subgenus and is unmistakable: the lack of tails; strongly suppressed pat- 
tern elements below; small size; pale lavender blue of the male above; 
extremely broad fuscous apex of the male forewing above, reaching basad 
about to cell-end. Several Yucatan specimens are at hand and the geni- 
talia of one of them ( Fig. 6 ) were found identical to those of the Texas 
specimen loaned by Mr. Freeman. Since this species has never been 
figured, I am taking the occasion to illustrate the Texas male ( Figs. 1,2). 

Callophrys goodsoni is a rare species and has been seen or recorded 
only from the following localities. 

Texas: Near Pharr (Hidalgo Co.), 23.vii, 9.viii.l945 (H. A. Freeman). 

Mexico: Atoyac (Veracruz) (Clench, 1946); 2 mi NE Catemaco, 1,100 ft (Vera- 
cruz), viii (G. N. Ross); Piste (Yucatan), x, and Chichen Itza (Yucatan), ix, vi (all 
E. C. Welling). 

Honduras: Tegucigalpa (type) and San Pedro Sula (Clench, 1946). 

Costa Rica: [Mr.] Irazu, 6,000-7,000 ft (Clench, 1946: an atypical female). 

Callophrys (Cyanophrys) miserabilis Clench 

Thecla pastor (not Butler & Druce, 1872), Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Canad. 
Ent, 45: 183; Holland, 1931, Butterfly Book, rev. ed., 228 [pi. 64, figs. 14, 15, 
represent longula ( — pastor), not miserabilis; erroneously listed as from Arizona]. 

Strymon pastor (not Butler & Druce, 1872), Stallings & Turner, 1947, Ent. News, 
58: 39-40; Freeman, 1950, Field & Lab., 18: 66; Klots, 1951, Field Guide Butter- 
flies, 139. 

Strymon pastor pastor (not Butler & Druce, 1872), dos Passos, 1964, Syn. Cat. 
Nearctic Rhop., 56 [species name erroneously dated 1869]. 

Thecla miserabilis Clench, 1946, Entomologist, 79: 156 (Rincon, 2,800 ft, Guerrero, 
Mexico ) . 

Callophrys (Cyanophrys) miserabilis, Clench, 1961, in Ehrlich & Ehrlich, How to 
Know the Butterflies, 211, fig. 402. 

Callophrys (Callophrys) miserabilis, dos Passos, 1964, Syn. Cat. Nearctic Rhop., 59. 

The subgenus Cyanophrys is composed of a number of subtropical and 
tropical species, many of which are extremely similar to one another. 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



69 




Figs. 5-7. Male genitalia of Theclinae; 5, Callophrys miserabilis Clench; 6, Cal- 
lophrys goodsoni Clench, Yucatan, Mexico; 7, "Thecla" facuna Hewitson, type (in 
British Museum, without data). 



They have given much trouble to systematists and the result, particularly 
in the present instance, is a great deal of confusion. 

The first species to be described in the group of concern here was 
longula Hewitson (1868, Descr. Lycaenidae: 34). Hewitson appears to 
have lost the specimen he described, for a few years later (1877, 111. 
Diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae: 200, pi. 80, figs. 651-654) he illustrated as 
longula quite a different species, and this became the accepted sense of 
the name. Butler & Druce (1872, Cist. Ent. 1: 105; see also Butler, 1873, 
Lep. Exot: 157, pi. 57, fig. 5) redescribed the original longula under the 
name of pastor. 

In 1913 Barnes & McDunnough identified a series of specimens taken 
in the Brownsville area of southeastern Texas as pastor, introducing this 
name into North American lists for the first time. 

In 1944 (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 239) I pointed out the discrepancy 
between Hewitson's later use of the name longula and his original de- 
scription of it, gave the name pseudolongula to the later one and synony- 
mized pastor to true longula. By virtue of this, the United States record 



70 Clench: Texas Lycaenidae Vol. 20, no. 2 

of "pastor" assuming its correct identification, should have become 
longula, and in 1946 (Entomologist 79: 190) I actually did use the name 
longula so, reporting that it occurred in Texas. This was a mistake, for 
the identification of Texas specimens as pastor, by Barnes & McDun- 
nough, appears to have been wrong. I have not seen the actual specimens 
so determined by these authors, but from their descriptive remarks I be- 
lieve these specimens are of the same species as every other Texas speci- 
men that I have seen purporting to be "pastor." All belong to the species 
described in 1946 as miserabilis. 

C. miserabilis is not uncommon in southeastern Texas and it ranges 
widely through Mexico south to Costa Rica. The male genitalia are shown 
in Fig. 5. 

It may be of help to summarize briefly the more important characters 
that discriminate the several species here discussed: 

C. longula (= pastor). Frons brown; hindwing tailed; 6 above brilliant 
morpho-blue; hindwing underside with subterminal maroon spots present. 

C. pseudolongula. Frons brown; hindwing tailed in 9 , tailed or tailless 
in S; S above brilliant morpho-blue; hindwing underside without sub- 
terminal maroon spots. 

C. miserabilis. Frons brown; hindwing tailed; $ above dull steel blue; 
hindwing underside with subterminal maroon spots present or absent. 

C. goodsoni. Frons green; hindwing tailless; $ above with pale laven- 
der blue on each wing; hindwing underside without subterminal maroon 
spots. 

The following conclusions summarize the situation as it now stands 
with regard to the subgenus Cyanophrys north of Mexico. 

1. There are two species of Cyanophrys known from the United States 
( southeastern Texas ) : goodsoni and miserabilis. 

2. So far as I can tell all records of "pastor" from Texas refer to miser- 
abilis. 

3. The name pastor is a synonym of longula Hewitson, a species not 
known to occur in the United States. 

4. Despite Holland's statement, no member of the subgenus is known 
from Arizona. His figures appear to represent true longula (= pastor), 
but the figured specimens cannot be located in the Carnegie Museum col- 
lection and were presumably borrowed by Holland for illustration. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 71 

ITINERARIES OF THE WHEELER SURVEY NATURALISTS: 
HENRY WETHERBEE HENSHAW 

F. Martin Brown 1 

Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Some years ago I started to prepare detailed studies of the movement 
of the naturalists who had been assigned to the Wheeler Surveys west 
of the 100th meridian. Two of these studies have been published, for 
Theodore L. Mead (Brown, 1956) and for Ferdinand Bischoff (Brown, 
1958). Having particular need for precise data about the wanderings 
of H. W. Henshaw 2 in connection with a study of the types of the 
butterfly names proposed by William Henry Edwards, I have gathered 
together my notes and put them in form for publication. 

Expedition of 1872 

The official tally of specimens collected by the expedition of 1872 
makes no mention of any butterflies collected. In matter of fact it 
suggests that practically all of the material gathered had been destroyed 
by a series of mishaps. The truth is that a great many of the specimens 
survived these and were turned over to specialists for study. 

In a preliminary report for the field season of 1872 (Yarrow and 
Henshaw, 1874: 52-55), there is a good summary of the work done. 
During the latter half of July and the first week or so of August, Hen- 
shaw made a large collection of insects, especially Coleoptera. Other 
extensive collections were made at Fillmore, Beaver, Toquerville, and 
Meadow Creek. Unfortunately some bottles of specimens were lost on 
the trail from Shonesburgh to Toquerville. A fire at Sevier destroyed 
most of the Lepidoptera that had been collected. 

The great bulk of the butterflies collected by the Wheeler Survey 
parties and labelled "So. Utah." came from the trek taken by Acting 
Assistant Surgeon H. C. Yarrow and his naturalist-assistant H. W. 
Henshaw from Provo to Washington and St. George, Utah, and return. 
Apparently each of these naturalists concentrated his efforts on certain 
groups of animals. Yarrow primarily collected vertebrates, other than 
birds. Henshaw divided his time between birds and insects. 

The development of a trace and timetable for Henshaw was not diffi- 
cult but was laborious. He made very precise records of the bird skins 



1 This study was supported in part by N.S.F. Grant GB-2741. 

2 An autobiography of Henshaw will be found in Condor, 21: 102-107, port., 165-171, port. 
177-181, 217-222; 22: 3-10, 55-60, 95-101 (1919-1920). 



72 Brown: Henshaw Itinerary Vol. 20, no. 2 

he collected for Baird. By carefully going over these data and entering 
the field numbers and localities on a master calendar a reasonably com- 
plete record of Henshaw's travels was obtained. 

Once the calendar was completed it became evident that numerous 
data in the register of specimens collected (Volume 5) were in error. 
These errors all can be attributed to misreading of the manuscript by 
the printer and proofreaders. The most frequent type of error is use of 
the wrong month for the collection date of a specimen. This caused 
certain field numbers to be out of place. When the field number was 
put into proper sequence the discrepancy in locality disappeared. Unless 
otherwise noted, all of the data in the following table is based upon 
specimens, their field number, and date and locality of collection. The 
exceptions are drawn from the first volume of the series, The Geograph- 
ical Report, volume 1 (Wheeler, 1889). The Zoological Report, volume 
5, was published much earlier (Henshaw, 1875). 

From Dr. Yarrow's account for 1872 (5: 16-18) it is learned that the 
two naturalists worked together from the time the party formed around 
the middle of July in the vicinity of Salt Lake City until the parties 
moved out of Provo on the 10th of August. At that time Dr. Yarrow 
joined Lieutenant Hoxie's party and circled far westward into Nevada, 
thence into the southwestern part of Utah. Mr. Henshaw joined Lieu- 
tenant Wheeler's party and moved in a generally southwestward direc- 
tion to a rendezvous with the Hoxie Party at Toquerville, Utah. From 
there on the two worked together until the party disbanded in Decem- 
ber at Provo. 

Apparently the two naturalists used a common series of field numbers 
for the time they were together in July. These range up to 151. This 
series was then continued by Yarrow for the rest of the season. Henshaw 
began an independent series on July 31st with his collection from Provo 
Canyon. The double series has caused some problems and confusion! 

In a footnote (1889: 46) Wheeler outlined his travels during this 
field season. From it I gather that during the assembly period at Salt 
Lake City several excursions were made. Field numbers 1-11, for which 
I have no information, may apply to lost material collected during this 
period. From the camp near Salt Lake City Wheeler visited the mining 
districts about Parley's Park. Later he went to Little Cottonwood Can- 
yon and returned via the heads of American Fork Canyon and Big 
Cottonwood Canyon. Then the entire party moved to Provo. 

Wheeler's own itinerary outlines the main party travel until he broke 
away at St. George: "From camp near Salt Lake City to mining districts 
about Parley's Park and return; to Little Cottonwood Canyon and return, 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 73 

via heads of American Fork and Big Cottonwood Canyon; thence to 
Provo, Utah; thence to Spanish Fork via Provo Valley and Canon and 
Strawberry Valley; thence to Thistle Valley via Spanish Fork; thence to 
Utah Lake Valley and circuit to Sam Pitch Valley via Nephi; thence to 
the eastward across the range and along flanks of Castle Valley and 
returning to Sam Pitch Valley (without trail); thence to Nephi via 
Gunnison; thence to Fillmore; thence to Beaver and Panquitch via 
Parowan; thence via Sevier Plateau and head of Virgin River Valley and 
Canon to Toquerville; then to Saint George; (all in Utah) . . ." (1889: 
46). 

Aug. 10, "left Provo and camped that night opposite the mouth of the 
South Fork of the Provo River" (1889: 46-47). 

Aug. 13, "The route from Provo to Strawberry Valley follows Daniel's 
Creek to its source . . . thence ... to the head of Strawberry Creek" 
(1889: 47). 

Aug. 14, 15 and 16, "A partial rendezvous was made on Soldier's Fork 
of Spanish Creek, and the march continued to Sam Pitch Valley and 
camp made near a settlement called Wales." (1889: 48). 

Aug. 25, "A detour to the eastward of the Sevier Valley was planned 
and a crossing made from near the source of Thistle Creek, about 1% 
miles from which a summit is reached that either forms the immediate 
head or is in close proximity thereto of six streams, viz: Thistle Creek, 
Soldier's Fork, Strawberry Creek, White River, San Rafael, and Sam 
Pitch Creeks. The tortuous line of these several water divides was 
followed in a southeasterly direction until a trail, evidently leading in 
the direction of Castle Valley, was met and followed." (1889: 48). 

According to Henshaw (1875: 134) the season officially opened on 
the 15th of July at Provo. Here he and Yarrow used field numbers from 
12 to 151 between that date and the 30th. The numbers for the stay at 
Provo are not in sequence with the dates. It seems that the specimens 
for this period were numbered somewhat haphazardly. There are sev- 
eral obvious errors. A specimen of Varus atricapillus septentrionalis 
Harris bears a number 26 and is dated July 1, 1872. It probably was 
taken on August 1 of that year. A Passerculus savanna alaudinus Bon- 
pland (no. 123 "July 20, 1872," Thistle Valley, Utah) probably was 
taken on August 23 at Thistle Valley where no. 124, the same species, 
was taken. Five specimens of Carpodacus frontalis (Say) numbers 21, 
41, 42, 52, and 124 bearing dates between July 25 and August 2, 1872, 
are labelled "Washington, Utah." So far as I can learn the only visit to 
Washington, Utah, was made in October of that year. Four specimens 
of this finch were collected at Washington, Utah, on October 23, 1872. 



74 



Brown: Henshaw Itinerary 



Vol. 20, no. 2 



The numbers for this station run from 322, 333 to 360 and all are Yarrow 
specimens. I believe that the "Washington" is in error and the five 
specimens noted hailed from the vicinity of Provo. 

After Yarrow left to join Hoxie's party, Henshaw's numbers ran rather 
smoothly. The main party stayed at Provo until August 10th, and then 
started southwesterly toward the rendezvous at Toquerville. For the 
remaining period at Provo, Henshaw used his own series of numbers. 
The dates and locations of his collection there are given in Table I. 



Table I 



Date 


Numbers 


Location 




24 July 




Provo, Utah 




31 July 


119, 180 


Provo, Utah 




M 


5 to 10 


Provo Canyon 




1-3 August 


11 to 49 


Provo 




9 August 


61 


Hobble Canyon 




,, 


62 


Provo 




11 August 


64 


Wasatch Mountains, 


Provo Canyon 


12 August 


69 to 74 


Daniel's Canyon 




„ 


72 


Wasatch Mountains 




13 August 


80 to 82 


Strawberry Valley 




16-17 August 


95 to 103 


Wasatch Mountains 




18 August 


109 


Thistle 




20 August 


112-115 


Fountain Green 




„ 


123 


Thistle Valley 




22 August 


122 


Fairview 




23 August 


124 


Thistle Valley 




25 August 


133 


Wasatch Mountains 




5 September 


141 


Gunnison 




,, 


143-145 


Salina 




7-8 September 


147-152 


Gunnison 




8 September 


153 


Wasatch Mountains 




10 September 


154-160 


Grass Valley 




14 September 


163-164 


Otter Creek 




15 September 


165 


Harmony 




17-18 September 


167-181 


Panquitch 




19 September 


184 


Otter Creek 




30 Sept.-2 Oct. 


188-211 


Rush Lake 




3 October 


211-215 


Iron Springs 




ii 


216-217 


Mormon Springs 




4-5 October 


220-236 


Iron Springs 




5-6 October 


237-252 


Iron City 




6 October 


253-255 


Toquerville 




6-8 October 


256-265 


Iron City 




9-10 October 


266-269 


Harmony 




10 October 


270-272 


Toquerville 




ii 


273-275 


Washington 




M 


276-277 


Iron City 




11-12 October 


280-282 


Harmony 




13-15 October 


283-306 


Toquerville 





1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



75 



Table II 



Date 


Numbers 


Location 


16-21 October 


310-330 (ex 322) 


Toquerville 


22-24 October 


322, 333-360 


Washington 


22 October 


364 


St. George 


26-27 October 


363-369 


Cove Creek 


28 October 


370 


Pine Valley 


ii 


371-373 


St. George 


31 October 


375 


Rush Lake 


,, 


376-378 


Beaver 


3-11 November 


379^397 


Beaver 


12 November 


389-401 


Pine Creek 


13-15 November 


402-409 


Cove Creek 


15-18 November 


410-426 


Fillmore 


25 Nov.-3 Dec. 


429-491 


Provo 



There are two numbers in this run that need comment. For No. 100 
"Panguitch" 17 August, the locality is obviously incorrect, the number 
and date suggest Wasatch Mountains; and for No. 102 "Provo" 17 Au- 
gust, the locality probably is wrong, the date and number suggest 
Wasatch Mountains. 

All of the field numbers refer to bird skins. The missing numbers 
were those for insect collections and a few for vertebrates other than 
birds. 

From Toquerville through the rest of the season the two parties 
operated together under Lieutenant Hoxie. During this period the two 
naturalists worked more or less together but were at times separated. 
Yarrow's field numbers on the western circuit had run to 312. He seems 
to have joined in with Henshaw at Toquerville and the two, beginning 
October 16, used a common series of numbers, a continuation of Hen- 
shaw's series (Table II). 

Expedition of 1873 

In 1873, there were three divisions of the Wheeler Surveys in the 
field. The first of these, under the direct command of Lieutenant G. 
W. Wheeler, gathered at Santa Fe, New Mexico. The second was based 
at Salt Lake City, Utah, and under the command of Lieutenant R. L. 
Hoxie. The third met at Denver, Colorado, and was commanded by 
Lieutenant W. L. Marshall. The various parties took to the field around 
the first of June and disbanded in the first week of December. 

H. W. Henshaw received permission to begin his work earlier in the 
season than did the others. He arrived in Denver early in May. The 
other two naturalists assigned to Lt. Marshall's division were botanists, 
John Wolf and Acting Assistant Surgeon J. T. Rothrock. Henshaw 



76 Brown: Henshaw Itinerary Vol. 20, no. 2 

operated almost independently and spent part of his time in the area 
covered by the Third Division and part of it in the region occupied by 
the First Division. His principal bases for operation were Denver and 
Fort Garland in Colorado, Fort Wingate, New Mexico, and Camp 
Apache, Arizona. 

Throughout my study of Henshaw's travels I have found that the data 
from his bird skins are most reliable. He had been trained by S. F. Baird 
of the Smithsonian Institution to be very particular about labelling each 
skin with the date and locality of its capture. By compiling a calendar 
from these data I have recovered in some detail Henshaw's operation. 
In doing so I have discovered numerous errors in the listings published 
in the Zoology volume of the Survey in 1875. During the season of 
1873, Henshaw used a little over 1,000 field numbers for his collections. 

The Denver Collections 

Henshaw arrived in Denver around the 5th of May and had antici- 
pated moving immediately to Fort Garland in the San Luis Valley of 
Colorado. He was delayed in Denver until May 22nd awaiting arrival 
of his equipment that had been shipped to him from Boston. During the 
delay he collected in the immediate vicinity of Denver, expecting every 
day to be able to take off for Fort Garland. While in the Denver area 
Henshaw used about 123 numbers, the lowest number used at his next 
stop, Fort Garland, was 124. Henshaw's field numbers ran consecutively 
and were not restricted to bird skins. 

There are three "Denver" specimens with field numbers in the Fort 
Garland series. These are 132, 150, 152 listed both in the "Observations" 
(Yarrow & Henshaw, 1874) and in the "Report" (Henshaw, 1875). In 
the "Report" there are four Fort Garland numbers credited to that 
station but given May dates instead of June dates (147, 231, 291, 347) 
and four Denver numbers and dates credited to "Ft. Garland" or "So. 
Colo." numbers 9, 20, 62, and 116. On p. 301 of the "Report" No. 119, 
Cyanospiza amoena (Say) is reported without locality. The date and 
number place it at Denver. The "Observations," p. 63, confirm this. 

From Denver to Fort Garland 
Henshaw states in the "Report" (1875: 134-5) that he stayed in 
Denver until the 22nd of May and arrived at Fort Garland on May 24th. 
To do this in 1873, he probably did as follows: travel by the recently 
opened railroad from Denver to Pueblo on the 22nd and on the same 
day take the south-bound stage to Walsenberg, staying the night of the 
22nd--23rd at the crossing of the Huerfano River. I know of no stage 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



11 



that crossed the mountains from Walsenberg to the San Luis Valley at 
this early date. By leaving Walsenberg on horseback Henshaw could 
in a day and a half of hard riding gotten to the Fort on the evening of 
the 24th. The distance is about fifty miles and the trail led over a 9,000- 
foot pass. 

While at Fort Garland Henshaw made two collections at points some 
distance from the Fort. One of these was made at the Alkali Lakes that 
terminate the San Luis River in the northern part of the valley. These 
lakes are about 25 miles northwest of Fort Garland, a good day's ride 
away and favorite hunting place for the officers. The other was at the 
summer cavalry camp "on the Rio Grande about 90 miles northeast [sic] 
of Fort Garland." There is no Rio Grande northeast of Fort Garland. 
The error in direction appears in both the "Observations" (1874: 70), 
and the "Report" (1875: 136). The camp was west-northwest of the 
Fort near the present town of South Fork on the Rio Grande where it 
emerges from the mountains into the San Luis Valley. Henshaw also 
spent about a week in camp on the shoulder of Old Baldy, about 12 
miles north of the Fort. 

Henshaw used 305 field numbers at his Fort Garland base. Of these 
about 170 apply to bird skins, 20 to clutches of eggs, 13 for nests, and 
21 for sterna. About 50 numbers apply to vertebrates other than birds 
and 50 to invertebrate collections. In general, the material other than 
ornithological is labelled "Fort Garland." A few of these are labelled 
from Rio Grande and Alkali Lakes. The following tabulation of dates, 
field numbers, and localities are as accurate as I have been able to 
compile (Table III). 

I have seen no material that was collected by Henshaw from June 29 
through July 1 inclusive. He probably spent this time packing his collec- 
tions for shipment. He left Fort Garland on July 2, unencumbered, for 
a fast trip to Fort Wingate in New Mexico. 



Table III 



Date 


Field Numbers 


Locality 


25 May-29 May 


124-197 


vie. of Fort Garland 


30 May-6 June 


198-284 


field camp on Old Baldy 


7 June 


285-301 


Fort Garland 


8 June— 9 June 


302-304 


en route to cavalry camp 


10 June— 16 June 


305-371 


Cavalry camp on Rio Grande 


17 June-18 June 


372-374 


en route to Fort Garland 


19 June-20 June 


375-387 


vicinity of Fort Garland 


21 June-23 June 


388-414 


Alkali Lakes 


23 June-28 June 


416-428 


vicinity of Fort Garland 



78 



Brown: Henshaw Itinerary 



Vol. 20, no. 2 



Fort Garland to Fort Wingate 
I have found no indication of how Henshaw traveled from Fort Gar- 
land to Fort Wingate. There were open to him several routes: via 
Walsenberg and stage lines to Santa Fe, then westward on horseback 
or with a supply train to Fort Wingate; directly south from Fort Garland 
via the old Spanish Road to Taos and Santa Fe and westward; directly 
to Fort Wingate via Chama, Pagosa Springs, and south from the vicinity 
of the present city of Durango. The third route would have been very 
risky for a lone horseman or a small party. I suspect that he took the 
old Spanish Road. He did no collecting en route so there is no clue 
afforded by specimens. He arrived at Fort Wingate on the 12th of July 
and there joined the Wheeler party. The chief naturalist for that party 
was C. G. Newberry, Acting Assistant Surgeon, who was a good geolo- 
gist and general naturalist. 

Fort Wingate to Camp Apache 

The Henshaw party delayed at Fort Wingate for several days and 
left for Camp Apache on July 19th. During the week of delay, Henshaw 
and Newberry made good use of their time. Henshaw's movement from 
Fort Wingate to Camp Apache can be traced through his specimens. 

Comparison of this data with that published as the itinerary of the 
Wheeler party (1889: 58-74) shows clearly that Henshaw tended to 
travel in the van or even ahead of the main party. The account alluded 
to does assist in filling details of the route. From it we know that the 
main party followed the old wagon road from Fort Wingate to Camp 
Apache. I have used it and some knowledge of the region to make a 
trace of the probable route followed ( Table IV ) . 



Table IV 



Dates 


Field Numbers 


Locality 


13 July-18 July 


430-456 


vicinity of Fort Wingate, N. M. 


19 July 


457-462 


Nutria, N. M. (a Zuni pueblo) 


23 July-24 July 


463-499, 502 


"El Morro," Inscription Rock, 
N. M. 
Pescao, N. M. 


24 July 


500-501 


25 July 


503-504 


Zuni Pueblo, N. M. 


27 July 


505 [-508?] 


Colorado Chiquito, Arizona 


28 July-31 July 


no information 




1 August 


509-513 


Cave Spring, Arizona 


2 August-8 August 


514-529 [533?] 


Camp Apache, Arizona 


8 August-12 August 


534-568 [577?] 


White Mountains, Ariz. 


13 August-20 August 


no information 




21 August-29 August 


578-653 [660?] 


Camp Apache, Ariz. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 79 

In the above tables I have placed certain field numbers in brackets 
with a question mark. I believe that these numbers belong with the 
date and locality noted and were assigned to collections, mostly insects, 
that I have not been able to trace. Very few of the entomologists who 
examined and reported upon the material collected bothered to record 
the field numbers associated with the specimens reported. Ulke, who 
reported on the Coleoptera, is an exception. Some of the numbers were 
applied to very mixed lots; 500 is a good example. This was a jar or can 
of alcoholic specimens and included fish, reptiles, and beetles. The only 
material that received particular care was the ornithological collection. 

I have found no explanation of the hiatus of one week, 13th through 
20th of August, during which Henshaw apparently did little or no 
collecting. He may have been completing preparation of his large col- 
lection, he may have been ill, or there may have been some other inter- 
ruption of his work. The numbers between 568 and 578, which are 
missing from my records, probably were used on White Mountain 
insects. Apparently his "White Mountains" locality lay along the East 
Fork of the White River from Camp Apache to the high land of Baldy 
and Ord peaks. 

Camp Apache to Camp Bowie 

Wheeler's party of topographers returned from the White Mountains 
to Camp Apache on August 30th. On that day Henshaw, who had been 
at Camp Apache for at least a week and possibly a fortnight, left for 
the south. He was out a week and returned to Apache, finally heading 
for Camp Bowie on September 6th. He arrived at Camp Bowie, in 
what presently is Cochise County, on October 6th. He traveled at a 
leisurely pace and did extensive collecting en route. Number 653 is the 
last bird-skin number from Camp Apache. However, through the num- 
ber series to the 750's many specimens are labelled "Apache." Other 
specimens in this block of 100 numbers show progressively greater 
distance south from Camp Apache until the Gila River was reached on 
the 10th of September. At least three others on this southbound party 
occasionally contributed a specimen to the Henshaw series — Magnet or 
Maquet, McGee, and Turner. They are not listed among the personnel 
of the expedition and probably were soldiers detailed to the party, or 
packers. 

The party probably followed a route that more or less parallels the 
present highway from Fort Apache to the San Carlos Reservoir on the 
Gila River. They reached the river on the 14th of September and crossed 
it arriving at Camp Goodwin on the flanks of Mount Turnbull on the 
17th. There is some confusion about the next fortnight. I suspect that 



80 



Brown: Henshaw Itinerary 



Vol. 20, no. 2 



Table V 



Field 


"Gila 




Camp Goodwin or 


Number 


River 






Mount Turnbull 


790 


15.ix 


& 


16 


ix 




791 












792 


16.ix 








17.ix (C. G.) 


793 


16.ix 


& 


17 


ix 




794 


16.ix 


& 


17 


ix 




795 


16.ix 










796 


16.ix 










797 


16.ix 








17. "viii" (M. T.) 


798 


16.ix' 










799 










17.ix (C. G.) & 19.ix (M. T.) 


800 










19.ix (M. T.) 


"601" [801] 










19.ix (C. G.) 


802 










20.ix (C. G.) 



the party may have broken into two groups. There are firm dates and 
places on bird-skin labels that place members at distances that cannot 
be traveled in a day on horseback. Also there are duplications of field 
numbers (Table V). 

It appears to me from the second set of duplicate numbers that begin 
with 890 that some of the "Camp Grant" records should be assigned to 
"Old Camp Grant" on the San Pedro River, near the present town of 
Feldman, Arizona. There is no question but the party visited the station 
now called Fort Grant, in the 1870's "Camp Grant," on the southwest 
flank of Mount Graham. There is a series of Mount Graham field num- 
bers that immediately precedes the first "Camp Grant" number. 

The route from Camp Goodwin and Mount Turnbull to Camp Grant 
skirted the Santa Teresa Mountains and ran between them and the 
massif of Mount Graham. 

The duplicated field numbers at the end of the 800's are listed in 
Table VI. 

All of this suggests that there was a scattering of Henshaw's party from 
the time it left the Gila to when it again gathered at Camp Bowie. The 
"San Pedro" specimens appear to have been collected by Maquet. (See 
Table VII.) 

The single bird-skin from Camp Bowie has a proper locality and date 
but the field number is out of order. 

Camp Bowie, Ariz., to Zurii, N. M. 
From Camp Bowie, Henshaw and his party struck north to the Gila 
River, via San Simon Valley, and reached the river in the vicinity of 
the present town of Solomonville. By the 14th of October, they reached 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



81 



Table VI 



Field 


"Camp 


"San 


Number 


Grant" 


Pedro" 


890 


27.ix 


2.x 


891 


27.ix 


2.x 


892 


28. ix "Bowie" 


2.x as "692" 


893 




.ix (mammal skin) 


894 


29. ix (2 spec.) 




895 


29. ix (2, one "Bowie") 




896 


30. ix (2, one "Bowie") 


3.x 


897 


30.ix (2, one "Bowie") 


3.x 


898 


30.ix 


3.x 


899 




1.x & 3.x 


900 




3.x 


901 




3.x (2 spec.) 


902 




3.x 


903 




( "x Apache" a mammal ) 


904 




3.x 


905 






906 




3.x "Gila R." 


907 




3.x & 4.x 



the mouth of the San Francisco River, a tributary of the Gila. Appar- 
ently they camped there a day or so. The route continued to follow the 
Gila River into New Mexico. They left the Gila at Mangas Creek and 
via it reached Fort Bayard, New Mexico, on 19th of October. The party 
stayed at Fort Bayard until the 22nd or 23rd then started for Zufii. On 
the 24th they were in Silver City, N. M., and were back on the Gila 
River on the 25th. It is interesting to note that the specimens collected 
along the Gila before reaching Fort Bayard all are marked "Gila River, 
Ariza." and those collected after leaving the fort are marked "Gila River, 



Table VII 



Dates 


Field Numbers 


Locality 


1-4 September 


661-699 


"nr. Apache" 


5-7 September 


700-716 


"So. of Apache" 


8-12 September 


717-765 


various distances "So. of Apache" 
and some Gila River labels 


14-16 September 


766-798* 


Gila River 


17-19 September 


792-800* 


Canyons of Mt. Turnbull and 
Camp Goodwin 


20 September 


801-802 


Camp Goodwin 


21 September 


803-811 


Mount Graham 


22-30 September 


812-898* 


Camp Grant 


1-4 October 


899-[910?] 


"San Pedro" 


6-9 October 


(933) 


Camp Bowie 



overlapping series 



82 



Brown: Henshaw Itinerary 



Vol. 20, no. 2 



Table VIII 



Dates 


Field Numbers* 


Locality 


14-17 October 


911-940 


Gila River 


19-22 October 


946-958 


Fort Bayard, N. M. 


24 October 


959-964 


Silver City, N. M. 


25 Oct.-4 Nov. 


965-978 


Gila River, N. M. 


5 November 


980-993 


S. W. of Mogollon Mts. 


15 November 


979 


Tulerosa, N. M. 


19-20 November 


998-1,008 


Salt lakes so. of Zuiii 



* The field numbers on this part of the trip are somewhat scrambled. It appears 
that what collecting was done was held for a few days before the material was 
logged and ticketed. 



N. M." On the 5th of November Henshaw was crossing from the Gila 
to the San Francisco watershed via Duck Creek southwest of the Mogol- 
lon Mountains. Specimens from there are labelled "Mts. nr. Gila R., 
N. M.," or "Mts. source Gila R.," or "Mts. S.W. N. Mex." From here on 
the pace was increased and little collecting done. Tulerosa, New Mexico 
was reached on 15th of November, on the 19th the salt lakes south of 
Zuni. Henshaw's last specimens for the season were taken at these lakes 
on the 19th and 20th of November. Henshaw arrived at Fort Wingate 
on November 27th and his season was closed for the year. 

Literature cited 

Brown, F. M., 1956. Itineraries of the Wheeler Survey naturalists. 1871 — Theo- 
dore L. Mead. Lepid. News, 9: 185-190. 
1958. Itineraries of the Wheeler Survey naturalists. 1871 — Ferdinand Bischoff. 
Jour. New York Ent. Soc, 65: 219-234 [1957]. 

Henshaw, H. W., 1875. Report upon the United States Geographical Surveys west 
of the One Hundredth Meridian, etc., etc., Vol. 5, Zoology, Chapt. Ill, Birds: 
132-507. ( N. B. All other chapters were scanned for supporting information. ) 

Wheeler, G. W., 1889. Report upon United States Geographical Surveys west of 
the One Hundredth Meridian, etc., etc. Vol. 1, Geographical Report, 780 pp; 
38 plates, 3 maps. Washington, D. C. 

Yarrow, H. C. & H. W. Henshaw, 1874. Report upon ornithological specimens 
collected in 1871, 1872, and 1873. Geogr. Surveys W. 100th Merid., Wash., 
D. C. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 83 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF PSAPHIDINI, WITH DESCRIPTIONS 

OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES FROM WESTERN NORTH 

AMERICA (NOCTUIDAE : CUCULLINAE) 

John S. Buckett and William R. Bauer 
University of California, Davis and 711 Boyer Circle, Davis, California 

In analyzing the tribe Psaphidini, the present authors consider the 
following genera as components: Psaphida Walker; Pseudocopivaleria 
Buckett & Bauer, new genus; Eutolype Grote; Copipanolis Grote; Copi- 
valeria Grote; Brachionycha Hiibner. The tribe is defined by Forbes 
( 1954 ) and appears to be an unnatural, nonhomogenous grouping when 
Feralia Grote is included. The characters given the greatest considera- 
tion herein for tribal distinction are: possession of a corona in the male 
genitalia; strong foretibial spine, or claw, sometimes attended by a 
chitinous plate; numerous spines arising from the vesical sac. We 
exclude Feralia from the tribe Psaphidini because members of this 
genus lack a corona in the male genitalia, the uncus possesses a large 
double ventral process, and the tibial claw is absent. Even though the 
general habitus of Brachionycha seems atypical for the tribe, it corre- 
sponds morphologically, and is therefore included. 

While the authors were preparing the description of anaverta Buckett 
and Bauer, new species, it became apparent that this species and sonoma 
McDunnough did not correspond generically with the type species of 
Psaphida. The two western species more closely correspond to Copiva- 
leria, but differ by lacking the clasper in the male genitalia, as well as 
other characteristics to be found in the generic key to the Psaphidini. 

Some of the genera within the tribe (e.g. Copivaleria Grote, and 
Pseudocopivaleria Buckett & Bauer, new genus) appear to be quite 
closely related, and perhaps when more species are discovered within 
these genera, convergence, rather than divergence, will prove to be the 
pattern. At such time only, will separate generic status be positively 
established. At present, due to the general habitus of the moths within 
the tribe, as well as their morphology, it seems best to retain the genera 
as they are treated by Forbes (1954) and to propose an additional new 
genus for the two western species, sonoma and anaverta. 

Key to the genera of the tribe Psaphidini 
1 Primaries with little pattern, drab, light grey to dark grey; uncus spatulate; 

female with weakly sclerotized ductus bursae Eutolype Grote. 

Primaries with some pattern, if drab, then not grey; uncus may be thickened, 
but not spatulate 2 



84 Buckett and Bauer: New Noctuid Vol. 20, no. 2 



2 Tan to reddish brown or fawn; vesica with one large spine, as well as many 

smaller ones, the sac somewhat thickened Copipanolis Grote. 

Not of fawn coloration; if vesica possesses a large spine, then sac greatly 
expanded 3 

3 Abdomen with dorsal tufts on segments III and IV; vesical sac only slightly 

expanded, no conspicuously enlarged spine 4 

Abdomen lacking dorsal tufts on segments III and IV; vesical sac greatly 
expanded, possessing one large spine ( as well as many smaller ones ) 5 

4 Reniform spot of forewing large, whitish; clasper very large, nearly one milli- 

meter long; uncus lanceolate; aedeagus with a heavily sclerotized annulus at 

apical portion; ductus bursae heavily sclerotized Copivaleria Grote. 

Reniform not as above; clasper lacking; ampulae well developed; uncus tip 
abruptly pointed, not lanceolate; aedeagus lacking annulus; ductus bursae 
weakly sclerotized Pseudocopivaleria Buckett & Bauer, new genus. 

5 Uncus thickened; ampulae lacking; greatest expanse of forewing over 20 mm; 

large, prominent discal lunule of hindwing; ductus bursae heavily sclero- 
tized Brachiomjcha Hiibner. 

Uncus not noticeably thickened; ampulae prominent; greatest expanse of fore- 
wing less than 20 mm; discal lunule, when present, weak; ductus bursae 
weakly sclerotized; bursa copulatrix possessing a signum Psaphida Walker. 

Pseudocopivaleria Buckett and Bauer, new genus 

Primaries dark grey with darker markings; secondaries white with dark exterior 
border in males, to solid fuscous in females. 

Antennae of male pectinate for greater portion of flagellum, pectinations ciliate, 
apical few segments moniliform, ciliate; of female, scaled basal portion, ciliate to 
tip. Head and palpi densely pubescent. Eyes weakly lashed. Proboscis weakly 
developed. Thorax densely clothed in flattened hairs dorsally; anterior and posterior 
divided crests present, weak or strong; ventral surface densely pubescent. Foretibiae 
armed with a heavy terminal claw, no chitinous plate present. Wing shape as in 
Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. Abdomen with dorsal tufts on third and fourth segments; clothed 
both dorsally and ventrally with thick pubescence. Genitalia of male lacking clasper; 
aedeagus lacking annulus terminally; ampulae well developed; uncus abruptly 
pointed; of female, ductus bursae weakly sclerotized. 

type species: Psaphida sonoma McDunnough, 1941. 

Pseudocopivaleria is most closely related to Copivaleria but can be 
readily distinguished from it by various genital features; in the male 
by lack of the clasper, whereas Copivaleria has a very prominent clasper; 
absence of apical sclerotized annulus of aedeagus; and abruptly termi- 
nated uncus. In the female, the lack of the heavily sclerotized ductus 
bursae will, in itself, serve to distinguish Pseudocopivaleria from Copi- 
valeria. 

This new genus is exclusively of western distribution, at present being 
known only from California and Oregon. 

Apparently, thus far there has been nothing presented dealing with 
the immature stages of the species of Pseudocopivaleria; however, 
through personal correspondence with Mr. A. Noel McFarland, a food- 
plant of anaverta Buckett and Bauer, new species, has been reported, 
canyon oak (Quercus chrysolepis Liebmann). Nothing is yet known 






1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 



85 





Fig. 1. Pseudocopwaleria sonoma ( McDimnough ) , male. Cobb Mt., Lake Co., 
California, 19 February 1955 (W. R. Bauer & J. S. Buckett). Fig. 2. P. sonoma, 
female. Anderson Springs, Lake Co., Calif., 15 March 1960 (W. R. B. & J. S. B.). 
Fig. 3 Pseudocopivaleria anaverta Buckett and Bauer, holotype male. 2% miles SSW 
Valyermo, Los Angeles Co., Calif., 14 April 1964 (Noel McFarland). Fig. 4. P. 
anaverta, allotype female. Locality and collector same as Holotype, 12 April 1964. 



86 Buckett and Bauer: New Noctuid Vol. 20, no. 2 

concerning the immature stages of sonoma, but it is probably an oak 
feeder also, judging by its close relationship to anaverta, both morpho- 
logically and ecologically. 

Members of this genus inhabit the upper sonoran and transition life 
zones (after Merriam), and are collected in the spring months. 

Key to the species of Pseudocopivaleria 

I External morphology 

Primaries dark, contrastingly marked; subterminal line at tornus vertical and 
broad; terminal line composed of black crescents between veins; secondaries nar- 
rowly shaded with fuscous, as in (Figs. 1, 2); antennal pectinations short; hair 
pencil and pocket at base of abdomen sonoma ( McDunnough ) . 

Primaries not as dark, lacking contrasting areas; subterminal line at tornus narrow, 
diagonal; terminal line continuous, not broken; secondaries broadly shaded with 

fuscous (Figs. 3, 4); lacking hair pencil and pocket at base of abdomen 

anaverta Buckett and Bauer, new species. 

II Male genitalia 

Ampulae close to base of valva, long and finger-like; uncus blunt; aedeagus as in 
Fig. 9 sonoma 

Ampulae farther from base, short and triangular; uncus blunt, but more pointed 
than preceding; aedeagus as in Fig. 10 anaverta 

III Female genitalia 

Bursa copulatrix large, median constriction minimal, therefore bursa appears to 
be broad ( Fig. 6 ) sonoma 

Bursa copulatrix smaller than in preceding, median constriction great, therefore 
bursa appears to be figure 8 shaped (Fig. 5) anaverta 

McDunnough's description of sonoma is very good, and needs little 
amending, therefore the following description deals mainly with the 
pertinent points plus supplementary information. At the time of the 
original description of sonoma, the female was unknown. 

Pseudocopivaleria sonoma (McDunnough) 

Psaphida sonoma McDunnough, 1941, Canad. Ent., 73: 67-68. 

Male: Head clothed in smokey pubescence with admixture of lighter and darker 
scaling; antennae pectinate. Thorax with collar porrect, dark, terminally white; 
tegulae clothed in smokey, white and black spatulate hairs; disc contiguous with 
tegulae; anterior and posterior divided tufts strong, of black and white spatulate 
hairs; primaries dorsally with basal half line black; transverse anterior space black, 
irrorated with white costally, portion of wing toward inner margin with chestnut 
colored scaling; transverse anterior line geminate, scalloped, black, filled with grey; 
median space darker than either transverse anterior or subterminal spaces; orbicular 



Fig. 5. P. anaverta, paratype, female genitalia. Data same as Fig. 3 (Bauer & 
Buckett slide No. 65C26-4). 1 mm measurement to left of figure applicable to Figs. 
5 and 6. Fig. 6. P. sonoma, female genitalia. Cobb Mt., Lake Co., Calif., 18 March 
1955 (W. R. B. & J. S. B.), (B.-B. slide No. 65C26-2). Fig. 7. P. anaverta, para- 
type, male genitalia, aedeagus removed. Data same as Fig. 3 (B.-B. slide No. 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopte lists' Society 



87 




65C26-3). Fig. 8. P. sonoma, male genitalia, aedeagus removed. Anderson Springs, 
Lake Co., Calif, 8 March 1959 (W. R. B. & J. S. B.), (B.-B. slide No. 65C26-1). 
1 mm measurement to left of figure applicable to Figs. 7 and 8. Fig. 9. P. sonoma, 
aedeagus. Data same as Fig. 8. 1 mm measurement to left of figure applicable to 
Figs. 9 and 10. Fig. 10. P. anaverta, paratype, aedeagus. Data same as Fig. 7. 



88 Buckett and Bauer: New Noctuid Vol. 20, no. 2 



round, black outlined, centrally paler; reniform pale but darker than orbicular; 
claviform weak; transverse posterior line colored as transverse anterior line; subter- 
minal area greyish; tornal area with broad streak of creamy white scales (Fig. 1); 
subterminal line weakly defined; terminal area greyish; terminal line represented by 
a series of black triangles between veins; ventral surface dark, subterminal line repre- 
sented by black dash on costa; secondaries dorsally white with thin exterior border 
of smokey scales; discal lunule faint; veins outlined with smokey; ventral surface 
similar to dorsal surface; venter of thorax deeply clothed in grey; legs clothed in 
grey, tarsi black and white banded; foretibiae with prominent anteroterminal spine, 
or elaw. Abdomen smokey with prominent dorsal tufts on third and fourth segments; 
hair pencil and accompanying pocket present on sternum I; hair pencil composed of 
clavate sensory hairs which are reticulate for apical one-half ( easily discernible under 
430x); spiracles with inner lining possessing a row of single, double, or triple pec- 
tinate sensillae. Genitalia as in. Figs. 8, 9. 

Greatest expanse of forewing 16 mm to 18 mm for 29 specimens examined. 

Female: Darker than male; antennae ciliate, setose; secondaries dorsally smokey, 
veins outlined in black, discal lunule faint; ventral surface as in dorsal surface, 
except discal lunule more prominent; remainder as in male. Genitalia as in Fig. 6. 

Greatest expanse of forewing 16 mm to 18 mm for 15 specimens examined. 

Specimens examined. All California unless otherwise stated. Paratype #5184, 
The Geysers, Sonoma County, 1 $ , 19 March 1939 (W. R. Bauer); Paratype #5184, 
Mount St. Helena, Sonoma Co., 1 #, 7 March 1940 (W. R. B.); Anderson Springs, 
Lake Co., 1 $, 21 March 1949 (W. R. B.), 2 $, 11 March 1955 (W. R. B. & J. S. 
Buckett), 3 $, 3 9, 30 March 1956 (W. R. B. & J. S. B.), 1 9 , 21 February 1958 
(W. R. B. & J. S. B.), 4 $ , 7, 8 March 1959 (W. R. B. & J. S. B.); Cobb Mountain, 
Lake Co., 8 $, 11 March 1955 (W. R. B. & J. S. B. ), 2 $ , 3 9 , 18 March 1955, 
1 $ , 28 February 1959, 2 $ , 7 March 1959; Laytonville, Mendocino Co., 2 $ , 8 
May 1949 (R. Sternitsky); 1 mi. N. Elephant Butte, Plumas Co., 19,5 April 1960 
(W. R. B. & J. S. B.); Placerville, El Dorado Co., 1 $ , 15 March 1964, 1 9 , 22 
April 1964; Twain Harte, Tuolumne Co., 1 $ , 29 March 1960 (M. R. Lundgren); 
Anza, Riverside Co., 2 $ , 17 April 1965 (R. H. Leuschner); Burney Mountain, 
Shasta Co., 1 9 , 25 March 1947; Grants Pass, Josephine Co., Oregon, 2 $ , 19, 
5 June 1964 (K. Goeden). 

P. sonoma can readily be distinguished from anaverta as in above 
diagnosis, by genitalia in both sexes; the possession of a hair pencil and 
accompanying pocket on abdominal sternum I; the creamy white broad 
dash in tornus region (Figs. 1, 2). P. sonoma is more northern in distri- 
bution (see map, Fig. 11) than is anaverta. 

Pseudocopivaleria anaverta Buckett and Bauer, new species 

Holotijpe male: Head with palpal scaling mixed fuscous and white; frons scaling 
centrally white with mixed white and fuscous scales around outer edge; vertex scaling 
mixed white and fuscous, largely fuscous; antennae pectinate. Thorax with collar 
smokey, possessing two dark, narrow, transverse bands, apically white; thoracic 
vestiture largely smokey with scales white-tipped; anterior and posterior dorsal tufts 
prominent; primaries silvery grey, not strongly contrasted; basal area grey, overlain 
with whitish scales; basal line represented on costa by black dash; basal streak faintly 
indicated; inner margin from base of wing to transverse anterior area clothed in 
pale brown scales; transverse anterior line geminate, gradually outwardly oblique, 
outcurved between veins, inner line faint, centrally filled with whitish scales, outer 
line black; median area slightly darker than remainder of wing; orbicular nearly 
round, moderate in size, pale, centrally grey, outlined in black; reniform pale, 
moderately constricted, centrally filled with grey, outlined in black; claviform small, 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



89 













/ ulwJ «'»«'voii 


MODOC 




1MUMB0L 


rS_J I SHASTA 

N.TY 1 ^ 


LASSEN 






fcC ^ 




, L „^T\ 




1 i 


JOCINO 1 •— / 


C A \ 




k b LENN ) 





sonoma 
anaverta 



san rnANOscoI 






kSAN LUIS OBISPOI 



LOS ANOELES 



•• 



Fig. 11. Distribution of the members of Pseudocopivaleria. The triangle to the 
north of the northern California border represents Grants Pass, Josephine County, 
Oregon. 



pale, outlined in black; transverse posterior line faintly geminate, inner line black, 
outer line faint, included area pale, irregularly bent closely around reniform, con- 
verging with base, thence with a small inward scallop incurved below reniform, 
followed by a larger scallop inwardly, terminating with a very small scallop to inner 
margin; subterminal area grey, strongly overlain with white scales, veins somewhat 
outlined in black; subterminal line irregular, strongest from apex to middle of wing; 
upper half of terminal area darker grey than subterminal area; tornal area with a 
black elongate triangle basally from terminal line, projecting inwardly; terminal 
line continuous, represented by lunules between veins; fringes basally pale, medially 



90 Buckett and Bauer: New Noctuid Vol. 20, no. 2 



fuscous, terminally checkered; ventral surface mostly deep smokey, basal area pale 
brown; costal area paler; transverse posterior line represented by dark dash on costa; 
fringes with dark dots opposite innerspace between veins; secondaries basally white, 
broadly shaded with fuscous on costa and on outer edge; veins outwardly shaded 
with fuscous; discal dot faint; postmedial line hardly discernible; terminal area dark; 
fringes pale, darker shading following; ventral surface whitish, paler than on dorsal 
surface, with smokey shading costally and along outer margin; discal dot stronger 
than on dorsal surface; postmedial line represented by dark spots on costa and on 
inner margin; fringes pale, darker area following; foretibiae possessing strong red- 
brown terminal claw; each tarsal segment with a white annulus distally; abdomen 
smokey grey with strong dorsal tufts on segments III and IV. Genitalia as in Figs. 
7, 10. 

Greatest expanse of forewing 16 mm. 

Female: As in male except antennae dentate, and secondaries entirely smokey 
(see Fig. 4). Genitalia as in Fig. 5. 

Greatest expanse of forewing 16 mm. 

Holotype male, and allotype, female: California, Los Angeles County, Ranch — 
2y 2 mi. SSVV of Valyermo (4,800'), 14 April and 12 April 1964, at black light (Noel 
McFarland). Paratypes: same locality as Holotype, 2 $, 20 March 1965 (C. 
Henne); Singing Springs, San Gabriel Mts., Los Angeles Co., elev. 3,200', 1 $ , 1 9 , 
12 April 1948 (C. Henne); 1 $ , 13 May 1948; 2 $ , 3 9 , 28 March 1950 (F. P. 
Sala); Chilao Flats, Los Angeles Co., elev. 6,000', 2 $ , 26 April 1958 (R. H. Leusch- 
ner); 4 $, 2 9, 28 April 1958; Eagle Rock, Los Angeles Co., 1 $ , 15 April 1950 
(F. P. Sala); Buckhorn Flat, San Gabriel Mts., Los Angeles County, elev. 6,400', 
1 9, 1 June 1963 (R. H. L.); 1 $, 9 May 1959 (C. H.); Hidden Valley, Joshua 
Tree Natl. Monument, Riverside Co., 1 9 , 22 March 1948 (C. I. Smith); Idyllwild, 
Riverside Co., 1 $, 19, 13 April 1960 (J. R. Heifer); Pinyon Flats, San Jacinto 
Mts., Riverside Co., 1 S, 5 March 1960 (R. H. L.); 1 9, elev. 4,000', 2 April 1961 
(C. H.); Pinyon Crest, Riverside County, elev. 4,000', 5^,6 March 1965 (R. H. 
L.); 1 $, 2 $, 21 March 1965; 2 mi. below Greenhorn, Kern Co., elev. 5,000', 2 $, 
9 April 1960 ( R. H. L. ) ; Mount Pinos, Los Padres Natl. Forest, Kern County, elev. 
6,700', 1 $, 10 May 1961 (C. H.); Wrightwood, San Bernardino Co., 4 $ , 30 April 
1964 (C. Hill); 1 9, 19 April 1957; 3^,2 9, 12-14 April 1964; Crestline, near 
Lake Arrowhead, San Bernardino Co., elev. 4,600', 2 $ , 1 9 , 24 April 1965 (R. H. 
L. ); Rimforest, near Lake Arrowhead, San Bernardino Co., elev. 5,600', 1 $ , 23 
April 1965 (R. H. L.); Barton Flats, San Bernardino Mts., San Bernardino Co., elev. 
6,700', 2 8, 1 9, 29 April 1959 (C. H.); Cedar Pines Park, San Bernardino Mts., 
San Bernardino Co., elev. 5,200', 19,3 April 1961 (C. H.). 

Holotype male deposited in the United States National Museum, 
allotype female deposited in the collection of the authors. Paratypes 
deposited in the following institutions: Bauer-Buckett Collection, Davis; 
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; California State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Sacramento; John G. Franclemont Collection, Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, New York; C. Henne Collection, Pearblossom, 
California; R. Leuschner Collection, Gardena, California; Los Angeles 
County Museum, Los Angeles; University of California, Davis. 

P. anaverta can be readily distinguished from sonoma by the less 
contrasting primaries, lack of hair pencil and accompanying pocket on 
abdominal sternum I, and other characteristics already mentioned; in 
general, anaverta has a more southerly distribution also (see map, 
Fig. 11). 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 91 

We wish to extend our appreciation to those individuals who made 
available their material for this work. The genitalic illustrations were 
done by the first author. 

Literature cited 
Draudt, M. (in: Seitz, A. A.), 1923. The Macrolepidoptera of the World. Alfred 

Kernen Press, Stuttgart, 396 pp. + 64 plates. 
Forbes, W. T. M., 1954. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states (Noc- 

tuidae). Memoir 329, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 433 pp. 
Hampson, G. F. 1906. Catalogue of the Noctuidae in the collection of the British 

Museum. Taylor and Francis Pub. Co., London, England, xiv + 532 pp. 
McDunnough, J. H., 1938. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United 
States of America. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1: 1-272. 
1941. New species of moths, mostly Califomian. Canad. Ent., 73(4): 67-68. 



NEW HELIOTHID MOTH FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN 
UNITED STATES (NOCTUIDAE) 

Rowland R. McElvare 

Southern Pines, N. C. 

The genus Grotella is identified with the southwestern United States, 
with some records ranging into Colorado. Although adults of a num- 
ber of species are regularly collected in spring or fall in association with 
composite flowers in semi-arid areas, the early stages are apparently 
unknown. Adequate records of time and place of adult flight are avail- 
able, and some species are common locally. A study of larval forms 
should not be difficult for lepidopterists in the area and might resolve 
the problem whether or not the genus properly belongs in the Helio- 
thiinae to which it is currently attributed. 

In the Chihuahuan desert in 1948, the Vauries turned up a new 
Grotella (vauriae McE.) in the Rig Rend National Park, Texas, near Hot 
Springs on the Mexican border. Mexican lepidopterists' interests seem 
primarily tropical and American visits to northern Mexico have been 
sporadic. With roads now more available, this area might well prove a 
rewarding source of new material. 

The following species is described from the same part of Texas and 
adjacent regions in New Mexico and Mexico. 

Grotella blanchardi McElvare, new species 

Palpi short, porrect, white with dark scaling on terminal segment. Head, thorax, 
and abdomen, white. Frons with typical Grotella hollowed-out process, having 
corneous walls with a truncate central process, itself slightly hollowed out. 



92 



McElvare: New Grutella 



Vol. 20, no. 2 




Explanation of plate I 

Top: Grotella blanchardi McElvare, holotype male, White City, Eddy Co., New 
Mexico, 9 September 1963 (A. & M. E. Blanchard). Bottom: Grotella binda Barnes, 
male, Redington, Pima Co., Arizona (Barnes Collection). 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 93 





Explanation of figures 
Figs. 1-2, Vinculum and valvae of male genitalia of Grotella, ventral aspect; 
1 ) G. blanchardi McElvare; 2 ) G. binda Barnes. 



Legs with dark brown banding, particularly on tarsi. Tibiae spinose; on inner 
side, foretibia with a heavy, terminal spine, curved and pointed, with three or four 
medium lateral spines above, on outer side, a shorter heavy, terminal spine, with 
one or two medium lateral spines above; midtibia spined; hind tibia with one or 
two spines between the pairs of spurs, nearer the lower pair. 

Upperside. Primaries white with black spots. A series of five prominent, evenly 
spaced spots along costa: one near base with a spot below; second one marking 
transverse anterior line; third spot in medial area; fourth spot marking transverse 
posterior line; fifth spot marking subterminal line. T.a. line consisting of four spots, 
approximating a straight line, except spot immediately below costa, angled outward. 
T.p. line, comprising five spots, slightly bisinuate. S.t. line represented by the spot 
on costa and one below. Terminal line consisting of seven spots. Fringes white. 

Secondaries white with a fuscous border, extending from apex a little more than 
halfway to anal angle. A similar narrow band inside border. Fringes white. 

Underside. Primaries fuscous, the costal margin and apical area white, the three 
outer costal spots of the upperside are present, together with those of the t.p. and 
terminal lines. Secondaries white with a faint row of marginal spots, extending 
halfway to the anal angle, with a narrow crescent above. 

The genitalia have the simplicity of the Heliothiinae. The uncus does not have 
the spoon-shaped tip commonly found in this genus. The tip is cylindrical with a 
dorsal spine. Vinculum has a rounded base and the vesica has a few small cornuti. 

Expanse 24-28 mm. 

Holotype, male: New Mexico, White City, Eddy County, Sept. 17, 
1963 (A. and M. Blanchard); deposited in U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 

Paratypes: 2 $ , Carlsbad Caverns, N. M., Sept. 17, 1963; 1 $ , White 
City, Eddy Co., N. M., Sept. 16, 1963; 3 $ , west side Grapevine Hill, 
Big Bend National Park, Texas, Sept. 21, 1963 (A. and M. Blanchard); 
2 $ , Alpine, Texas, and The Basin, Chisos Mts., Texas, Sept., 1958 
(McElvare); 1 2 , Alpine, Texas, July 15-21, 1926 (Poling); 5 9 $ , Big 
Bend National Park, Texas, Sept. 21, 1963; 1 $ , White City, Eddy Co., 
N. M., Sept. 22, 1963 (A. and M. Blanchard); 2 $ $ , La Gloria, S of 



94 McElvare: New Grotella Vol. 20, no. 2 

Montclova, Coahuila, Mexico, Aug. 24, 1947 (W. Gertsch and M. 
Cazier). 

With the possible exception of the Poling and Mexican specimens, all 
the above were collected at lights. 

Paratypes deposited in the following collections: U. S. National Mu- 
seum, two 9 9 ; the Mexican 9 9 are in American Museum of Natural 
History, and 2 $ 6 in McElvare collection; Blanchard specimens placed 
in U.S.N.M., A.M.N.H., California Academy of Sciences, Los Angeles 
County Museum, and McElvare collection; remainder in collection of 
A. and M. Blanchard, Houston, Texas. 

In the type series, the boldness of maculation of the primaries and the 
bands of the secondaries varies in intensity. The bands are faint in some 
specimens and lacking in others, particularly the females. 

In general appearance, the new species is allied to Grotella binda 
Barnes, which, however, is much smaller (19-23 mm). The maculation 
of blanchardi is bolder and on the primary it has an extra spot below 
the costal spot nearest the base. It lacks the spot found in the reniform 
area of binda. The secondary of blanchardi has two bands, of binda 
an apical patch (Plate I). The armature of the foretibia is more devel- 
oped, in the new species, particularly in regard to lateral spines, and the 
tibia of the hindleg is spined. In the genitalia, the marked difference in 
the harpes is shown in the comparative drawings (Figs. 1, 2). The new 
species is one of several Grotella in which the harpes differ from the 
generic pattern. Most of the other species are depicted by Barnes and 
Benjamin (1922). 

The distribution of binda is Sonoran, southern Arizona, ranging into 
adjacent areas of New Mexico and southern California. Records thus 
far available for blanchardi are all Chihuahuan, extending from Carlsbad 
Caverns, N. M., through Alpine and the Big Bend area of Texas to the 
Montclova region of Coahuila, Mexico. It may be that the difference in 
boldness of maculation and in size of these allied species in some degree 
reflects the climatic conditions in their respective desert habitats. 

Acknowledgments 
Acknowledgment for material made available for study is made to 
A. and M. Blanchard, Houston, Texas; and Dr. Frederick H. Rindge, Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.; and Dr. E. L. Todd, U. S. National Museum; and to the 
latter also for providing the photographs of the two species. 

Literature cited 

Barnes, W., & F. H. Benjamin, 1922. A revision of the noctuid moths heretofore 
referred to the genus Grotella. Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A., 5(1): 8-27, pi. 1. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 95 

FLIGHT HABITS OF MORPHO THESEUS JUSTITIAE 

Eduardo C. Welling 

Calle 66 Norte, No. 426, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico 

The collecting season of 1961 found me deep in a mountain region with 
an environment rather new to me, having collected almost exclusively in 
the flat or slightly rolling country of the Yucatan peninsula. This, my 
first extensive mountain collecting, was in the Sierra Chinantla of north- 
ern Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, a small but abrupt range running north 
and south between the Rio Cajonos and the Rio Santo Domingo and their 
tributaries, and reaching a maximum elevation of about 3,400 m. So 
abrupt are the northern slopes that the Tuxtepec-Oaxaca road that cuts 
through the range climbs 2,900 m. in an upward swing of 60 km. Here 
in an area where it is very difficult to collect insects, I had the opportu- 
nity to observe one of Mexico's most elusive butterflies, Morpho theseus 
justitiae, Salvin & Godman. 

It was quite by chance that I ran across this insect, as I had intentions 
of setting out trap nets for its close relative, Morpho polyphemus luna 
Butlr. I had traveled up the northern slopes of the Sierra in order to 
reach one of the interior valleys where a collecting group had been sta- 
tioned two months previously. There, early in the month of September, 
were dozens of polyphemus luna flying everywhere in the almost inac- 
cessible rain forest on both sides of the road, which goes up to about 700 
m. elevation; but I could not stop to catch them at the moment as we 
were planning to transfer the collecting party to the lowlands on the gulf 
plain after two months of rather unsuccessful collecting in the nearby 
valley. I immediately made plans to go after the Morphos following 
transfer of the party to a new area. Then I would go alone armed with 
plenty of bananas for the trap nets which formed part of my collecting 
equipment. As it was, however, the business of locating a new site on 
the gulf plain and sampling the local fauna to see if another two months' 
stay would be worthwhile took longer than I expected, and it was not 
until the end of September that I returned to the mountains. 

With the car bulging with bananas, I eagerly began the trip into the 
mountains. My destination was a place called Luumo-Hmindzau. It is 
called Puerto Eligio by the Spanish-speaking people living in the low- 
lands, and belongs to the municipality of Comaltepec. It is at 700 m. 
elevation. There were three houses there, one of them unoccupied at the 
time, which was a vital factor in my choosing the spot. Within one-half 
kilometer on either approach along the road there were parts of forest 



96 Welling: Morpho flight habit Vol. 20, no. 2 

where I could have caught many polyphemus luna, and where trap nets 
could be placed. This spot also happened to be the place where we 
stationed the car to hike into the valley to the east two months before, 
some five km. away and about 500 m. below. I was sure I would come 
away with hundreds of Morpho from this spot. Imagine my surprise 
when arriving there I saw almost none at all where just two weeks pre- 
viously the area was alive with them. 

Even though I was very disappointed on seeing polyphemus luna had 
almost completely disappeared, I decided to stay at the spot to blacklight 
for nocturnals and see if there was anything else the trap nets would 
bring in. Almost nothing came to the rotten bananas except some Eupty- 
chia, but the night collecting with the light became so amazingly pro- 
ductive that I stayed until the end of October. 

Another event was even more decisive in my staying on, after the 
original object of my trip was absent. At the beginning of October, a 
week of torrential 24-hour-a-day rain began. Night collecting became 
even better during this week, with plenty of sphingids coming in, as the 
light was put under one of the house's protruding eaves, and my 350- 
watt gasoline-driven generator was put inside the house. My greatest 
surprise came after the rainy spell stopped. On the first sign of the sun 
peeking through the clouds, I took my net and started down the road by 
foot to reach one of the areas where polyphemus luna had been swarm- 
ing. I had expected another generation to be on wing after the rain, even 
though it would have been impossible for so large an insect to have such 
rapidly succeeding generations. Instead, flying everywhere at certain 
points along the road was polyphemus lunas close relative, Morpho 
theseus justitiae. I was amazed at seeing these, as now I was not pre- 
sented with the spectacle of great patches of white drifting slowly down 
from the higher treetops as poluphemus luna appears to the observer, but 
with rich chestnut brown, yellow-tinged jewels gliding about instead. The 
week of rain must have brought them out. Here, however, was an insect 
that presented a real problem in collecting. This species has habits so 
singular that, along with the fact that it is probably very restricted in its 
range, we can quickly understand why it is so rare in collections of Mexi- 
can insects. 

Morpho theseus justitiae probably is restricted to the northern, wetter 
slopes of the mountains in southern Mexico on the gulf side and perhaps 
some of the other slopes and interior valleys where the mountains are so 
low as to allow a heavy rainfall to penetrate from the north and east. 
Where the mountains are high enough, most of the moisture condenses 
before reaching the summits and, therefore, little rain falls on the south- 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 97 

ern slopes, consequently creating conditions unfavorable for the species. 
In the Sierra Chinantla, the valleys are dry to the south where they are 
connected with the Sierra Juarez, beyond the 3,000-m. pass along the 
Tuxtepec-Oaxaca road. It is quite probable that the species does not 
fly anywhere south of this area, nor does it reach the height of the pass 
on the northern side. I have seen authentic specimens in a collection from 
Valle Nacional, Oaxaca, 78-m. elevation, at the northern base of the 
Sierra Chinantla, and have observed living adults from 700- to 1,500-m. 
and believe that this represents a crosscut of the terrain it occupies. I 
did not find the insect higher than 1,500 m. F. L. Davis (1928), who 
spent 30 years collecting in British Honduras, mentions that theseus 
justitiae is found in the Cayo District. As there are no high mountains 
in the northern part of that district where he did most of his collecting, 
this is an indication that the species also exists locally where there are 
lower ranges and where rainfall is sufficient to support the biological 
environment that the species needs. C. C. Hoffmann (1940) mentions 
that the species is found in southern Veracruz in the Sierra de San 
Martin, and at Santecomapan. Thus the insect has a wide range from 
southern Veracruz and northern Oaxaca through northern Chiapas, El 
Peten, and into British Honduras, existing in a narrow belt along the 
northern slopes of the mountains and foothills. In my collection, I have 
specimens from British Honduras, El Peten, and Oaxaca. 

Morpho polyphemus luna frequently flies down from the treetops to 
almost ground level, and is startled at the slightest movement of people 
or animals. It prefers to stay in open areas such as along shaded roads, 
streams, wide trails, or unobstructed parts under a forest canopy, pre- 
ferring to remain in the shade. Morpho peliedes montezuma Guenee is 
rarely seen flying above treetops, will fly almost anywhere, even in very 
thick jungles, and tends to follow trails through any kind of thick vege- 
tation. It is the most wary of the three species and quickly dodges into 
thickets at the slightest sign of people or animals. I have seen individuals 
fly to one side at seeing dogs or horses coming up the trails the butter- 
flies were using. Just catching a few with a net is no small feat. Perhaps 
these two species are very wary because their flight patterns allow them 
to move near the ground and through vegetation, getting themselves into 
precarious positions among rocks, ravines, trees, etc., thereby making 
them more vulnerable to attack by predators. M. theseus justitiae, how- 
ever, is a very curious insect. It neither flies near the ground nor startles 
at any slight movement, at least where I observed it; in fact, a swing with 
the net may only cause the butterfly to swerve around to investigate the 
disturbance. The fact that the species does not fly in every place it 



98 Welling: Morpho flight habit Vol. 20, no. 2 

could, but instead follows certain flyways and delves in open areas 
where it may be safe from predators ( ? ) , perhaps gives it a lack of con- 
cern with anything it may encounter in these areas. Perhaps there is 
some other reason why it acts so self-confidently and rather unpreoccu- 
pied. 

As already mentioned, this species is a treetop flier. On level, un- 
broken terrain, I imagine it would be impossible to collect a good series. 
The only reason I was able to get close to this species in quantity was 
the abrupt slopes of the region. The road in mention climbs as it goes 
south. To the east there is a quick climb where no man or beast can set 
foot, most of the way. In some places huge overhanging rocks and trees 
menace the road. On top of this are trees from 20 to 50 m. high in a 
continuous succession until reaching the summit of a small mountain. In 
some places, small streams have created gullies where one can climb up- 
wards a bit under gigantic trees, but these places are few. To the west 
of the road there is a quick drop-off, with some areas dropping off verti- 
cally 100-200 m. before slightly leveling off. The downward inclination 
continues very steep until reaching the river at the bottom of the valley. 
In some parts where the road has been blasted out of rock, dislodging of 
rocks and trees below which previously held the runoff resulting from 
torrential rain, now permits the water to rush down, creating a continu- 
ous series of avalanches. From another mountain, one can look back to 
see the road as it twists precariously around the side of the mountain be- 
hind him, observing at the same time the destruction to the forest below 
the road. Literally the whole side of the mountain below has slid down 
in some places, carrying trees and everything. Still, there are a number 
of unaffected parts where the trees almost reach the edge of the road. 
These places, where there is a continuous series of trees from the valley, 
and where the tops of those that come closest to the road are at the same 
level as the road, offer the best places in which to hunt theseus justitiae. 
Individuals coming up the slope about one to two m. above the trees 
apparently are unable to distinguish some roadside plants from treetops 
as they come near the road, and this is the place to collect them. 

The way in which the butterflies come up the slope is interesting. At 
first I noticed they would fly close to the edge of the road, circle for 
about 20 to 30 m., then glide slowly downhill above the trees once more. 
I ,ater I noticed there were definite hours in which the justitiae arrived at 
the height of the road, the height they would fly at any given time de- 
pending on the extent of sunlight on the lower slopes in the morning 
hours. As this downward slope was on the northwest side of the moun- 
tain, it was relatively late in the morning before the tops of the trees 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 99 

became illuminated by sunlight. This accounts for the late appearance 
of the species on the northwest side. Whereas on the northeast slope it 
was on the wing from 9:00 A.M. onwards, on clear days, on the north- 
west slope where I did my collecting, the species would not fly until the 
sun was shining on the trees, about 10:00 to 10:30 A.M. Due to the 
overhanging rocks and formations above the road on the east side, the 
road and the vegetation along it remained in shadows longer than did the 
tops of the trees on the downgrade to the west. The species flew above 
the trees illuminated by the sunlight, flying up from the valley, almost 
reaching the areas still in shadows, then turning, flying a wide half-circle, 
and finally gliding downward again. A whole series of justitiae would 
go through this cycle, and one could only guess if they were the same 
individuals repeating the process after reaching the valley floor. Never- 
theless, the parade was continuous. The shadows of the mountain pre- 
venting the upward flight of this species established a fact in my mind: 
that the species is extremely wary of shadows or dark places and does 
not come within five to six m. of shadows. Even the shadow of a small 
tree branch will cause them to fly way out of their way. 

As the slope became progressivly illuminated by the sun's rays in an 
ascending direction, the species ventured farther up the slope until arriv- 
ing close to the area of shadows, only to turn and circle, then drift back 
down again, always staying in the bright and hot sunlight. The routes on 
which they ascended and descended changed from hour to hour in the 
same succession every morning, and I knew I could go to a certain spot 
at a given hour and find them close to the road. Some of the shrubs and 
small trees near the edge of the road would throw a shadow into an area 
that would suddenly be perfectly acceptable to them as soon as the sun 
rose higher and the position of the shadow changed, whereas previously 
their continuous parade would circle around through another, shadow- 
free area. When the sun was high enough, about 11:45 A.M., to illumi- 
nate the road and the upward slope on its east side, some of the butter- 
flies would continue flying upward after rapidly crossing at a good height 
the treeless space afforded by the road, and probably would keep on 
going until reaching the summit of the mountain, which in this case was 
only about 900 m. above sea level. Where they went after that is not 
known, as once they crossed the road and continued upwards, few de- 
scended, meaning that the whole area was sufficiently bathed in sun- 
light so as not to interfere with their course of flight. At about 2:00 P.M. 
almost all activity ceased, as they suddenly disappeared after that hour. 
On certain days clouds rolled in from the gulf plain below. Whenever 
one of these clouds obstructed the sun momentarily, the justitiae would 



100 Welling: Morpho flight habit Vol. 20, no. 2 

immediately alight on the upper surface of leaves at the top of the high- 
est trees. In no case would they settle on a branch or some of the lower 
leaves, where they would have to go under something. As soon as the 
sun came out again, they would continue gliding along their route. Even 
a slight haze that would not completely blot out the sun would cause 
them to halt. Full, bright sunlight was a necessity; and this fact, coupled 
with the necessity to be in an area where one can swing a net above the 
trees from still higher up, offers the perfect clue on how to catch a series 
of this species. 

At times two males would encounter each other on their flyway and 
would engage in a short "battle." Sometimes as many as three or four 
would fly at each other, usually while I was just about to net one of 
them, with the result that all would fly away. Trying to catch them with 
a net tied on a pole five m. long was no help. The clumsiness of their 
flight, not of their gliding, made them poor aggressors; in fact, it made 
them look as though they were playing. Females were scarce; males 
made up 99% of the parade. Of the females I saw, all flew above the 
treetops except one which was winging around under some shrubs ob- 
viously looking for a place to oviposit. Probably the females have to fly 
around above the trees in order to mate, flying at lower levels afterwards 
where males never venture. Females were readily differentiated from 
the males when flying by the larger wing expanse and the greater yellow- 
ish submarginal maculation on the upperside of the wings. 

All in all during 1961, I observed about 500 justitiae in 10 days of clear 
weather at the site. Observations could not be made during the rest of 
the month due to frequent rains. Even after learning something about 
the flight habits of this insect, I managed to catch very few. Those I did 
get were caught with many hours of patience, waiting until an individual 
came close enough to the road to net. But for every 20 that came close, 
only one could be caught, even if I was lucky. It was not that the net 
scared them off, but that the five-m. length of pole weighed about 20 to 
25 pounds, and it was only with great difficulty that I could swing it. 
Taking aim was another matter, as the diameter of my net was only 
about 42 cm. I was not free to move any way I wished, either, as I had 
to balance myself on the edge of a cliff where one false step might have 
meant the appearance of an obituary instead of this article. 

In September and October, 1962, I returned to the Sierra Chinantla 
with two lengths of a very lightweight, hollow, aluminum tubing, each 
about two m. long, which I could connect, and a net with a diameter of 
one rn. Now that I had something lightweight to catch theseus justitiae 
with, I could get about 10 specimens on a clear day. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 101 

This species does not exhibit apprehension of a net nor of a person's 
movements. When an individual came close but was still out of reach of 
the net, I would jiggle the handle slightly and the net at the other end 
would bob around clumsily, actually attracting some individuals, which 
would immediately swerve around and circle the net to investigate. 
When I was using my large, lightweight net, I tied a piece of stiff wire 
to it and bent it so that a dead male specimen tied to the wire would rest 
above the center of the net. On moving the handle of the net, it would 
bob a bit and jiggle the dead decoy, making it look as if it were alive and 
available for "battle" with an oncoming male. This method af attracting 
other individuals worked to a certain extent, but not as much as I might 
have liked it to. Many males passed right by, paying no attention to the 
decoy. 

Morpho theseus justitiae never once entered in my trap nets. In 1961 
I put 12 trap nets with rotten bananas near their flyway, and surely one 
of the hundreds which unhurriedly glided by over the trees would have 
entered if it had any attraction for sweets. It would be interesting to try 
aerial trap nets that could be suspended from the very highest branches 
of a tree; however, I doubt the effectiveness of this method. During 
April, 1965, I managed to catch a worn male in my trap net baited with 
rotten bananas among some hills near Middlesex, Stann Creek District, 
British Honduras. Does this seem to disprove my idea that males will 
not fly under vegetation or do not like sweets? Of the hundreds I saw 
in Oaxaca, why didn't at least one enter my traps there? For other spe- 
cies, it is a necessity that the trap nets be hung in deepest shade for best 
results; at least that is my experience. 

I do not recommend trying to collect theseus justitiae in the Sierra 
Chinantla of Oaxaca to people with a weak heart or those who become 
faint on climbing stepladders. For those who may want to try it, the 
many days of patiently waiting for the rain to stop and for the sun to 
come out will be well awarded by seeing this species in its natural habi- 
tat, an experience that will, at least in the Sierra Chinantla, cause no end 
to one's marvel at the exotic beauty of deep valleys, huge mountains, and 
great expanses of primitive rain forest stretching out for kilometers on 
either side below. Here lives a butterfly that offers a real challenge. To 
those who try it, good luck! 

Literature Cited 

Davis, F. L., 1928. Notes on the butterflies of British Honduras. Henry Walker, 

London, 101 pp. 
Hoffmann, C. C, 1940. Catalogo sistematico y zoogeografico de los lepidopteros 

mexicanos. Primera parte. Papilionoidea. Anales Inst. Biol. Mex., 11: 639-734. 



102 Mather: Louisiana butterflies Vol. 20, no. 



LOUISIANA BUTTERFLY RECORDS 

Bryant Mather 

Jackson, Mississippi 

As a result of the work of Lambremont (1954), Ross & Lambremont 
( 1963 ) , and Lambremont & Ross ( 1965 ) , it is possible to examine data 
on Louisiana butterflies and readily establish whether such data include 
new parish records or extensions of the known flight period for the state. 
Data derived from collecting by Mrs. Mather and me in the vicinity of 
Road's End Camp on April, 3-4, 1965 have been so examined and 12 new 
parish records and one extension of flight period for the state are here 
recorded. The data are given below; the names and numbers are as given 
in dos Passos (1964). 

dos Passos 

No. Species 

126 Copaeodes minima (Edwards) 

161a Pyrgus c. communis (Grote) 

236a Epargijreus c. clarus (Cramer) 

267b Papilio troilus ilioneus Smith 

280 Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) 

286a Colias e. eurytheme Boisduval 

302b Phoebis sennae eubule (Linnaeus) 

319 Eurema nicippe (Cramer) 

384 Strymon cecrops (Fabricius) 

469a Everes c. comyntas (Godart) 

484a Anaea a. andria Scudder 

556a Phyciodes t. thaws (Drury) 

631a Danaus p. plexippus (Linnaeus) 

6451) Euptychia hermes sosybius (Fabricius) 

(a) "*" =: New parish record. 
( b ) "S" = Sight record. 

( c ) One orange 9 , one form 9 alba Strecker. 

(d) New earliest date of capture for state, previous earliest date was 8 April 1950 
(1 9), Lambremont (1954). 

Literature Cited 

Lambremont, E. N., 1954. The butterflies and skippers of Louisiana. Tulane Stud. 

Zool., 1: 125-164. 
Lambremont, E. N., & G. N. Ross, 1965. New state records and annotated field 

data for Louisiana butterflies and skippers. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 19: 47-52. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of the nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem. Lepid. 

Soc, No. 1, 145 pp. 
Ross, G. N., & E. N. Lambremont, 1963. An annotated supplement to the state list 

of Louisiana butterflies and skippers. Jour. Lepid. Soc, 17: 148-158. 



Monterey, 


Jonesville, 


Concordia Par. 


Catahoula Par 


1 S'*(a) 




S (b)* 




1 9* 




1 9* 


S * 


S* 




2 $ $ (c) 




1 S 


1 9 * 


1 9 (d) 




2^,1$* 


S * 


1 $,1 $* 




1 9 


S 


2^,2$$ 


1 $ 


2 9 9* 




7 5 5,299* 


s 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 103 

A NEW RACE AND DISCUSSION OF THE BOLORIA EPITHORE 
COMPLEX (NYMPHALIDAE) 

Edwin M. Perkins, Jr., and Stephen F. Perkins 
Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon 

Introduction 
On the basis of published records, six species of the genus Boloria 
Moore are known to occur in the state of Washington. They are B. 
titania (Esper), B. selene (Denis & Schiff. ), B. astarte (Doubleday), 
B. toddi (Holland), B. freija (Thunberg), and B. epithore (Edwards). 
Of these, only selene ssp. and epithore have been encountered in Ore- 
gon. In California, the only known representative of the Boloria complex 
is epithore. In this paper, the authors shall endeavor to examine and 
discuss the entity known simply as epithore for more than a century. 

Boloria epithore epithore (Edwards) 
Argynnis epithore Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., 2: 504. 

When the nominotypic subspecies, Boloria epithore epithore (Figs. 
1-4) was described by W. H. Edwards in 1864, California was cited as 
the type locality; an exact locale was not given. Recently (Brown, 
1965: p. 334) a neotype for Edwards' epithore was figured and desig- 
nated, with the data "Saratoga, Santa Clara Co., Calif., R. C. Winslow, 
May 13, 1899." 

There is some question whether Edwards' type specimen was col- 
lected in the vicinity of San Francisco. In Volume I of his Butterflies of 
North America ("Argynnis VI.") the following statement is made by 
Edwards regarding "Argynnis callippe" Boisduval: "From California. 
The most common or only species of Argynnis found in the vicinity of 
San Francisco according to Dr. Behr. . . ." Volume I was divided into 
10 parts; each part had a different date of issuance. Part two of Volume 
I, which contained "Argynnis callippe," was issued in August, 1868. This 
is four years after Edwards' description of epithore was published. 
Surely, if Edwards' type specimen of epithore, from Behr's collection 
(Brown, 1965: p. 337), had been collected in the vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco, Behr would not have made such a misleading statement. This 
would lend support to the theory that Edwards' epithore was collected 
in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 40 miles SSE of San 
Francisco. 

The known range of typical epithore extends from southern San Mateo 
County south through the Santa Cruz Mountains of Santa Cruz and 
Santa Clara counties (Map 1). R. L. Langston (in litt.), of Berkeley, 



104 



Perkins and Perkins: Boloria epithore Vol. 20, no. 2 



B.E.EPITHORE 

0^v e e ■■ HERiV!U'":v. 




MAP 2 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 105 

California, and O. E. Sette (in litt.) of Los Altos, California, state that 
they have never encountered epithore north or south of these limits. 
However, in 1910, Williams (Ent. News, 31: 30) stated that epithore 
had been collected "a good many years ago" in Golden Gate Park, San 
Francisco. Thus, there is reason to believe that the species did range 
northward prior to the concentrated urbanization of the San Francisco 
peninsula. Throughout its limited range, colonies of epithore are local 
and not easily discovered. 

The authors have examined a series of 23 males and nine females 
from the following locales: 

Santa Cruz Co.: Vicinity Boulder Creek, Big Basin, 1200 feet. 
San Mateo Co.: San Lorenzo Woods, 600 feet. 

Statistical data pertinent to typical epithore is outlined in Table 1. 
In describing the superficies of epithore, Edwards' original description 
will be utilized: 

"Argynnis epithore, Boisduval in litt. . . . Male. Expands l%o inch. Primaries 
rounded as in Myrina, not angular at apex and excavated on the margin, as in Bel- 
lona, to which last it is most closely allied. Upper side pale fulvous at the base; 
hind margins bordered by a slight, interrupted line, with small lunules; otherwise 
the usual markings. Under side of primaries fulvous, yellowish at apex, with ferru- 
ginous sub-apical patch. Secondaries have an angular submesial band of irregular 
spots, as in Bellona, each whitish, sprinkled in the centre with ferruginous, in the 
cell a round black spot; beyond the band to the margin a slight violet tinge, with 
a submarginal series of round spots and marginal lunules." 

Although somewhat cursorily treated, the foregoing description is ap- 
plicable to those epithore which occur in the Santa Cruz Mountains. 
There are, however, two discrepancies. Edwards indicated that the sub- 
median-median band of the ventral secondaries contains "spots, as in 
Bellona, each whitish, sprinkled in the centre with ferruginous . . ." Of 
the 32 examples examined by the authors from the Santa Cruz Moun- 
tains, only one, weathered female displays "whitish" spots. However, 
even these spots have a noticeably yellowish hue; the remainder of the 
series have yellowish cream spots. Perhaps Edwards' connotation — 
"whitish" — was intended to imply an off-white color. Secondly, Ed- 
wards' explicit comment regarding the "pale fulvous" color of the dorsal, 
basal regions is not consistent with the 32 examples used in this study, 



Explanation of maps 

Map 1: Distribution of Boloria epithore complex in the Pacific Coast states. Each 
symbol corresponds to one or more specimens used in this study. 

Map 2: Projected distribution of Boloria epithore complex in western North 
America based upon records and specimens of the authors. 



106 



Perkins and Perkins: Boloria epithqre 



Vol. 20, no. 2 



CHERMOCKI 



TABLE 1 

EPITHORE 



"SIERRA" 



male female male female male female 
72 66 23 9 57 21 



99% limits 


21.10*2.53 


Z2.01+2.7* 


21.50 + 1.78 


23.00*1.39 


19.30*1.91 


20.79* 


Mean (mm ) 


21.10 


22.01 


21.50 


23.00 


19.30 


20.79 


P. e,fn - (mm ) 


0.08 


0.09 


0.10 


0.19 


0.08 


0.13 


S.O. (mm ) 


0.98 


1.06 


0.69 


0.5^ 


0.7*t 


0.70 


V 


2*t.22 


27.95' 


11.76 


7.38 


13.50 


12.23 


er 


*.919 


5.283 


3.^29 


2.717 


3.67<* 


3.507 


"t score" 














compared to: 














CHERMOCKI 








2.86 


*.50 


18.00 


7.18 


EPITHORE 


2.86 


^.50 








15.71 


9.21 


"SIERRA" 


18.00 


7.18 


15.71 


9.21 









TABLE 2 



19 







i i i 




1 II 1 1 1 1 III 


- 1 1 1 U 1 1 1 -Hi- iii.irr- - - - 










i ii 


chermocki 1 




i i 


1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 j r 1 | L ? 


- • - 












II 






1 ■ ■ 




hi" 1 °P lthore i ||,j i | 1 | i i , , 


-J 


T 








I 




i ill ii.ii ill 






— i 1 1 1 1 ) ' lt ' j '__ ' t 




1 I i 1 






' M — 


:: -_ :; ^iLliMjm|| 








Mill 1 ! 1 Ml; 1 



20 21 

9956 limits of LFW (mm ) 



23 2V 

(m = mean of respective sexes) 



since all were found to have black or fuscous dusting on the hindwings 
dorsally (usually extending outwardly as far as the postbasal region); 
the forewings dorsally have only slight black, basal dusting. Thus, these 
specimens are certainly not "pale fulvous at the base." The male speci- 
men used by Edwards in describing epithore may have been an extreme 
example, which was generally very light in coloration. In size, Edwards' 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 107 

type (which measured "l%o inch" in expanse, or approximately 38 mm) 
is slightly smaller than the average size of those Santa Cruz County 
specimens examined. 

The recently designated neotype of epithore has a left forewing 
(LFW) measurement of 24 mm (Brown, in litt.). This expanse is some- 
what larger (Table 2) than that average measurement derived by the 
authors, although a difference in locality and altitude may account for 
this variation. 

Boisduval's use of the name epithore 

The introduction of the name epithore cannot be attributed to Ed- 
wards, although he was the first to publish it. In his original descrip- 
tion, Edwards states: "This species, as I am informed by Dr. Behr, is 
undescribed and only named in letters of Dr. Boisduval." The original 
description in which Boisduval used the name epithore appeared in 1869 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 12: 58; no. 50). 

In an attempt to determine the locality from which Boisduval's type 
of epithore was collected, the authors have encountered certain contra- 
dictory information. 

The lectotype of Boisduval's epithore (figured by Brown, 1965: p. 
335) is in the collection of the Carnegie Museum. Its superficial appear- 
ance is analogous to female epithore from the Santa Cruz Mountains. 
The large size — 25.0 mm LFW (Brown, in litt.) — is characteristic of 
typical epithore; however, the greatest LFW measurement made by the 
authors on female epithore from Santa Cruz County was only 24.0 mm. 
Table 2 indicates that the LFW radius of the lectotype of Boisduval's 
epithore exceeds the "99% Limits" (Brown, 1951) of the series used in 
this study. 

The specimen figured by Brown as the "'Type' of Argynnis epithore 
Boisduval" has an unconnected median row of black spots on the dorsal 
secondaries. On the primaries these spots tend to be slightly fused or 
connected by transverse black scales along the veins. This characteristic 
is common only to nominotypic epithore. Conversely, the lack of con- 
nected spots is sometimes evident in Plumas County material. In addi- 
tion, the specimens from this latter region are not as large as those which 
occur in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The greatest LFW measurement of 
female epithore from Plumas County was 22.5 mm. Furthermore, Bois- 
duval refers to the submedian-median area of the ventral secondaries 
as being "jaune saupoudree de brun" (brown-powdered yellow). This 
coloration is not only visible on epithore from the Santa Cruz Mountains, 
but also on specimens from populations inhabiting Plumas County. In 
his original description, Boisduval states: "M. Lorquin a trouve cette 



108 Perkins and Perkins: Boloria epithore Vol. 20, no. 2 

espece dans les hautes montagnes de Test ou elle est fort rare et difficile 
a prendre" ( Mr. Lorquin found this species in the high mountains of the 
cast where it is extremely rare and difficult to capture). Although it 
would seem that he clearly indicated that the material he had examined 
did come from an area or areas in the mountains of eastern California, 
a statement in Volume 3 of Edwards' Butterflies of North America 
strongly indicates that Boisduval's locality statement may be misleading. 

From "Argynnis VIII." — "Argynnis adiante" Boisduval, Edwards 
states: "The male figured on our Plate is the original type of Dr. Bois- 
duval, sent me by himself, and bearing his label as 'type adiante." Ed- 
wards then quotes Boisduval as saying: "This beautiful Argynnis was 
taken in some numbers by M. Lorquin, on the edges of the woods, in 
the eastern part of California." Edwards continues: "Of late years adi- 
ante has not been a very common species in collections, owing to its local 
habits, apparently. Professor J. J. Rivers writes me that 'it is found 
above Los Gatos in the Santa Cruz Mountains. It also occurs at several 
localities in the same range, and in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties; 
but it does not appear to be found farther south than about nine miles 
north of Santa Cruz city.' Apparently Dr. Boisduval was mistaken in the 
locality." Boisduval described adiante (now a synonym of Speyeria 
egleis adiaste (Edwards)) on page 61 of the same publication which 
contained his original description of epithore. Both the adiante and 
epithore types used by Boisduval in his original descriptions were col- 
lected by Lorquin. In both original descriptions, Boisduval referred to 
eastern California and the high mountains of the east as the localities 
from which the respective types were collected. However, dos Passos 
& Grey (1947) fixed the type locality for adiante as the "Santa Cruz 
Mountains, California." The type locality for Edwards' adiaste is also 
in the vicinity of the Santa Cruz Mountains. 

In view of the above information, it becomes apparent that Boisdu- 
val's type of epithore most probably was collected in the vicinity of the 
Santa Cruz Mountains and not somewhere in "the high mountains of 
the east." 

Because Boisduval's original description of epithore appeared five 
years after Edwards' use of the name, Edwards' epithore takes priority. 

eldorado Strand 

Brenthis epithore Boisd., cum. ab. eldorado Strand, 1914, Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, 
80(A) pt. 11: 156. 

Embrik Strand described eldorado on the basis of six examples from 
Plumas County, collected from June 10 to June 17, 1913, and one speci- 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 109 

men from El Dorado County, collected between June 25 and June 28, 
1913. 

The distinguishing features indicated by Strand in his description are: 
( 1 ) the black markings on the underside of the f orewings are large and 
consequently appear to be near to one another; (2) the two transverse 
spots in the middle of the field (in cells M 3 and CUi) are connected by 
means of a median, black longitudinal line; (3) the angled figure in the 
cells (discal cell) completely or almost completely touches the discocel- 
lular spots; and (4) the three or four postmedian spots touch or almost 
touch the transverse lines in the form of black flecks. Strand also men- 
tions that the black design above is stronger in both wings. 

From this information and a study of material from both Plumas and 
El Dorado counties, the authors conclude that Strand's name, eldorado, 
represents an aberration. However, the degree of divergence from the 
normal form does not appear to be extensive. Under the rules of the 
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, eldorado must be re- 
garded as being of infrasubspecific rank. 

wawonae Gunder 
Brenthis epithore Bdv., ab. wawonae Gunder, 1924, Ent. News, 35(5): 156. 

The type of wawonae was collected at Wawona (in Yosemite Na- 
tional Park), Mariposa County, California on July 6, 1922 and is pic- 
tured in J. A. Comstock's Butterflies of California, Pi. 26, fig. 10. The 
distinctive feature of wawonae is found on the secondaries where the 
row of postmedian spots is "lacking." 

As is eldorado, wawonae is now considered an infrasubspecific entity. 

obscuripennis Gunder 
Brenthis epithore Bdv., ab. obscuripennis Gunder, 1926, Ent. News, 37(1): 7. 

The type of this aberration, a female, was collected at Chilcolin, Brit- 
ish Columbia, Canada, on May 30, 1915. In the original description 
Gunder states: "Primaries entirely fogged over with dark shading, 
obscuring and submerging maculation, especially on the inner half with 
cell quite dense where only a single yellow brown spot shows; normal 
row of round black spots indistinctly visible. Secondaries, outer half 
normal; confused yellow brown maculation of inner half externally 
edged by black shading which extends also along the costal margin, basal 
area quite dark." The above quotation applies to the dorsal surfaces. 
Because it is a melanic aberration, and since it was originally described 
as such, obscuripennis must also be considered infrasubspecific. 

Boloria epithore chermoeki Perkins and Perkins, new subspecies 
Males: Dorsal LFW (Expanse: 21.10 ± 2.53 mm), holotype 21.40 mm. 



110 



Perkins and Perkins: Boloria epithore Vol. 20, no. 2 








6 






9 



10 

Explanation of plate I 




Adult males of Boloria epithore complex: 5) "sierra," Donner Summit near 
Truckee, Placer Co., Calif., 3-VIII-60 (T. C. Emmel); 6) "sierra," Yosemite Na- 
tional Park, Mariposa Co., Calif., 3-VII-62 (E. M. Perkins, Jr.); 1) epithore, Big 
Basin, Santa Cruz Mrs., Santa Cruz Co., Calif., 4-V-46 (O. E. Sette); 2) epithore, 
Big Basin, Santa Cruz Mts., Santa Cruz Co., Calif., 4-V-46 (O. E. Sette); 9) cher- 
mocki (holotype), 2.9 miles E Dolph, Yamhill Co., Oregon, 18-VI-62 (S. F. Per- 
kins); 10) same, ventral aspect. Figures to the left are dorsal; those to the right 
are ventral. 



Females: Dorsal LFW (Expanse: 22.01 ±2.74 mm), allotype 23.00 mm. Male: 
Upper surface: Black spots within median band on both primaries and secondaries 
tending to be fused or connected, giving effect of a continuous, irregular black line; 
on typical epithore, these spots only slightly connected on primaries, on secondaries 
without connecting scales. Black basal suffusion heavily represented, often extend- 
ing outwardly as far as submedian area; on epithore, black suffusion seldom extend- 
ing beyond postbasal region. Segment of vein RS on secondaries bordering cell 



1966 



Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 



111 









Explanation of plate II 

Adult females of Boloria epithore complex: 7) "sierra," Greenhorn Mts., Kern 
Co., Calif., 24-VI-61 (R. E. Stanford); 8) "sierra," below Huntington Lake dam, 
Fresno Co., Calif., 9-VII-60 (O. E. Sette); 3) epithore, Big Basin, Santa Cruz Mts., 
Santa Cruz Co., Calif., 6-VI-45 (O. E. Sette); 4) epithore, Big Basin, Santa Cruz 
Mts., Santa Cruz Co., Calif., 10-VI-45 (O. E. Sette); 11) chermocki (allotype), 
2.9 miles E Dolph, Yamhill Co., Oregon, 18-VI-62 (E. M. Perkins, Jr.); 12) same, 
ventral aspect. Figures to the left are dorsal; those to the right are ventral. 



noticeably accentuated by black scales connecting this segment to angled figure in 
cell; rarely an indication of this on epithore. 

Undersurf ace : On secondaries, submedian-median row of spots chrome-yellow, 
this region in epithore cream to yellow with noticeably heavy, ferruginous dusting. 
Postbasal area of secondaries, below denticulate white spot bordering vein RS 
(infrequently invaded by yellow scales) yellow-brown to orange-brown (latter more 
common), in this respect, basal and postbasal areas analogous; these areas on epi- 
thore red-brown. Postmedian band of secondaries purplish to lilac inwardly, con- 



112 Perkins and Perkins: Boloria epithore Vol. 20, no. 2 



trusting to the lighter, outward limits of this band; this contrast much less evident 
on epithore. 

Female similar in appearance to male. 

Holotype, male and allotype, female: 2.9 miles E of Dolph, Yamhill 
Co., Oregon, 18 June 62 (S. F. Perkins and E. M. Perkins, Jr.); placed 
in the collection of the Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, 
California. Paratypes (48): Oregon, Yamhill Co.: 0.5 to 2.9 miles E of 
Dolph, 10-VI-62, 18-VI-62, 12-VI-63, and 27-V-65, 29 $ $ , 19 9 9 (Per- 
kins'); 6 6 6 and 4 9 9 have been deposited in each of the following 
institutions: The California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia and The American Museum of Natural History, New York City, 
New York; 9 $ 8 and 6 9 9 will be deposited with the holotype and 
allotype; 8 6 6 and 5 9 9 have been retained by the authors. 

This new subspecies is named in honor of Franklin H. Chermock, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

The authors have examined and /or have records for more than 300 
representative examples of chermocki (Figs. 9-12) from the following 
localities in Oregon (Map 1): 

Benton Co.: Alsea; McDonald Forest near Corvallis; Mary's Peak; Hoskins. 
Clackamas Co.: Clackamas Lake; along Clackamas River Road; 6 miles W Lake 
Timothy; Austin Hot Springs; Big Eddy; vicinity Mt. Hood. Clatsop Co.: Saddle 
Mountain State Park. Columbia Co.: Vernonia. Deschutes Co.: Deschutes River 
Bridge (W Terrebonne). Douglas Co.: Bradley Creek Meadows; junction of Muir 
Creek-Rogue River; Diamond Lake. Hood River Co.: Cloud Cap Road to Mt. 
Hood. Jackson Co.: Kane Creek (5 miles W Gold Hill); Mt. Ashland; French 
Gulch road; Tubb Springs (4 miles W Pinehurst). Jefferson Co.: Santiam Pass; 
Camp Sherman. Josephine Co.: near O'Brien. Klamath Co.: Davis Lake; Crater 
Lake National Park; Crescent Creek at highway 58; Skookum Meadows; 5-10 miles 
E Beaver Marsh; Sand Flat (S of Skookum Butte); Gilchrist. Lake Co.: Summit 
Prairie ( SE Warner Canyon); Lakeview. Lane Co.: Mule Prairie (N Willamette 
Pass); Oakridge; Hills Creek Dam road; Blue Pond Forest Camp; Willamette Pass. 
Lincoln Co.: Elk City. Linn Co.: Cascadia; Monument Peak; Front Creek Camp 
(S Santiam highway); Tombstone Prairie; Lost Prairie; Marion Mountain; Big 
Meadows; Santiam Pass. Marion Co.: Elk Lake. Polk Co.: Valsetz; Falls City. 
Tillamook Co.: Lee's Camp (Highway 6). Umatilla Co.: NE Tollgate (Blue 
Mountains). Wallowa Co.: Lostine River. Wasco Co.: Wapanitia; Bear Springs 
Campground. Yamhill Co.: Baker Creek Valley and vicinity of Dolph. 

Throughout its range, including Washington, southern British Colum- 
bia, southern Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and extreme north central Cali- 
fornia (refer to Map 2), chermocki remains constant in superficial 
appearance. 

A DWARFED SIERRA NEVADA FORM "SIERRA" 

There remains one epithore entity which is pertinent enough to a 
complete discussion of the species complex to warrant inclusion in this 
paper. 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 113 

A dwarfed form of epithore (Figs. 5-8) occurs along the length of 
the Sierra Nevada of California. The authors have examined nearly 100 
specimens from 12 localities, ranging from Shasta County in the north to 
Kem County in the south. The localities from which these specimens 
were collected (Map 1) are as follows: 

Amador Co.: 27 miles ENE Jackson. El Dorado Co.: McKirmey Creek, 3 miles 
SW Tahoma P.O., Lake Tahoe; Tahoma P.O., Lake Tahoe. Fresno Co.: below 
Huntington Lake Dam; Round Meadow, Huntington Lake. Kern Co.: Tiger Flat 
Campground, Greenhorn Mountains. Mariposa Co.: Highway 120, Yosemite Na- 
tional Park. Placer Co.: Deer Park Ski Area, 2 miles W Lake Tahoe; Donner 
Summit, near Truckee; Yuba Gap, W Donner Summit. Shasta Co.: near Bigelow, 
16 miles SE Mt. Shasta; 15 miles SW Mt. Shasta; 26 miles SE Mt. Shasta. Sierra 
Co.: near Gold Lake Lodge. Tehama Co.: Mill Creek, 8 miles SW Mt. Lassen. 

Populations of the typical dwarfed form occur neither north of Sierra 
County nor south of Kern County (Map 2). Within this range, its size 
(the outstanding characteristic) remains constant. 

Statistical analysis ( following Brown, 1951 ) of 254 epithore specimens 
(typical epithore, northwestern chermocki, and the dwarfed mountain 
form which will hereafter be referred to in this paper as "sierra"), listed 
in Tables 1 and 2, indicates that although chermocki is slightly larger 
than epithore, 1 both are markedly larger than the diminutive "sierra." 

A careful examination of all specimens relative to this study indicates 
that the majority of specimens from "sierra" populations evince yellow- 
ish-colored spots in the submedian-median bands (ventral secondaries) 
over which ferruginous scales are scattered. These scales are often so 
heavily aggregated that they completely mask the ground color of these 
bands. Specimens exhibiting a cream-colored row of submedian-median 
spots also exist within "sierra" populations. However, gradation is evi- 
dent from one extreme (cream) to the other (yellow). 

In 1961, Ray Stanford of Los Angeles, California discovered a popu- 
lation of "sierra" while collecting in the vicinity of Tobias Peak, located 
in the Greenhorn Mountains south of the Tulare-Kern county line. 
Several examples from this population display a golden-yellow, dorsal 
ground color. This phenomenon also exists to minimal varying degrees 
in typical epithore and chermocki populations. 

It is debatable whether Stanford's Kern County capture represents the 
southernmost record for epithore. For instance, Lloyd M. Martin (in 
litt.) indicates one earlier record ("early 1930's") from the Greenhorn 
Mountains of Kern County. The material was collected by Monroe 
Walton, of Glendale, California. However, both the deposition of the 



1 Based on the "99% Limits" comparison in Table 2. According to the mean comparisons in 
Table 1, however, epithore surpasses chermocki in size. 



114 



Perkins and Perkins: Boloria epithore Vol. 20, no. 2 




13 



14 





Explanation of plate III 

Comparison of four species of Boloria: 13) toddi ammiralis Hemming, male, 
ventral, Baltimore, Baltimore Co., Md., ll-V-63 (F. H. Chermock); 14) epithore 
epithore Edwards, male, ventral, Big Basin, Santa Cruz Mts., Santa Cruz Co., Calif., 
4-V-46 (O. E. Sette); 15) frigga sagata Barnes & Benjamin, male, dorsal, Caribou 
Bog, Boulder Co., Colorado, 23-VI-64 (J. A. Justice); 16) frigga sagata, male, ven- 
tral, Caribou Bog, Boulder Co., Colorado, 23-VI-64 (J. A. Justice); 17) kriemheld 
Strecker, male, dorsal, 4 miles W Teton Pass, Teton Co., Wyoming, 17-VII-63 
(E. M. Perkins, Jr.); 18) same, ventral aspect. 



material and the precise locality of capture are unknown. Wright ( 1906, 
plate XVII, fig. 152) figured a lesser fritillary from the ". . . San Fran- 
cisco Mts., Arizona, 1887; F. Stephens . . ." which he identified as 
Boloria kriemheld (Strecker) (1879)." However, Wright's locality infor- 
mation and classification are somewhat questionable. Kilian Roever (in 
lift.) and R. F. Sternitzky (in litt.) indicate that they have never encoun- 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 115 

tered species of the genus Boloria in Arizona. In appearance, the speci- 
men figured by Wright more closely resembles epithore than kriemheld. 
However, in his original description of kriemheld, Strecker indicated that 
he not only had specimens from Colorado, but also Arizona. F. M. 
Brown (in litt.) states: "The types were taken in September on the Rio 
Florida (east of Durango) in southwestern Colorado by Lt. MacCauley. 
I have seen them and they are so labeled." The authors have examined 
examples of kriemheld from the Uintah Mountains of Summit County, 
Utah. These specimens are definitely kriemheld, not epithore, with 
which they have often been confused. Extensive series from western 
Wyoming have also been examined; the name kriemheld applies to these 
as well. A comparative discussion of these entities will follow later in 
this paper. 

Assuming conducive criteria to be present (both climatic and ecolog- 
ical), species of Boloria (perhaps kriemheld since Arizona was included 
in its original description), might exist in the San Francisco Peaks of 
Coconino County. Roever (in litt.) states: "Although surface water is 
generally nonexistent in that area, there is one wet meadow at about 
9,000'. There are also a number of likely spots for Boloria in the White 
Mountains which I have checked without success." 

Coincident to this study, the authors considered the possibility that 
"sierra" might represent an unnamed subspecies. However, since the 
only constant, major distinction between it and typical epithore is size, 
there seems little justification in assigning a name to it. 

Clinal tendencies of the dwarfed "sierra" are evident in Sierra County. 
Northward, in Plumas County, the specimens become larger and possess 
submedian-median rows of yellow spots on the hindwings ventrally 
which, although similar to those of chermocki, are subdued by fulvous- 
colored dusting. In each of the northern California populations exam- 
ined by the authors ( Sierra County, Plumas County, and Shasta County ) 
there are intermixed specimens which resemble epithore, "sierra" and 
chermocki. In Klamath County, Oregon, occasional examples resemble 
the Sierran dwarf, although the yellow of the submedian-median row 
of spots on the hindwings ventrally is more vivid. A moderate dusting 
of these spots exists which is not unlike examples from both Plumas and 
Shasta counties. 

The authors contend that naming of an entity which exhibits such 
extreme variability (not only within a single population, but from popu- 
lation to population ) would add to the already replete lists of synonymic 
redundancies. Both epithore and chermocki are consistent within and 
among given populations. 



116 Perkins and Perkins: Boloria cpithore Vol. 20, no. 2 

Comparison of epithore complex to other species 

Confusion apparently exists among the species toddi ( Holland ) , frigga 
(Thunberg), kriemheld (Strecker), and epithore. The authors have in- 
cluded figures of Boloria toddi ammiralis (Hemming), Boloria frigga 
sagata (Barnes & Benjamin), Boloria kriemheld (Plate III), and repre- 
sentative examples of the epithore complex (Plates I, II). 

The distinctive feature of toddi subspecies (Fig. 13) is found on the 
forewings. The outer margin is strongly convex towards the middle, and 
"cut off" near the apical area (Fig. 13, arrows), then concave above the 
tornal angle, as opposed to a slight, uniform convex curvature of the 
outer margin of the other species. 

The dorsal ground color of frigga sagata (Fig. 15) is more somber 
(less orange) than that found in the epithore complex. The black dust- 
ing of the basal area of the hindwings dorsally is more extensive in 
sagata than noted among individuals of epithore. The discal region of 
the hindwings ventrally (Fig. 16) is heavily clouded with fulvous scales; 
in cell M-2 of the submedian-median band, a nearly oval spot occurs in 
which the upper half is fulvous and the lower half white. This dichro- 
matic spot is not found in epithore. 

The discal and basal areas of the hindwings ventrally of kriemheld 
(Fig. 18) are completely free of dusting, unlike the epithore complex 
(Fig. 14). The postbasal and submedian bands are in strong contrast 
to one another; the submedian band is pale yellow and the postbasal 
band is red-brown to orange-brown. The veins are prominently dusted 
with black scales on the upper surface (Fig. 17). This characteristic is 
not typical of any of the epithore constituents. 

It is hoped that a comparison of the figures will serve to differentiate 
the four species discussed herein and that utilization of the text will 
facilitate future determinations. 

Conclusions 

(1) The Boloria epithore complex presently consists of two distinct 
subspecies. They are: Boloria epithore epithore Edwards and Boloria 
epithore chermocki Perkins & Perkins. There also exists a dwarfed moun- 
tain form which must remain unnamed because of inadequate criteria 
for nomenclatorial designation. 

(2) A revised treatment of the epithore complex is proposed: 

603 epithore (Edwards), 1864 

a. e. epithore (Edwards), 1864 
ab. eldorado (Strand), 1914 
ab. wawonae (Gunder), 1924 



1966 Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 117 

b. e. chermocki Perkins & Perkins, 1966 
ab. obscuripennis (Gunder), 1926 

Acknowledgments 

The authors are very grateful to F. M. Brown, Colorado Springs, 
Colorado and Dr. C. F. dos Passos, Mendham, New Jersey for their 
guidance in the preparation of this manuscript. 

For their assistance in providing material and data for this study, we 
wish to thank Dr. E. J. Dornfeld (Oregon State University, Corvallis, 
Oregon), Thomas C. and John F. Emmel, Dr. O. E. Sette, A. O. Shields, 
and Dr. Ray Stanford. 

For the contribution of pertinent information and records, the authors 
express their appreciation to Dr. F. H. Chermock, S. L. Ellis, L. P. Grey, 
Lt. John A. Justice, Dr. Robert L. Langston (University of California, 
Berkeley, California), Lloyd M. Martin (Los Angeles County Museum, 
Los Angeles, California), Paddy McHenry, Dr. J. A. Powell (Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley, California), Kilian Roever, R. F. Sternitzky, 
and K. A. Tidwell. 

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1965. The types of nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards. 

Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 91: 332-338. 
Brown, F. M., D. Eff, & B. Rotger, 1957. Colorado Butterflies. Proc. Denver 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Denver, 368 pp. 
Comstock, J. A., 1927. Butterflies of California. Published by the author; Los 

Angeles, 334 pp. 
dos Passos, C. F., 1964. A synonymic list of Nearctic Rhopalocera. Mem. Lepid. 

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